PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology

PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology

Free Samples

PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology

0 Download20 Pages / 4,951 Words

Course Code: PY100
University: Emporia State University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States


Write a literature review on how the two countries compare in the frequency of occurrence of different types of mental illness and different types of treatment in the population.


Mental health illnesses Batowl, often illnesses is written as illness, and then there are different types of mental health illness such as depression, etc-present serious medical conditions that impact individual’s behavior, thoughts, feelings, and moods. A wide range of conditions is associated with mental illnesses including Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, personality disorders, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and addictive behaviors. These illnesses affect people of all ages, cultures, religion, incomes, and ethnicities. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately a quarter of the world’s population suffers from mental illnesses both in developed and developing worlds. The majority lives in major industrialized countries such as US and Saudi Arabia. These illnesses are considered to be the leading sources of disability across the world. As a result, there is a high financial cost linked to mental illnesses in the form of mortality and lost productivity. Due to the impact the mental illnesses have on patients, healthcare and the economy, it is important to study the topic and provide important insights into the problem. An overview of the literature in relation to mental health in the United States shows that mental healthcare is a multibillion-dollar industry that has not yet achieved the goal to serve all those who require mental health treatment. For a long time, the access to mental health was poor with cost being the largest barrier.  An overview of the literature focusing in Saudi Arabia demonstrates the lack of accurate estimates on the prevalence of mental illnesses among the population. However, there are few studies on specific mental illnesses.  This literature review explores the treatment of mental illnesses in Saudi Arabia and the United States with the aim of providing a comparison between the two. The report is organized into sections, with each section discussing major themes relevant to the topic.
Theme A: Mental health treatment in Saudi Arabia
Prevalence of mental health illnesses
Few studies have been carried out in relation to the specific mental disorders affecting different populations in Saudi Arabia. Al-Sughayr & Ferwana, (2012) measured the prevalence of mental illness among 354 high school students who were selected from four schools. The results indicated that the rate of mental illness stood at 48%. How the prevalence was measured—a question on a survey?  The prevalence was higher among females than in males. Female adolescents accounted for 51% of the population with mental illnesses while male adolescents accounted for 41% of the population. However, the study was limited in its relatively small size and measures used. A cross-sectional study conducted by Alqahtani& Salmon (2008) showed that depression screening is high, at a rate of 39%, among people in Saudi Arabia.    Higher level of education and gender were found to be significant predictor’s of depression screening with 57 percent of cases being mild to moderate. Females with low education were more likely to experience depression compared to those with higher education. The study was conducted through a survey analysis of 477 patients who utilized services from the general government hospitals, of whom 33.8% were males, 77.4% were married, and approximately 20% were illiterate. 49.9% showed signs of depression on the basis of PHQ9 measurement tool, of which 1.0% severe cases, 4.4% moderate-severe, 13.4% moderate, and 31% were mild.  
Al-Dabal, Koura, & Al-Sowielem, (2015) found that moderate to severe depression among primary healthcare consumers was 16%. Depression occurred significantly more among men than women with common manifestations being eating and sleeping problems as well as suicidal thoughts. The major predictors of depression were personal history of chronic diseases, family history of depression or psychiatric diseases, female gender, being unemployed or unmarried, cardiovascular and skin diseases while predictors of suicidal ideation were low level of education, female gender, and severe depression.  Al-Khathami & Ogbeide (2002) found high prevalence in mental illnesses among primary health care clinic attendants.  To determine the prevalence, a sample of 609 Saudi adult patients was selected from Al-Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cross-sectional epidemiological study involved patients from ages 15-65 years who attended Family and Community Medicine Clinic from July 2000 to November 2000. The researcher used the Rahim Anxiety-Depression Scale to screen the patients. The findings showed that the prevalence of minor mental illnesses stood at 18.2%.  Additionally, the prevalence was significantly higher in women at 22.2% than in men at 13.7%. For the participants aged 15 to 29 years, the prevalence was higher at 23.2% women; compared to 17.8% men among those aged between 30 and 44 years 8%. Those between ages 45 to 65 recorded a prevalence rate of 7.1%.  Additionally, the rate was high among widows and divorcees at 40% and 43.8%, respectively. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension and bronchial asthma had a prevalence rate of 16%, 22.2%, and 28.3% respectively. The overall findings showed that a third of all primary healthcare patients had mental illness.  While there is individual initiative to document mental illnesses in Saudi Arabia, the area of study is still underdeveloped.
