PY4204 Human Development Across The Lifespan

PY4204 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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PY4204 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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PY4204 Human Development Across The Lifespan

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Course Code: PY4204
University: James Cook University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Explain the positives and negatives of the statement using your research to support your arguments
Individuals spend their lifetime in the presence of others. The interaction that prevails among people helps them to identify some aspects consciously or unconsciously, and their mental schemata become conditioned to act according to the stimuli (Pellerone, Ramaci, Herrera López & Craparo, 2013). this is process is what psychologist call formation of attachment. Children rely on their parents and the people around them to make the association that complete their development of attachments. There has been little literature emphasising the contribution of attachment in adulthood and the implications it has on the development and life of the post-adolescence persons. However, according to Fonagy (2018), adults have a unique way of forming identity and like children; their minds need to make complete mental needs and feed their need for attachment. The idea of attachment formation came by John Bowlby when he propounded the theory of attachment to elucidate the distress that young children separated from their parents went through (Toffoli, 2016). Therefore, he highlighted the necessity for attachment for children for holistic growth. Secure attachment is a critical element for a comprehensive development that facilitates the formation of relationships, self-identity, confidence, and achievement in life.
Literature review
Secure attachment is imperative for human growth and development. Attachment is an enduring psychological state that links people to others across space and time (Toffoli, 2016). Indeed, people have attachment to others without reciprocation. For instance, children may seek for the association when under pain from their figure of attachment just to have a feeling of safety. Thus, the feeling is what drives individuals to seek attachments with others. According to Ragelien? (2016), fear is one of the most significant elements that inform the need for a reprieve figure among living species. However, the feeling and response of the figures of association towards people seeking attachment help them feel more secure. In case a parents fail to address the needs of their children, they may feel rejected and become insecure something that inhibits their feeling of safety (Abubakar et al., 2013). It is important to highlight that attachment happens throughout the life of human beings, successful formation of association with others helps nourish their emotional state, and they feel accomplished.
Secure Attachment and Successful Relationship Formations
Relationship formation is a significant element of human life. From birth, children look up to their parents and caregivers to help them form a complete association. This association helps them feel part of the society that they live. According to Jenaabadi and Rigi (2014), the process of relationship formation is like a learning process where a person learns how to respond to the environment around them constructively. The kind of bond that develops between people depends on the intrigues that the figure of association has on its subject. For instance, if a child feels insecure with an adult, they may become emotionally alienated and seek for an appealing source of love. Relationship formation is not only a child concept as it continues outside the home environment where adults try to develop bonds with their friends and their loved ones (Sestito & Sica, 2014). For instance, when an individual chooses to engage in love with opposite sex the attachment complexes play a significant role in completing the process. However, it is crucial to highlight that psychologists argue that the success of relationship formation in adulthood depends on the emotional relationship of a child in their infant age (Honari & Saremi, 2015). Notably, attachment styles can be safe or unsafe. Unsafe associations such as anxiety, avoidance, fear and dismissal make individuals retracted from reality, and they may exhibit drained behaviours across their lifespan. On the other hand, secure attachments such as love, passion, kindness, and compassion make individual feel confident about everything around them making them more adaptable to others and bound to build safe relationships in their lives (Holmes, 2014). Therefore, people need a feeling of security across their life for them to act responsibly to others.
Secure Attachment and Self-Identity
Identity development and secure attachment are inseparable. Bowlby’s attachment theory emphasises the propensity of making intimate bonds among human beings as a fundamental concept of human beings that starts from birth to old age (Cassidy, Jones & Shaver, 2013). Identity formation is a process that requires a feeling of safety on the subject. According to Ratner (2014), a loving relationship allows infants to feel secure in an environment inspired by encouragement to explore. Thus, positive association lays the foundation for normal identity development. Human beings are innately social beings and according to social identity theory, the groups that an individual belongs to is a significant source of self-pride and esteem (Konrath, Chopik, Hsing & O’Brien, 2014). For instance, a child born from a violent family is bound to become aggressive in future because they tend to copy what they see. People learn through conditioning as Ian Pavlov suggests, human beings tend to respond to the stimuli around the environment (Holmes, 2014). Therefore, considering that an infant’s mind is blank, they will absorb what get rottenly and use it to make realities in their mind.
Secure Attachment and Confidence to Function
Confidence helps people perform their tasks with minimum supervision. Toffoli (2016) say that self-confidence allows people to influence others to take actions. Therefore, the amount of confidence bestowed upon an individual is subject to their interaction with other people. According to Fonagy (2018), secure attachment helps individuals complete the formation of confidence and ability to be independent while making decisions. According to a study conducted by Konrath et al. (2014), people with secure attachment in their infant tend to have more confidence because they have a firm belief in their capacities and insights enabling them to be more active while performing their duties. Motivation achieved through caregivers listening to the demands of their children helps them raise their confidence. Performance of individuals depends on the devotion they have that they will complete their duties. However, it would not be possible to have the successive formation of this trust in one’s ability if someone does not have the feeling of safety in his or her work (Honari & Saremi, 2015). The setters of the development path of an individual help them develop the capability to accomplish goals in the future. Therefore, it is significant to highlight that the conceptualisation of motivation allows people to set the goals and objective. The setting of this framework for action depends on the level of achievement attained by an individual throughout their lifetime completed in their association between them and others in the society. Therefore, the ability of an individual to perform with efficacy and competence arises from their initial stages of development and grows throughout their life.  
Secure Attachment and Life Achievement
Safe attachment theory forms the basis for understanding individuals feeling for satisfaction with life. According to a study conducted by Jiang, Huebner and Hills (2013) concluded that parental and social attachment are crucial elements determining psychological adjustments among adults, including their feeling of satisfaction in their life. The development of achievement is a lifelong process as people engage in various activities while they live and every time they accomplish a task, they add to their satisfaction index (Leary & Baumeister, 2017). Bajoori & Saravani (2017) conducted a study to examine the association between secure attachment and life quality with the academic achievement of students. The results revealed that students from secure attachments have higher performance compared to those from insecure attachments foundation. Therefore, the attachment of parents with the children played a critical role in bolstering their performance in school. Similarly, secure attachment helps individuals of all ages learn how to form complete mental schemata and preparedness to engage in duties (Ragelien?, 2016). Indeed, a secure association of individuals with others in the society helps them develop a sense of belonging and foster security to perform their responsibilities safely. Finally, mentally stable individuals can become contributors to the social development and their advancement leading to psychological satisfaction and attainment.  
Secure attachments are significant in the growth and development of individuals from infant to old age. The little things that children learn in the tender age have an overarching implication in what they become in their future. Individuals who cherish fulfilled attachments are bound to become the happiest in their adulthood, and they have a little struggle, unlike insecure persons. The findings from the research suggest that issues related to self-efficacy, relationship, achievement, and confidence are mediated through the effective formation of attachments. Human beings do not live in an island, and they have to learn how to live from others who make the community that they live. This society affects how individuals perceive their environment and their identity with particular aspects of the community makes them feel part of the public. That feeling is tantamount to accomplishment because at this point people feel obliged and tied to social boundaries that define life and make it relevant. Therefore, securing association for individuals is a necessity meant to feed the belonging social feeling inside human beings genetics. Consequently, the society needs to help individuals realise secure attachments to facilitate effective physiological and psychological nourishment.

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