SE6247 Psychology In Sport Health And Education

SE6247 Psychology In Sport Health And Education

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SE6247 Psychology In Sport Health And Education

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SE6247 Psychology In Sport Health And Education

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Course Code: SE6247
University: Southern Institute Of Technology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: New Zealand

This assessment will focus on the application of your knowledge (it is expected that you consult various sources) in regards to explaining various psychological conditions that influence healthy behaviour and sport. The SIT library will be a valuable resource to help you in this respect. You have to cite as much as possible to support your answers. However, you are encouraged to use other sources like the Internet as well, ensure that they are credible sites (internet with search engines of credible sites, such as Google scholar). For citations in text and the reference list consult the recent Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) to ensure that you use the correct format.Your assignment will be to present the following psychological conditions that influence healthy behaviour and sport in a written summary of no more than two pages per condition;Anxiety,Bi-polar disease,Eating Disorders,Substance abuse,Addiction to exerciseSchizophrenia,Borderline personality disorder,Post-traumatic stress disorders.You need to define each condition, describe what the signs and symptoms might be, describe what the possible causes might be and the adverse effects it may have on performance. How a person with such a condition may be treated or assisted?

Anxiety is refers to several mental disorders that result in fear, nervousness, uneasiness and worrying. Anxiety has different forms and each form has different set of signs and symptoms. Nonetheless, the common symptoms of anxiety may include perspiring, trembling, feeling dizzy, back pain, fatigued and muscle tension. In addition, the symptoms may include an increase in heartbeat, easily shocked or surprised, worrying consistently without reasons amongst others.
The causes of anxiety are multifarious. Some of the most commonly known cause may include stress, genetics, medical factors like medication side effects and using or withdrawing from certain illicit substances. The adverse effects of anxiety on health are, it reduces concentration, loss of appetite, increases headaches, causes panic attacks, breathing problems amongst others. In the field of sport, anxiety hampers performance because it weakens the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and even negatively effects personality (Ducrocq et al., 2017).
Stress management, exercises, relaxation techniques like meditation and deep breathing are some basic treatments of anxiety. Apart from that, it could also be treated at home through self-management. In extreme cases, counseling like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective in treating anxiety. Medications could also be used to treat anxiety.
Bi-polar disease
Bi-polar disorder, previously known as maniac depression is a mental illness that involves extreme mood swings. Some symptoms of bi-polar disorder during high moods include spending sprees, abnormal drive for sex, restlessness, increased energy, least amount of sleep and drug use. The symptoms that could be associated with severe low moods are sadness, hopelessness, uncontrollable crying, and insomnia, loss of energy and lack of interest in activities.
Bi-polar disorder has no single cause of occurrence and researches to identify factors that cause this are ongoing (Whitton, Treadway & Pizzagalli, 2015). Nonetheless, genes, changes in the brain and most commonly, stress. Many experts are of the view that bi-polar disorder occurs mostly due to neurobiological disorder that is visible in a particular part of the brain. Bi-polar disorder is detrimental to healthy living and especially for those in the field of sports. It affects a person’s self-esteem and even leads to suicidal tendencies.
Treating bi-polar disorder is possible but it requires long-term care. The main treatment for the disorder is medication mostly involving ‘mood stabilizers’. Psychotherapies and psycho education are also effective ways to treat bi-polar disorder. Similar to anxiety, bi-polar disease could also be treated through CBT.
Eating Disorders
Eating disorders could be defined as habits of unbalanced eating habits and relentless anguish or worry about overweight or shape.  It also includes insufficient or excessive consumption of food, which can eventually harm the wellbeing of an individual. The symptoms include chronic dieting despite being underweight, constant weight fluctuations, uncomfortable eating with or around others (Golden et al., 2015). In addition, skipping meals, extreme mood swings, food rituals and so on are also considered possible symptoms of eating disorders.
The causes of eating disorders too are multifaceted and the precise cause is still not known. However, psychological, biological and environmental abnormalities may be attributed to the occurrence of eating disorders. Asymmetrical hormone functions, poor self-esteem, negative body image dysfunctional family dynamic are some of the causes of eating disorders.  To live a healthy life, having a good eating habit is extremely crucial. In case of athletes, eating disorders are most commonly known disorders because self-esteem, concern for body shape and weight are bound to occur as this effect performance.
Eating disorders can be treated through medical care and monitoring, nutrition, therapy and medications. Medical care, nutrition and medications are effective treatments for physical recovery but psychological recovery from eating disorders could be done through therapies only.
Substance abuse
As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), substance abuse means the detrimental or risky use of psychoactive substances that include alcohol and illegal drugs (, 2018). Signs and symptoms of substance abuse include among other things, the inability to sleep, cold and sweaty palms, excessive talkativeness, and unusual mouth odor, pupils smaller or larger than normal. The behavioral signs of substance abuse include sudden change in personality, activities and hobbies, suddenly becoming oversensitive, chronic dishonesty, paranoia amongst others.
The causes of substance abuse range from being social to emotional and physical to medical and psychological as well. Self-medication is the most commonly known cause of substance use because it is taken without any prescription or recommendation from an expert. Addiction to illicit substances may be genetic where a person is vulnerable to substance abuse since he had a first-degree relative having the same problem. Environmental causes include exposure to illicit drugs from childhood and so on. Substance abuse is dangerously harmful for health as it leads to several other health issues like stroke, seizures, coma, memory loss and many others. Substance abuse also causes players and athletes lose all their credibility and strength.