Treatment of different mental health illnesses
Al-Dabal et al. (2015) noted that depression in Saudi Arabia often goes unrecognized. Additionally, Becker (2004) established that physicians overlook depressive disorders and lack the necessary skills to identify, respond, diagnose and treat depressive disorders. While depressive symptoms can be reliably diagnosed and treated by healthcare professionals , fewer people have access to effective treatment in Saudi Arabia (Al-Shehri, Sabra, Taha, Khamis, & Hafez, (2012) The study shows that physicians understood psychiatric disorders but had poor diagnostic skills for depression and somatization.  Abdelwahid & Al-Shahrani (2011) recommend that patients with moderate depression be treated with psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Combined cognitive behavior therapy and antidepressants may be useful in patients with psychosocial problems, such as marital conflicts, which were linked to depression in the studies. Patients with severe depression require combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Mahgoub and Abdel-Hafeiz (1991) established that 97% of subjects in the study developed OCD before the age of 30 years in Saudi Arabia. The subjects were married and unmarried women.Tek and Ulug (2001) also establishes that Religious themes were predominant in these patients. According to Al-Sughayir (2000), most OCD patients in Saudi Arabia are treated with medication. However, the pharmacotherapy combined with behavior therapy for persons with mental illnesses is regarded as an effective treatment.  Therefore, ineffective treatments lower the quality of life of most patients with OCD (Alghamdi & Awadalla, 2016).
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Alghamdi, Hunt, and Thomas, (2016) showed that little support is provided to people suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder in Saudi Arabia. The study assessed firefighters who were exposed to a range of traumatic events. 57% of firefighters met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD symptoms. The symptoms were positively  correlated with active coping such as religion, planning and positive reframing and passive coping including substance abuse, behavioral disengagement, and self?blame.  
Tanios, Abou-Saleh, Karam, Salamoun, Mneimneh, and Karam (2009) shows that anxiety disorders are common in the Arab world including Saudi Arabia.  According to, cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), Pharmacotherapy and other psychological treatment modalities are necessary in managing panic disorder.  Uncomplicated panic disorder is treated at outpatient care. Patients may also be hospitalized when they are not in capacity to obtain regular outpatient care.
Personality Disorders
Al-Kawi (1998) recommended an average of three drugs for concomitant use. The author also recommends an individual focused approach in the treatment of personality disorder and the use of available psychotropic medication. The study by Hafizi, Tabatabaei, and Koenig, (2014) involved 429 medical students schooling at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The study results a negative correlation between Borderline Personality Disorder and Religion.
Access to mental health treatment
In the past three decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed a comprehensive hospital-based mental health system that culminated in the passing of a mental health law in 2014. However, the country has not yet sufficiently implemented the mechanism for protecting human rights of psychiatrists.  The Ministry of Health along with other government agencies is the main providers of mental health services. In the early 1980s, only two psychiatric hospitals operated in the country. Psychiatric training was also underdeveloped with practitioners reaching the highest possible level of Diploma (Koenig, Al Zaben, Sehlo, Khalifa, Al Ahwal, Qureshi, and Al-Habeeb, (2014). Professionals who wished to pursue psychiatric consultancy studied their undergraduate studies abroad. A large number of consultant psychiatrist and nursing staff were non-Saudis. Psychiatric treatment was largely focused on medication and physical restraint was commonplace. The Ministry of health began decentralizing psychiatric services in 1983 and established dozens of regional psychiatric hospitals. By 2014, there were numerous psychiatric clinics, free-standing private and psychiatric clinics based in different areas of the country and more than 125 private general hospitals offering mental health services. Another improvement in the mental health service provision is the implementation of the national mental health policy in 2006 that included special programs for individuals with addiction adolescents, children, the elderly, as well as consultation-liaison services in medical settings. However, hospitals are the main specialist providers, with community mental health services provided by primary care physicians (Koenig et al., 2014).
