SM5013 Media And Communities

SM5013 Media And Communities

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SM5013 Media And Communities

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SM5013 Media And Communities

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Course Code: SM5013
University: London Metropolitan University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

What democratic features would you expect to find in a community organisation based in the UK? Discuss with reference to specific examples.
1.What factors contribute to the way mainstream media covers (or fails to cover) either (a) an extra-parliamentary movement or campaign or (b) the culture and viewpoint of a minority group?
2.Examine the dominant representation of one current news story, and analyse how it is challenged by community media. 3.Drawing on the readings recommended and using specific examples of your own, discuss to what extent the claims of participatory media to be democratic are justified.4.What is meant by ‘the politics of representation’? Discuss with reference to examples drawn from mainstream and community media.5.In what sense can memory be considered political and collective? Discuss with reference to specific examples from academic literature and community based oral history projects.

Community organization is a specific organization covering many activities of the community level and has the main aim to bring improvement in the communal safety of individuals and other groups. This organization has the power to concentrate on the problems that an individual or groups of the society face and leads to better understanding of the context within the community. These organizations are not for the profit or making money. A community organization of UK has three specific representations; development of locality, social planning and the social actions (Giddens 2013).  is an efficient principle of the community organizations of UK. The organizations try to sanction the resources of the community and focuses to solve the problems of the community. It is due to the organization that the people of the communities are able to identify their problems and solve them accordingly. The organizations conduct progressive programs and with the help of the social mobilizer the problem is sorted. The community organizations are an adaptive method of the process of social method that deals with the intrusion of the communities and solve the issues with best measures. The past ideas about democracy shows that democracy is double way road and needs more performance of institutions by the government. The elections of the country are the power of the citizens to punish a party for their misdeeds and choose a new one. Elections are the main keyword to democracy of any country. The selection of the electoral system, the professionalism in the public management and the control of the judiciary are factors affecting the government to respond to the public requirements (Davidson and Elstub 2014).
Claims of democracy for the participatory media to be justified:
UK is a representative democratic country. The function of this country is to elect representatives for making political decisions for the people by the people. In this context, Mass media plays a positive role in the democratic conversion of UK.  The media plays a vital role in the process of democratisation of UK because of the extent and value change of the sources for information and the right to the freedom of expression (Graber and Dunaway 2014). For extending the democratic policy of UK the adaptation of few process of socialization in the future course of action is needed. The current democracy theory is linked with the modernisation theory of the early stage. This theory establishes a connection between the progress of UK and the possibility of being democratic (Keane 2013). The media’s role in the democratisation process is underrated in UK because of the fragmentation in the country’s politics and communication process (Graber and Dunaway 2014). The mainstream media of UK mainly covers the culture of a minority group. According to the normative theory, the democratic structures of the politics are the reason behind the growth of the media markets. This is not applicable for all the countries but the democracy of UK controls the function of the media through legislation, protection, administration. Every democratic country including UK has four pillars responsible for its democracy, they are; Legislature, administration, Politics and Media (Graber and Dunaway 2014). The function of democracy is often dependant on the media’s role in influencing the independence and freedom of a country. Researching media’s role in the process of democracy is very challenging in UK because of the relationship between the government and media which is very undecided and the media houses still keep hold of the elements of logical and constraints basis (Coleman, Moss and Parry 2015). Without clear information the people will never be able to use the power of punishing the wrong leader and nor they will be aware of the fact that who is the bad leader among all. As the media works as the carrier of information throughout the world and is a bridge between the government and the people, they provide the required information to the people and help them in choosing their leader. The flow of news daily provides the people with ideas and information about everything the government is doing and modifies the people’s choice of leaders. The media works as a ‘fourth estate’ in UK and is a foundation that is positioned beside the other branches of administration to verify the coordination and control the political affairs (Becker 2013). The media is mainly based on the expectations of the public interest and prevents the government to misuse their power to some extent.
