The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia

The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia

Free Samples

The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia

0 Download10 Pages / 2,312 Words

Discuss about the Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia can be defined as the long term mental disorder that involves the breakdown in the relation between the thoughts, emotions, and behavior of an individual that results into a faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from the reality and personal relationships that leads onto fantasy and delusions leading to a state of mental; fragmentation in the individual. The pathology of the diseases is intricately associated with the inhibitory transmitter called the dopamine. There is a abundantly utilized hypothesis called the dopamine hypothesis of Schizophrenia that serves as the model for understanding and evaluating the symptoms of the diseases with accordance to the disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction procedure (Howes, McCutcheon & Stone, 2015). This model has been constructed on the basis of the evidence that the most of the antipsychotic medication has a significant dopamine receptor antagonistic effect.
Although, researchers are of the opinion, that the theory does not give the idea that the schizophrenic effect is not completely facilitated by the dopamine overabundance. Rather the theory states the fact that the over-activation of the D2 receptor leads directly to the global chemical synaptic dys-regulation in the individual which is a characteristic part of the pathology observed in the patients suffering with this particular disorder. According to the Brisch et al. (2014), the revised dopamine hypothesis states the fact that dopamine abnormalities has been observed to be occurring in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions of a patient suffering with schiozophrenia. This paper will attempt to discuss the pathology of schizophrenia symptoms favoring the dopamine hypothesis with respect to the effects of the first generation neuro-leptics and the effects of the second generation neuroleptics in the procedure.
Dopamine can be defined as the neurotransmitter that belongs to the catecholamine family and is produced in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental regions of the brain. It has to be mentioned that the dopaminergic projections are divided into three different systems, nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, and mesocortical systems. Researchers are of the opinion that the impairments in the dopamine is facilitated by the dopamine dysfunctions that occurs in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental region, striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. There have been many schools of thoughts arguing the efficiency of the hypothesis however the recent studies have been successful in exploring and evaluating the pathology of the schizophrenia symptoms. According to the Madras (2013), the dopamine hypothesis of the schizophrenia has postulated the fact that the hyperactivity of the dopamine D2 receptor neurotransmission is reported in the subcortical and limbic brain regions of the schizophrenics and it facilitates the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Supporting this idea, the Lau et al. (2013) have stated the fact that the negative cognitive functions of this disease can be attributed to the hypofunctionality of the Dopamine D1 receptor neurotransmission that occurs in the prefrontal cortex. Another study has stated the fact that increase in the density of the dopamine receptor D2 has been found vene in the post mortem brain tissue of schizophrenia patients. Considering the neurotransmitter function irregularity that leads to the symptom development of the disease schizophrenia, it has been proved that the poorer performance in the cognitive tasks involves the corticostriatal pathways (Moghaddam & Javitt, 2012). Now these corticostriatal pathways have been found to be directly correlated with upregulation of the D2 receptors present in the caudate nucleus of the schizophrenia patient, further confirming the profound role played by the dopamine in the pathology of the disease. Hence it can deduced from the above evidences that the development of the disease is intricately associated with the excessive stimulation of the dopamine D2 receptors in the associated striatum that is accompanied by the lack of stimulation in the dopamine 1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Along with that, the entre phenomenon is facilitated by the modifications in the prefrontal neuronal connectivity that involves the glutamate transmission at N-methyl aspartate receptors (NMDA) (Grace, 2016).
Deficits in the release of extrastriatal dopamine from the prefrontal cortical regions were established by a brain imaging study that aimed to evaluate the release of amphetamine-induced dopamine in the dorsolateral PFC among drug-naïve and drug-free schizophrenic patients. PET imaging with carbon 11–labeled FLB457, prior to an after administration of 0.5mg/kg amphetamine suggested that significant differences in its effect on ?BPND. It was found to be higher among drug-naïve patients, in comparison to their drug-free counterparts. Significant relationship was also observed between BOLD activation and DLPFC ?BPND in the dorsolateral PFC among schizophrenic and healthy control individuals. Thus, the findings were able to confirm the fact that patients suffering from schizophrenia demonstrated blunted release of dopamine, as induced by amphetamine, in the DLPFC (Slifstein et al., 2015).
Significant alterations in the brain structure upon administration of first line of treatment were demonstrated by another study that evaluated the brain sizes of schizophrenic patients before and after the exposure to antipsychotics. Significant reductions in whole brain volumes were observed among the schizophrenic patients at baseline, marked by an enlarged ventricle, when compared to controls. Progressive decrease was also found in the volume of gray matter among the patients, in addition to an enlargement in their lateral ventricles. This decrease in gray matter volume was inversely associated with the cumulative antipsychotic treatment exposure, thereby providing evidence for the neuroanatomical alterations in schizophrenia (Fusar-Poli et al., 2013).
Neuroleptics can be defined as the drug that causes a syndrome known as the neurolepsis which is the amalgamation of three main features, psychomotor slowing, emotional slowing and affective indifference. These are also known as the antipsychotics and the first and second generation antipsychotics are mostly the dopamine antagonists. Now it has to be mentioned in this context that the dopamine hypothesis has been introduced in the 1990s and ever since, the treatment trajectory for the schizophrenics have focused on altering or reverting the effect of dopamine pathway on the cognitive functionality of the patients (Howes et al., 2017).
Considering the exact mechanism of action for the first generation neuroleptics, it has tp be mentioned in this context that the first generation neuroleptics are the D2 antagonist. Although, they include all of the antipsychotics in the following groups: phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, dibenzoxazepines, dihydroindoles, and diphenylbutylpiperidines. According to the Laruelle (2014), the dopamine theory of schizophrenia states that the positive symptoms of the schizophrenia is a direct result of an overactivity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. In support the authors have stated the fact that the D2 antagonists such as the L-DOPA and amphetamines increases the dopaminergic availability which in turn triggers psychotomimetic effects in the schizophrenia patients. On a more elaborative note, it has to be mentioned that there are 4 dopamine pathways that are associated with the first generation antipsychotics. The first pathways are the mesocortical pathway, mesolimbic pathway, Nigrostriatal pathway and the Tuberoinfundibular pathway. However, it has to be mentioned tahta there are significant side effects associated with the use of first generation antipsychotics to treat the schizophrenia in the patients. And hence, the use of the first generation antipsychotics has declined over the years with the introduction of the second generation neuroleptics (Dold et al., 2015).