Mental health training has become increasingly available with more than 1126 psychologists, occupational therapists and social workers, and 700 psychiatrists working in mental health in 2010  (Koenig et al., 2014).  According to Aldeham, (2009), there is a large number of senior staff members who are Saudi Nationals although some staffs are still non-Saudis (Aldeham, 2009). The demography of staff offering mental health services is relevant due to culture and religion of Saudi psychiatric patients. There is evidence that mental health illnesses often go underdiagnosed, with people often understanding their experiences from religious perspectives (Alqahtani & Salmon, 2008) and choosing to use the services of traditional healers (Al-Habeeb, 2003).  
Barriers to mental health treatment
There are a number of individual, social and economic elements that act as barriers to mental health treatment in Saudi Arabia. These include religious ideologies, social beliefs, and superstitions. These factors influence people’s perception of mental health illness causes and treatment. The doctrines and attitudes are significantly impacted by culture and can affect how populations perceive and seek help for mental health illnesses. Koenig et al. (2014) established that patients attributed their mental illnesses to spiritual causes such as demons.
As a result, the beliefs lead patients to religious advisors, faith healers and other agencies that provide non-medical treatments. However, the non-medical practitioners may prove to be helpful in some circumstances as they may offer counseling to patients on how to go about their lives.  On the other hand, they can also derail recovery as they do not provide any form of medical intervention. A significant number of patients who seek help from healthcare organizations are likely to have visited non-medical practitioners. However, the majority reports no change in their situations or their conditions may worsen. Therefore, belief that supernatural forces are the main causes of illnesses drives people to seek spiritual forms of non-medical help.
Culture plays a role in acerbating these barriers.  Saudi Arabia is a conservative country with a large Muslim population that maintains a considerable part of its traditional beliefs. The supernatural spirits called “Jinn” and supernatural powers such as “the evil eye” are often attributed to mental healthcare problem. Therefore, the beliefs stem from a mixture of cultural and Islamic ideologies.  Alahmed, Anjum, & Masuadi, (2018) looks at mental illness stigma among 870 staff members working at a large healthcare organization in Al-Ahsa. They report that a majority of the participants perceived mentally ill patients to be dangerous, thus leading to discriminatory behavior towards them. The aim of the researchers was to identify how Saudi healthcare students perceived mental illness and its etiology, help-seeking behavior and treatment interventions. The data did not show any difference between Shia and Sunni?
Mental health treatment in the United States
Prevalence of mental health illnesses
According to a report by Mental Health America (2017), 18.29% of adults struggle with a mental health problems every year. The percentage is equivalent to 43.7 million Americans. The longitudinal study aimed at determining the prevalence of mental health in different states in the United States. The prevalence ranges from 22.66% in Oregon to 16.03% in Florida. The percentage of people that reported thoughts of suicide amounted to 3.94%, equivalent to 9.4 million people. The figures vary from state to state.  Mental illness has a significant impact on health outcomes such as healthcare spending, patient satisfaction, length of stay and quality of life of individuals with patients suffering from severe mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or schizophrenia living approximately 25 years lesser than others. A third of people with serious mental health illnesses do not receive adequate treatment necessary to reduce the impairments caused by the mental health condition suffered. Additionally, this population is likely to be more likely to experience violent crimes, as opposed to being perpetrators of violence. Approximately 4% of violent crimes are tied to a perpetrator’s mental illness and individuals suffering from different mental illnesses are ten times likely to be the victims of violence compared to the general public. The relationship between mental diseases and poverty in the United States is complicated; however, those with severe mental illnesses are likely to live in poverty.  
