After having read through the case study below, answer the following questions. TMA 04 Part 1 questions Block 4 Using information from the case study and concepts from Block 4, Reading 31, describe the product that you think Festivals Edinburgh are offering. (20 marks) Using two concepts from Block 4, Reading 30, and information that can be inferred from the case study, describe what you think are the motivations for local people to attend the festivals. (25 marks) Block 5 Explain the concept of the circular flow of income. Using this concept, describe and discuss the effects of Edinburgh’s festivals on the Scottish economy. (25 marks) Describe the main activities pursued by government in mixed economic systems and define what lobbying is, and explain why lobbying is important for Festivals Edinburgh. (20 marks) Case study How Edinburgh became a star in its own right: The original ‘Festival City’ now teaches the world how to stage arts events The Edinburgh Festival is upon us again, a three-week spectacular that turns the Scottish capital into the biggest arts destination on the planet. It is several different festivals, with the leading Edinburgh International Festival and Edinburgh Festival Fringe returning for a 70th year since their inception in 1947. From thousands of options this year, you could take in Hollywood actor Alan Cumming singing cabaret; the latest Broadway version of Tennessee Williams’ The Glass Menagerie; or Icelandic rockers Sigur Rós. Top comedians Alistair McGowan and Bridget Christie will be treading the boards, while those who like their Scottish experience clad in tartan will want to catch the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo. Also not to be missed are the Book Festival and Jazz & Blues Festival. Far from being confined to August, Edinburgh now holds 12 independently organised festivals covering everything from storytelling to science to films to the city’s renowned Hogmanay celebrations for New Year’s Eve. The city’s success as a leading cultural tourism destination is closely tied to the festivals’ strength and enduring appeal to global audiences. This is why Edinburgh likes to call itself “the world’s leading festival city”. Most of Edinburgh’s festivals are on an upward curve. Where the Fringe, considered the world’s largest multi-arts festival, sold 790,000 tickets in 1996 and 1.5 million in 2004, it sold 2.3 million in 2015. The Edinburgh International Festival has risen from 418,000 to 441,000 in the same period; while Book Festival audiences have rocketed from 63,000 in 1997, the first year it became an annual event, to 350,000 last year. With audience growth expected this month, the city’s combined festival offering attracts 4.5 million people a year. This is similar to the Fifa World Cup and second only to the Olympic Games – both of which take place every four years. The boost of the festivals to the Scottish economy has also grown. Between 2010 and 2015, it rose from £253m to £313m as festival goers spent money on everything from accommodation to visits to the Wallace Monument in Stirling. Then there are social and cultural impacts, with 89% of local attendees agreeing recently that the festivals increased their pride in the city and positively influenced their attendance at other cultural events the year round. So what’s the secret? Much can be put down to these separate festivals working together – with support from the city council and the Scottish development, tourism and arts agencies. They carried out the festivals’ first economic impact study in 2004 in recognition of the rise of competitors such as South by South West in Texas; and all the festivals at Quartier des Spectacles in Montreal. Next came a £75m investment in the city’s arts infrastructure: refurbishing the Usher Hall, Assembly Rooms and Kings Theatre; an extension for the Festival Theatre and new stands and seating for the Tattoo at Edinburgh Castle. After a strategic review in 2006, the festivals then formed an umbrella organisation, Festivals Edinburgh, which has helped them collaborate in things like marketing and lobbying. This is one reason for the rise in air routes to and from the city. More traumatic has been the birth of the tram network, though one line has finally opened. The August offering has benefited from the Fringe’s ad-hoc approach. The Fringe is not managed traditionally but through an open-access ethos. Anyone can register as a performer provided they secure a suitable venue. The name has even been adopted by other arts festivals like Adelaide, Vancouver and Dublin as a marker for alternative cutting-edge arts and open-access programming. Edinburgh is also seen as a vital destination for countries looking to improve their own arts festivals. The Fringe World Congress held its inaugural meeting in the city in 2012 to bring together Fringe directors and organisers, while the British Council Edinburgh International Festivals Academy launched in the city this year. There have been some hiccups for Edinburgh organisers, and competitors are growing strongly – for example the biennial Manchester International Festival and Venice’s Biennale. But if Edinburgh tracks these to stay ahead, the city will remain a world leader in staging international arts events. Source: edinburgh-festivals-how-they-became-the-worlds-biggest-arts-event-63460 (Accessed 4 October 2016). Further information on the case study Festivals Edinburgh is a strategic umbrella organisation focused on over-arching areas of mutual interest. Its sole focus is to maintain the Festivals’ and the Festival City’s global competitive edge, via major collaborative projects and strategic initiatives. All of our work is dependent not only on the core Festivals Edinburgh team but on a strong commitment to collaborative working and on a sense of shared ambition and responsibility across all 12 member festivals. The Festivals Edinburgh Board is made up of the 12 Festival CEOs or Directors; and each Festivals Edinburgh workstrand is directed and supported by collaborative working groups comprising of staff members from the Festivals themselves. Festivals Edinburgh is currently funded by subscriptions from its members and significant public sector support. Its Director at the time, Faith Liddell, began work 2 days a week in January 2007. As of 2015, the organisation employs 10 staff, including current Director Julia Amour. Source: about/ background (Accessed on 6 October 2016).

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