The community media of UK needs the improvement of regulation and build awareness to protect the communities and stop being the random field that only uses story for determining the news for few days (Ahmed and Matthes 2017). The journalists of the mainstream media play a vital role in removing the chauvinism in UK through the communication of values of different cultures (Richards and Brown 2017). The traditional media has a concept to facilitate the conscription of the professionals in the media line from different groups and cultures. The media makes reports on the Muslim communities because of their less employment and involvement in the media line. The multiplicity of the society is an important concern for the mainstream media of UK (Ewart, Pearson and Healy 2016).
The media either protests or supports an individual or a party critically and sometimes the mainstream media discourages the political participation in the country (Canter 2013). The community media is actively related to the unusual involvement of politics and emphasizes the importance of mainstream media. There is a great acquaintance between media and politics of UK because media is the sole representative that interacts to the public with the decisions of the government and the policies that the government is implementing (Jones and Norton 2014). All news of the government and constitution is passed to the people by the media. Earlier the government hugely controlled the media but gradually as time evolved the government has loosened up their pressure on the mainstream media. It is very important to measure the effectiveness of the mainstream media’s role in the process of democracy. As the time evolved media has received freedom and stopped being forcibly biased by a party. The media of UK now has the power to show up the corruption and a mistake made by the government and to some extent influences the people’s decision of electing new government (Canter 2013). The role of media is not always perfect but the implementation of self-regulatory system is one of the best ways that ensures every individual of the country with the specific human privileges and self-determination. The role of media in UK is to inform the people about the changes in the constitutional law as well as every happening in the country. The people after the information is received choose the new party or individual as the leader. The media of UK is efficient enough to safeguard the democracy of the country (Kellner 2015).
In case of defence to the right to participate, there is a negative impact of the policy on the democracy values in UK because of the right being more fundamental. Democracy is one the main concepts in the articulation of participation. Democracy includes people in the decision making of any political affairs of the country. Democracy is that part of government that rules the people contradicting the monarchies and aristocracies and entails a community of political perspectives to establish equality among the people (Keane 2013). To establish such equality, all people should have the right to govern, right to get involved in decision making, right to choose the ruler. The participation concept pursues a strong emphasis on the difference of the common people of the country and the rulers. The articulation of the participatory is broadly dependant on the common people or the ruled ones rather than the rulers. This statement also signifies the fact that democracy is dependent on diverse meaning and not only on a fixed concept. The elements which complete the democracy concept are manifestations, differences between the formal democracy and cultures, difference between narrow and broad political system (Keane 2013).
The balance in the democracy of a country is a notion for the political participation. Democratic participation is the process of participation that is not privileged by its relation with politics of a country. Democracy refers to the fundamental rights of the citizens in the country’s economy. The will, consent and participation of the citizens are very important part of democracy. As UK is a democratic country, hence it needs implications stating the representation and service for the people (Keane 2013).
The mass media’s role is not only bounded to the political process of recent times in UK but is also crucial for gaining consent of people by communicating to the common people. As the constitution provides the people with the right of freedom of expression, it helps in protecting the right of an individual from any political problems (Graber and Dunaway 2014). The consent of the people for choosing a ruler depends on the freedom of press because press is the only bridge between the political platform and the common people of a country. Media is the sole entity that can influence the audience to chose a political leader either practicing the neutral way or being biased to an individual or a party. The common people provide their support to the rulers either by voting or being a member of the political party but all of the decisions depend on how the media portrays the situation of the party along with presenting the background of the party. Media also needs to present a reason of why to support a specific party and why not to support the others because the common people have the right to choose between right and wrong. There happens to be two problems in the concept of democracy those are the administration problem and the inequality problem. The contributions of mass media in these two problems are vast because they socialize the right to access, influential power. Media does not play a simple role in the political process but mediates the communications. Mass media works consistently on different decisions of politics in UK. The government of UK pressurizes the media in order to transfer the political ideas of a particular party to the people. The control over media for access to the public is justified in UK for being a dimension of political participation (Graber and Dunaway 2014).
There is no specific connection between the communication system and political system of UK. The political participation of people in UK allows a democracy that includes people to have responsibility in political process of the country (Coleman, Moss and Parry 2015).