On a more elaborative note, it has to be mentioned that the second generation neuroleptics have been identified as the atypical neuroleptics and it has been introduced in the treatment pathway for schizophrenia is based on the dopamine hypothesis as well. According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, the negative symptoms that develop in the disease is due to the reduced ability of the dopamine receptor binding. The second generation neuroleptics target the manifestation of the negative symptoms, and it has been reported by many studies that the effect of the second generation antipsychotic medication are even more potent than the action of the first generation neuroleptics (Nielsen et al., 2015). Elaborating more, it has to be mentioned that the first generation antipsychotics, such as the haloperidol, is only optimally effective in the high doses. on the other hand, the effects of the second generation neuroleptiocs such as the olanzapine, amilsulpride, and risperidone had been found to be far more effective in even low doses.
Hence, it can be very easily stated that the risk of side effects, which is evident for the first generation neuroleptics as they are needed in high doses, is very minimal for the second generation neuroleptics as they are effective in even low doses in facilitating higher dopamine availability for the binding process. as described by the Leucht et al. (2012), the risk for extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia is much lower in the second generation neuroleptics when compared to the first generation neuroleptics. Considering the mechanism of action of the drugs, the strong interrelation with the dopamine pathway cannot be neglected. on the basis of the postulates of the theory, both the first and second generation neuroleptics target the psot synaptic blockade of the brain dopamine D2 receptors. However, the exceptional cases of the aripiprazole and brexpiprazole serve as D2 receptor partial agonists whereas the cariprazine is a D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonists. As discussed by the Hartling et al. (2012), the main difference between the first and second generation medication is the fact that with usage of the second generation neuroleptics, the serotonin 5HT2 receptor binding results in exceeding the affinity for the dopamine D2 receptors. And as the 5HT2 activity has been noted to be the main contributor to the overall risk of extrapyramidal side effects or the EPS. Along with that it has to be mentioned in this context that the occurrence of loose D2 receptor binding is also reduced along with rapid dissociation rates in case of the second generation neuroleptics.
On a concluding note, it has to be mentioned that the role of the dopamine in progression of schizophrenia and the development of the symptoms is essential. It has to be mentioned in this context that the dopamine hypothesis has been introduced in the 1990s and ever since the role of dopaminergic effect has been discovered in facilitating schizophrenia symptoms, the pharmacological therapy has focused mostly on altering or reverting the dopaminergic effect in the schizophrenia patients and neuroleptics have been the most significant intervention in this regard. The essay has been successful in including the evidence in the relevant and authentic studies in support of the dopamine hypothesis, the progression of the disease, and lastly the fundamental role played by the neurotransmitter in pathogenesis of the disease. with respect to experimental evidence, two brain imaging studies with relevant results were used in order to establish the supportive argument for dopamine hypothesis. 
With respect of the treatment with first and second generation neuroleptics, the drugs have been noted to target the D2 receptors in order to enhance the dopamine receptor binding affinity and the action of the medication of both the first generation and the second generation have been proved to be extremely beneficial for the schizophrenia patients, effectively reducing the manifestation of the symptoms. Hence, it can be deduced from the evidence that the dopamine pathway has a fundamental role in the diseases development for schizophrenia patients and that is reason why the pharmacological treatment pathway for the disease includes the dopamine receptor agonists.
Brisch, R., Saniotis, A., Wolf, R., Bielau, H., Bernstein, H. G., Steiner, J., … & Henneberg, M. (2014). The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue. Frontiers in psychiatry, 5, 47.
Dold, M., Samara, M. T., Li, C., Tardy, M., & Leucht, S. (2015). Haloperidol versus first?generation antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The Cochrane Library.
Fusar-Poli, P., Smieskova, R., Kempton, M. J., Ho, B. C., Andreasen, N. C., & Borgwardt, S. (2013). Progressive brain changes in schizophrenia related to antipsychotic treatment? A meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1680-1691.
Grace, A. A. (2016). Dysregulation of the dopamine system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17(8), 524.
Hartling, L., Abou-Setta, A. M., Dursun, S., Mousavi, S. S., Pasichnyk, D., & Newton, A. S. (2012). Antipsychotics in adults with schizophrenia: comparative effectiveness of first-generation versus second-generation medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine, 157(7), 498-511.
Howes, O. D., McCutcheon, R., Owen, M. J., & Murray, R. M. (2017). The role of genes, stress, and dopamine in the development of schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry, 81(1), 9-20.
Howes, O., McCutcheon, R., & Stone, J. (2015). Glutamate and dopamine in schizophrenia: an update for the 21st century. Journal of psychopharmacology, 29(2), 97-115.
Laruelle, M. (2014). Schizophrenia: from dopaminergic to glutamatergic interventions. Current opinion in pharmacology, 14, 97-102.
Lau, C. I., Wang, H. C., Hsu, J. L., & Liu, M. E. (2013). Does the dopamine hypothesis explain schizophrenia?. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 24(4), 389-400.
Leucht, S., Tardy, M., Komossa, K., Heres, S., Kissling, W., Salanti, G., & Davis, J. M. (2012). Antipsychotic drugs versus placebo for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 379(9831), 2063-2071.
Madras, B. K. (2013). History of the discovery of the antipsychotic dopamine D2 receptor: a basis for the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 22(1), 62-78.
Moghaddam, B., & Javitt, D. (2012). From revolution to evolution: the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia and its implication for treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(1), 4.
Nielsen, R. E., Levander, S., Kjaersdam Telleus, G., Jensen, S. O. W., Östergaard Christensen, T., & Leucht, S. (2015). Second?generation antipsychotic effect on cognition in patients with schizophrenia—a meta?analysis of randomized clinical trials. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 131(3), 185-196.
Slifstein, M., van de Giessen, E., Van Snellenberg, J., Thompson, J. L., Narendran, R., Gil, R., … & D’Souza, D. (2015). Deficits in prefrontal cortical and extrastriatal dopamine release in schizophrenia: a positron emission tomographic functional magnetic resonance imaging study. JAMA psychiatry, 72(4), 316-324.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 10 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2019). The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia. Retrieved from