Drug rehabilitation, relapse prevention, motivational enhancement and methadone maintenance are amongst the most effective treatments of substance abuse.
Addiction to exercise
As the name suggests, exercise addiction implies obsessive likeness to exercise and physical fitness. It is also considered a psychological disorder. The most common symptoms of exercise addiction may include withdrawal tendency after long gaps from exercise, uncontrollable desire to workout, isolating from social life to dedicate time for exercising. The inability to remain with a reduced routine of exercise is another symptom of exercise addiction.
Causes of addiction to exercise include the excessive desire to stay fit. The brain releases endorphins and dopamine – the two neurotransmitters that are released during substance use – during exercise (Szabo et al., 2015). Thus, it compels the exercise addict to continue exercising as he or she feels overjoyed. Eating and body image disorders also lead to exercise addiction. As evident, exercise addiction is the most harmful in sport because athletes or players have to maintain a balance between professional and personal life. Being addicted to exercise would destroy their social life and might even lead to depression.
The best treatment to avoid or cure addiction to exercise is self-control. apart from that, group therapy, individual therapy, recognizing dysfunctional thought patterns are also effective treatments for exercise addiction.
It may be defined as a long-term mental disorder where the sufferer experiences breakdown between thought, emotion and behavior (Amiaz et al., 2016). It also includes faulty perception, incorrect feelings, actions, and complete withdrawal from reality. The symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, excessively unsystematic or unusual motor behavior, disorganized speech and thinking and negative symptoms meaning lack of capability to function usually.
Genetic inheritance, disturbed family relationships, environmental factors like trauma before birth, viral infections and chemical imbalance in the brain are some of the causes of schizophrenia. Healthy living is greatly disturbed by this condition because the sufferer does not have any proper eating or sleeping routine. In sport as well, this disorder ruins the career of the players.
According to many psychiatrists, the combination of medication, psychological counseling and self-help resources is the most effective treatment for schizophrenia. Apart from that, mental and emotional support from close friends and family could greatly boost the schizophrenia treatment process.
Borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) comes under the anxiety disorder and is characterized by highly impulsive behavior and unstable relationships and sense of self, unbalanced emotions. It is also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) (Fonagy, Luyten & Allison, 2015). The initial symptoms of BPD include extreme fear of rejection, romanticizing someone and at the next moment thinking that the person does not care. Other symptoms include stress-related paranoia at regular intervals, losing contact with reality, quick shifts in goals, identity and image of the self and suicidal threats and self-injury behaviors.
Abnormalities in the brain and genetic inheritance are the two main causes of BPD as experts claim. BPD, like schizophrenia is extremely harmful for a healthy living because it leads to a loss of interest in life and formation of pessimistic thoughts and attitude. A player’s performance is greatly affected by this disorder because he or she loses concentration and enthusiasm in performing.
Psychotherapies like dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), schema-focused therapy, transference focused therapy (TFP), mentalization-based therapy (MBT) and good psychiatric management are some of the best treatments for curing BPD.
Post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD)
It is defined as a condition that involves consistent emotional and mental stress that occurs due to an injury or extreme psychological shock normally involving sleep problem and continuous and vivid recollection of the experience (Shalev, Liberzon & Marmar, 2017). The symptoms may be said to be repeated and superfluous upsetting memories of the traumatic event, distressing dreams or nightmares, ruthless emotional distress. Avoiding conversations relating to the event, avoiding places and activities that relate to the event, negative thoughts, hopelessness and memory problems are also the symptoms of PTSD.
The main causes of PTSD include worrying experiences like some traumatic events, mental health risks that are inherited from family, inherited personality features. It is also caused by way the brain controls the hormones and chemicals released by the body to respond to stress. It adversely affects health as it makes a person vulnerable to other mental and physical illness.
Treatment for PTSD include cognitive therapy in which the therapist uses talk therapy to help patients remove negative thought and exposure therapy that makes the patient face similar situations safely so that it does not frighten them anymore.
Amiaz, R., Rubinstein, K., Czerniak, E., Karni, Y., & Weiser, M. (2016). A diet and fitness program similarly affects weight reduction in schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical medications. Pharmacopsychiatry, 26(03), 112-116.
Ducrocq, E., Wilson, M., Smith, T. J., & Derakshan, N. (2017). Adaptive working memory training reduces the negative impact of anxiety on competitive motor performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 39(6), 412-422.
Fonagy, P., Luyten, P., & Allison, E. (2015). Epistemic petrification and the restoration of epistemic trust: A new conceptualization of borderline personality disorder and its psychosocial treatment. Journal of Personality Disorders, 29(5), 575-609.
Golden, N. H., Katzman, D. K., Sawyer, S. M., & Ornstein, R. M. (2015). Position paper of the society for adolescent health and medicine: medical management of restrictive eating disorders in adolescents and young adults references. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), 121-125.
Shalev, A., Liberzon, I., & Marmar, C. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(25), 2459-2469.
Szabo, A., Griffiths, M. D., Marcos, R. D. L. V., Mervó, B., & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). Focus: addiction: methodological and conceptual limitations in exercise addiction research. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 88(3), 303.
Whitton, A. E., Treadway, M. T., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2015). Reward processing dysfunction in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Current opinion in psychiatry, 28(1), 7. (2018). Substance abuse. Retrieved from

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