The Frankfurt school theories are at stake due to the ultramodern theory which states that the society is fragmented and different for any kind of unitary explanation. The existence of participation programmes for the audience is nothing but a kind of trick to get hold of mass people and influence them to choose a specific ruler. The present media encourages the people to have more information, give more opinions and maintain in public affairs. The media undermines the democracy process and often discourages social change of the nation. The mass media is the sole house that can address to the whole public sphere of the nation either by broadcasting something or publishing something while practicing complicated relations with the state and the economy of the nation (Graber and Dunaway 2014).
Media’s role in the ensuring the democratic society is like a watchdog. Media is in charge of monitoring activities of the government body and has the power to publicise the same that too with the consideration of journalism ethics. The media practises the flow of information and ideas and are providing discussions for the public debate. The decision making role of the media is very important for promotion of the participatory democracy because media has the right to put up discussions and debates on public interest affairs (Chadwick and Stromer-Galley 2016). The regional media has special features in participatory democracy because of its relationship with the common people of national and global ranks. The significance can also be measured by the nature of the process of regional journalism because regional media mostly covers regional politics and underrepresented issues and also because regional media often promote the discussions of the public regarding the regional issues (Freeman and Hutchins 2016). The level of immediacy of the regional media is often high and targeted to the political communities. This results in the participation of social media as it is another effective way to spread information worldwide within a fraction of seconds and this helps as an engagement tool for regional political affairs (Ellison and Hardey 2014).
Media is seen to play an effective yet instrumental role in the right to participation of the public affairs. The participation of media in democracy has introduced the world to the ‘democratic-participant theory’ which is an implication of the applications of participatory democracy in media. The influence of media for bringing more effectiveness in the process of participatory democracy leading to the development of a public sphere that is both democratic and participatory is very important (Anstead and O’Loughlin 2015).
Participation in democracy is the effectiveness that makes a bunch of rights to work in an efficient manner. The common rights that are inclusive of these rights are freedom of expression, right to elect, freedom of access to assembly. The scope of participation in the democratic society is very broad and has inclusion of not only political participation but also social and economic participation as the other parts of public affairs (Anstead and O’Loughlin 2015). As the media’s role has passed through a lot of expansion, there is a development to strengthen it as a institution for the public of the public. Media truly is a partner of democracy because media follows many standards of democracy and try to constitute the belief of freedom of speech. The foremost inclination in the relationship of media and democracy states that as there is a freedom of speech and expression, there is a need of freedom of media. The convention of media in shaping of the democracy evolves with time along with the evolution of the medium of communication (Feenstra and Casero Ripollés 2014).
Participatory democracy is actually the participation emphasizing on the constituents of political system. Participatory media allows the audience to play a role in the process of news collection, analyzing of the news and then the dissemination of the news. Democracy requires participation of the common people and media’s role is to influence the people to engage in democracy by informing them about current changes in economy, education policy and other issues (Keane 2013). The media also maintain peace within the nation so that it does not hamper the democracy of the nation. There will be a positive impact of media in a process of democracy in case the surrounding environment allows them to be positive. The media promotes democracy by educating the common people about elections, protecting the human rights and supporting tolerance in order to transform peace in the nation (Graber and Dunaway 2014).
Democracy is such a matter which is impossible with the help of press. Media as an equal subhead of the government provides the balance of common people without which the government will fail to rule the nation (Coleman, Moss and Parry 2015). It is also essential for the government to maintain good relations with the media because media is the one entity that the people believe and media is responsible to warn the common people about the party who is causing harm to the people. For not only UK but even for the other countries democratic evolution is a common concept and media has always been the lead player on the board of politics. The politicians often have fear for the journalists because of their success in uncovering much vital yet secret information. In developing the democracy the media also challenges the market force and considers few points that help media in deepening of democracy (Giddens 2013). The media is always more active when it has access to the full nation and in case they do not get the access they only work in a marginal way covering only few areas that do not have access to any centre of power (Chadwick and Stromer-Galley 2016).