“The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia.” My Assignment Help, 2019,

My Assignment Help (2019) The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 19 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia’ (My Assignment Help, 2019) accessed 19 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. The Role Of Dopamine In Schizophrenia [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 19 December 2021]. Available from:

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



Students who are planning to set their career abroad are often required to write a college admission essay. It is crucial to write a convincing essay since your future depends on it. If you do not know how to write a college application essay, place an order at and take home a perfect admission essay. If you want to look through some college admission essay examples, you can visit our website.

Latest Psychology Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

PHIL100 Introduction To Philosophy
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PHIL100
University: Macalester College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Case study
It is a matter of great pride for me that I am the best psychologist and a counselor in my town. To be able to access a psychologist cum counselor who has expertise and experience like me, one needs to travel 30 miles from the town. So, I am very respectable by people in the town. I get invitations to join as the chief guest for almost every humanitarian and social work related events that take place within the town I live….
United States Columbia Humanities Counseling and Sexual Orientation University of Columbia MBA 

PSYC101 Introductory Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC101
University: University Of New England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Happiness and Mobility
The choice of lifestyle and the environment in which a person dwells play a vital role in determination of one’s mental well being and happiness as well.  How and where we live has a great impact on the same.  However the association of city structure to physical health is finally getting the desired kind of attention.  The outline of the society and the neighbourhood impacts the health of a pe…

PSYC103 Introduction To Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC103
University: Northampton Community College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

The teratogen affects behavior problems among the offspring (Loomans et al., 2012). Prenatal and parental exposure of alcohol is found to generate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children (Ware et al., 2012). ADHD causes over activity, impulsivity and are unable to sustain attention under the stereotypic school settings (Getahun et al., 2013). It also causes poor self-esteemed, mood swings, dysthymia and…

PSYCH 1001 Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYCH1001
University: University Of The West Of England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Basically, severe deprivation points to acute, compounded or persistent economic hardship. Predominantly, acute economic hardship is characterized by living below the poverty life meaning there’s low supply of critical resources whereas compounded hardship implies disadvantages be they psychological, materially or socially. Mainly, persistent economic hardship implies a continuous disadvantageous condition. Persisten…

PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so f…
Australia Perth Management Mba dessertation University of Western Australia Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by

× WhatsApp Us