According to MHA, (2017) estimates 25% of homeless Americans suffer from serious mental illnesses. From depression to schizophrenia, the United States has experienced a rise in mental illnesses, especially among teens and women. Accordingly, suicide rates have gradually increased in the past one and half decades as 90% of people who commit suicide are diagnosed with an underlying mental illness (MHA, 2017).  The steady increase in mental illnesses has been attributed to economic stagnation, social changes including rising divorce rates, feeling hopeless, poor job prospects, chronic disease, no or limited health insurance, and low income (Bagalman & Napili, 2014).  
Treatment of different mental illnesses
Olfson et al. (2016) established that treatment of depression from 46,417 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. The participants were US households by participants aged 18 years and older. The study outcomes showed that a 47 percent of adults with screen-positive depression stratified by serious psychological distress. The evidence showed that majority of patients had treatment disparities in their treatments based on factors such as age, ethnicity, race or any type of insurance. The aim of the study was to assess whether disparities in treatment were due to differences in initiation or to differences in the quality of treatment once treatment had began. A logistic regression model showed that depression treatment for participants with self-reported depression were higher. However, African Americans and Latinos were less likely to take antidepressant prescription compared to Caucasians. African Americans received inadequate course of psychotherapy than Latinos and Caucasians Are you sure about this? Need Citation . ? Participants without insurance cover were less likely to initiate any depression treatment compared with participants who did not have insurance.  Additionally, elderly persons were less likely to receive an adequate counseling and course of psychotherapy compared to younger persons. Therefore, disparities in depression treatment are attributed to differences in rates of initiation of depression treatment.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Blanco, Olfson, Stein, Simpson, Gameroff and Narrow (2006) established that OCD continues to be an area with substantial opportunity for quality improvement continues to be an important area of advances despite important advances in the efficacy of psychological and pharmacologic. To examine the treatment of OCD, the researcher obtained a nationally representative sample of psychiatrists and analyzed physician-reported data recorded between the years 1997 and 1999. The results showed that 65% of patients received serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) 39.4% of sample patients who received SRI had their dose titrated.  “thought titrated”—what does this mean> ??  7.5% of participants received cognitive-behavioral therapy with or without medical treatment. The most common prescription was antipsychotics or benzodiazepines, often in the absence of an SRI. Do not clearly understand this paragraph
Roberts, Gilman, Breslau, Breslau and Koenen (2011) aimed at establishing the race and ethnic differences related to post-traumatic stress disorder based on risk for PTSD and trauma exposure among those exposed to trauma, and seeking treatment among Hispanics, Blacks, Whites, and Asians in the US general population. 34,653 adults were interviewed between 2004 and 2005. The results show that PTSD affects US race or ethnic minorities  is this result a surprise and, if  so, why? Explean . It is often untreated.  The study shows the need to focus treatment on specific populations that have been underserved in the United States. In Saudi Arabia, mental health issues remain prevalent. While there have been significant improvements in the past, more efforts are required. Saudi Arabia is a conservative country with a large Muslim population that maintains a considerable part of its traditional beliefs. The supernatural spirits called “Jinn” and supernatural powers such as “the evil eye” are often attributed to mental healthcare problem. Therefore, the beliefs stem from a mixture of cultural and Islamic ideologies.
Anxiety and personality disorder
Anxiety and personality disorder often goes unrecognized in public healthcare settings (Olfson, Blanco, & Marcus (2016). A number of earlier studies such as Angold, Costello, Farmer,Burns, and Erkanli (1999) and Davis, Ressler, Schwartz, Stephens and Bradley 2008),  have shown that physicians often overlook anxiety and personality disorder symptoms and lack the needed skills for recognizing, responding, diagnosing, and treating the problem.
Treatment of different mental health illnesses
A number of strategies have been previously adapted to solve the mental health problem among patients.  These strategies can be categorized into five general interventions.  They include improving the accessibility of healthcare services, counseling, building skills, providing information and providing a safe and supportive external environment. Improving accessibility to healthcare services involves elimination of racial and socioeconomic disparities that deter the access to mental health services; diagnosis and treatment of adults with mental health conditions include the improvement in the assessment of and recognition of mental health needs in children and increase in access to mental health services (Bagalman & Napili, 2014).