A democracy is a country where the people are eligible to choose their own government and the political system of UK is known as a constitutional monarchy (Giddens 2013). The monarchy must remain unbiased and has no power to involve in the legislature of the nation. The government is like the other governments responsible for deciding tax and change in the country laws. The political party of UK is no different from other political parties. The only difference is that UK records all the ideas of every political party in a document known as a manifesto (Jones and Norton 2014). The UK political system is open for all and the membership fees of the leading parties is comparatively low so that almost everyone can afford the fees and have interest in joining politics. The political party of UK encourage participation in democratic process. The political system of UK is a multi-party structure and the constitution is made up of conventions (Giddens 2013).
The media of UK is very strong and independent including various newspapers and radio-TV channels. The media informs the public about the crucial issues of the nation and influences people to be aware of every mishap in the nation (Chadwick and Stromer-Galley 2016). The political information is always published in the newspapers of UK. The law of UK assigns unlimited circulation of newspaper hence all the newspapers publishes news in various angles. At election time, the newspapers promote any one party stating their good deeds and highlighting the bad deeds of the other parties to influence the readers to vote for the party. Media often emphasizes on importance of democracy of UK and promotes peace in order to maintain good relation with the public. The people of the nation  is the most essential part because it is due to their presence that the media is able to try their influential aspects and the constitution is able to provide the desired change in the nation. The relation between the media and democracy is a subject of discussion in UK because both are the part of the constitution. The media does not have free authorisation of broadcasting anything they want to in the television or radio because the constitution says that the news on television and radio must be balanced (Canter 2013).
Participatory democracy is a model of democracy that is interested in political affairs and engaged in issues of public life and has the knowledge about the way needed to influence the life of public and also provide opinions on social problems along with a cooperative nature (Davidson and Elstub 2014). This model presumes the activities of the citizens and predicts their participation in public life as well as the process of resolution of the government. The media is for the public and needs to provide the citizens with exact information in order to maintain the people’s trust about media (Nugroho 2017). Politics is not a game for the ones who are playing it but also free spaces for the ones who can come up and stand in the election. Media promotes the fact that people do not need to be under someone and can stand up for election as per own choices. The political interest of the citizens often needs the stimulation of the media because the people feel free to rely on media. The participatory democracy provides the citizens with the power of agenda setting by mobilizing their interest, engaging them in public life and framing the political system as an open platform where anyone can come and work actively (Floridia 2017).
Ahmed, S. and Matthes, J., 2017. Media representation from 2000 to 2015: A meta-analysis. International Communication Gazette, 79(3), pp.219-244.
Al-Hejin, B., 2015. Covering Semantic macrostructures in BBC news. Discourse & Communication, 9(1), pp.19-46.
Anstead, N. and O’Loughlin, B., 2015. Social media analysis and public opinion: The 2010 UK general election. Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication, 20(2), pp.204-220.
Becker, L.B., 2013. Audience responses to media diversification: Coping with plenty. Routledge.
Canter, L., 2013. The interactive spectrum: The use of social media in UK regional newspapers. Convergence, 19(4), pp.472-495.
Chadwick, A. and Stromer-Galley, J., 2016. Digital media, power, and democracy in parties and election campaigns: Party decline or party renewal?.
Coleman, S., Moss, G. and Parry, K., 2015. Introduction: Can the Media Serve Democracy?. In Can the Media Serve Democracy? (pp. 1-18). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. and Markham, T., 2016. Media consumption and public engagement: Beyond the presumption of attention. Springer.
Davidson, S. and Elstub, S., 2014. Deliberative and Participatory Democracy in the UK. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 16(3), pp.367-385.
Ellison, N. and Hardey, M., 2014. Social media and local government: Citizenship, consumption and democracy. Local Government Studies, 40(1), pp.21-40.
Esser, F. and Strömbäck, J. eds., 2014. Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer.
Ewart, J., Pearson, M. and Healy, G., 2016. Journalists’ and Educators’ Perspectives on News Media Reporting of Communities. Journal of Media and Religion, 15(3), pp.136-145.
Feenstra, R.A. and Casero Ripollés, A., 2014. Democracy in the digital communication environment: A typology proposal of political monitoring processes.
Floridia, A., 2017. From Participation to Deliberation. A Critical Genealogy of Deliberative Democracy, Colchester (UK).
Freeman, J. and Hutchins, B., 2016. Digital media and local democracy: news media, local governments and civic action. Australian Journalism Review, 38(2), p.19.
Giddens, A., 2013. The third way: The renewal of social democracy. John Wiley & Sons.
Graber, D.A. and Dunaway, J., 2014. Mass media and politics. Cq Press.
Jones, B. and Norton, P. eds., 2014. Politics Uk. Routledge.
Keane, J., 2013. Democracy and media decadence. Cambridge University Press.
Kellner, D., 2015. Media spectacle and the crisis of democracy: Terrorism, war, and election battles. Routledge.
Munnik, M.B., 2017. From voice to voices: identifying sources in the news media. Media, Culture & Society, 39(2), pp.270-281.
Nugroho, Y., 2017. Citizens in@ ction: Collaboration, participatory democracy and freedom of information
Ogan, C., Willnat, L., Pennington, R. and Bashir, M., 2014.. International Communication Gazette, 76(1), pp.27-46.
Richards, B. and Brown, L., 2017. Evidence and ideology: moderating the critique of media. Journalism Education, 6(1), pp.12-22.

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