Counseling and providing information is done for the purpose of promoting awareness among patients in order to minimize the stigma that characterizes mental health problems. The provision of the safe and supportive environment is concerned with supportive family units and interactions in relation to meeting the basic needs and socialization of the patients. The government also has a major role and responsibility towards the development of different policies. Policies and legislation have been developed to ensure that the environment that patients live is supportive and safe for their optimal development. Examples of supportive polices include Mental Health Reform Legislation (S. 2680/H.R. 2646), Mental Health in Schools Act (H.R. 1211 / S. 1588 and Saving Our Next Generation Act (S. 473).
Access to mental health treatment
The significant percentage of mental health spending goes towards outpatient treatment and prescription drugs. The shift away from inpatient spending began in the 1960s when states made efforts to shift away from the institutionalization of mentally ill patients.  The Community Mental Health Centers Act passed in 1963 advocated the treatment of mentally ill patients in community settings rather than in public, psychiatric institutions. Access to mental health has increased with time as counseling and provision of information are related to the empowerment and education of patients, parents, caregivers and other relevant structures. Providing information forms the basis for implementing other strategies Krupnick, Sotsky, Elkin, Simmens, Moyer, Watkins, and Pilkonis, (2006) Skill building is related to the training of patients.  A growing number of empirical studies that underlie practice and policy have been the basis for effective intervention and treatment of mental health issues as they have been used to inform interventions. However, mental health issues in the United States need substantial improvement  in the area of affordability and reduced stigma in order to close the gap of barriers such as of access to and quality of mental health care among patients.
Barriers to mental health treatment
Professional mental health services are avoided because of the sociocultural stigma associated with mental illnesses or seeking professional help. Stigma is a real concern among individuals experiencing mental health problems as they may not only be rejected from their community but also seem like a burden to their family.  Relatives of mental ill people may conceal their conditions out of fear of rejection or prospects of marriage (Bagalman & Napili, 2014).
My opinion is that mental health requires improvements in both Saudi Arabia and the United States. In the US, Mental health disorders and substance abuse are also major risk factors for suicide. Suicide has been ranked as a leading cause of mental health and behavioral problems such as depression, anxiety, and drug use was reported to be fundamental drivers of disabilities. Serious depression is the second leading cause of disability and a major contributor to the burden of ischemic heart diseases and suicide. The research informs the treatment of mental health problems. The overall weakness of the literature is the unavailability of accurate figures on mental health, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Mental health issues in the United States need substantial improvement to close the gap of the well-recognized barriers of access to and quality of mental health care among patients. In Saudi Arabia, mental health issues remain prevalent. While there have been significant improvements in the past, more efforts are required. Saudi Arabia is a conservative country with a large Muslim population that maintains a considerable part of its traditional beliefs. The supernatural spirits called “Jinn” and supernatural powers such as “the evil eye” are often attributed to the mental healthcare problem. Therefore, the beliefs stem from a mixture of cultural and Islamic ideologies.
Mental illness is a serious concern and medical issue, which has been stated above and affects behavior, mood, feelings, and thoughts of a man. The disease can take different forms like bipolar disorder, depressions, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, addictive behaviors, schizophrenia, etc. and can affect people of any age, gender, culture, religion, ethnicity, or income group (Elbarazi, Loney, Yousef & Elias, 2017).
While conducting a study on psychology the fact, which is both alarming and scary, came into view of how almost half the population of Saudi Arabia is affected in some way or the other by mental illness of different kinds. The reason for the growing mental issues in Saudi Arabia is that the population of the country lacks the specific estimation required for the prevalence of the issues mentioned (Elbarazi, Loney, Yousef & Elias, 2017). Students are affected more based on studies conducted in high schools, along with more female population being the victim of mental illness (Vancampfort et al. 2015).
On the other hand, when one looks at the US, it can be seen that mental illness forms 25% of various disabilities people face (Kronfol et al. 2018). The people and the government along with different organizations dealing with mental illness in the US spend about $193.2 billion every year on various research and treatments (Kronfol et al. 2018). It has been estimated that an average person in America has 47.4% chance to get a mental disorder at any point in his life. According to NIMH, 15% of mental illness includes schizophrenia, eating disorders, and personality disorders in America. Presence of the natives and non-native population and their diversity poses a different issue of forming new mental deformities (Vancampfort et al. 2015).
Based on the research conducted above, it can be concluded that in order to manage the risk of mental illness which is increasing day by day in the countries mentioned above and raising significant concern on a national and international level, researchers or doctors can explore the environmental, genetic or biological causes of the diseases and try to prevent it with relevant treatments. In countries like Saudi Arabia and the US where the population is large and scattered the programs teaching and education, the population on mental illness has to be carried out in community centers, prisons, schools, workplaces, etc. Identifying disparities in the services of health or barriers occurring due to socio-cultural issues are to be considered in both the countries where the population is dense and different. Psychotherapy is a new way of achieving the goals and treating mental disorders. Evidence-based psychological treatment is an effective method to motivate research, overcome barriers, improve monitoring level and finally progress in the field of mental disorders.
Abdelwahid, H. A., & Al-Shahrani, S. I. (2011). Screening of depression among patients in Family Medicine in Southeastern Saudi Arabia. Saudi medical journal, 32(9), 948-952.
Alahmed, S., Anjum, I., & Masuadi, E. (2018). Perceptions of mental illness etiology and treatment in Saudi Arabian healthcare students: A cross-sectional study. SAGE open medicine, 6, 2050312118788095.
Al-Dabal, B. K., Koura, M. R., & Al-Sowielem, L. S. (2015). Magnitude of depression problem among primary care consumers in Saudi Arabia. International Journal, 4(2), 205.
Aldeham, K. (2009). Needs Assessment of Users of Psychiatric Services in Saudi Arabia.
Alghamdi, H. M., & Awadalla, A. W. (2016). Sociodemographic and Quality of Life of Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Comparison within Saudi Arabia’s Population. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, 6, 1-15.
Alghamdi, M., Hunt, N., & Thomas, S. (2016). Prevalence rate of PTSD, Depression and Anxiety symptoms among Saudi Firefighters. Journal of Traumatic Stress Disorders and Treatment, 6(1), 1-6.
Al-Habeeb, T. A. (2003) A Pilot Study of Faith Healers’ Views on Evil Eye, Jinn Possession, and Magic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family & Community Medicine, 10, 31–38.
Al-Kawi, M. Z. (1998). Personality Disorders: New Symptom-Focused Drug Therapy. Annals of Saudi medicine, 18, 372-372.
Al-Khathami, A. D., & Ogbeide, D. O. (2002). Prevalence of mental illness among Saudi adult primary-care patients in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 23(6), 721-724.
Al-Qadhi, W., ur Rahman, S., Ferwana, M. S., & Abdulmajeed, I. A. (2014). Adult depression screening in Saudi primary care: prevalence, instrument and cost. BMc psychiatry, 14(1), 190.
Alqahtani, M. M. & Salmon, P. (2008) Cultural Influences in the Aetiological Beliefs of Saudi Arabian Primary Care Patients about Their Symptoms: The Association of Religious and Psychological Beliefs. Journal of Religion and Health, 47(3), 302–313.
Al-Shehri, S. Z., Sabra, A. A., Taha, A. Z., Khamis, A. H., & Hafez, A. S. (2012). Depression and anxiety among males attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia: prevalence and predictors. Life Science Journal, 9(3), 1-5.
Al-Subaie, A. (1989) Psychiatry in Saudi Arabia: Cultural Perspectives. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 26, 245–262  out of place?
Al-Sughayir, M. A. (2000). In-patient treatment for resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Saudi medical journal, 21(2), 193-195.
Al-Sughayr, A. M., & Ferwana, M. S. (2012). Prevalence of mental disorders among high school students in National Guard Housing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family and Community Medicine, 19(1), 47.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Farmer, E. M., Burns, B. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Impaired but undiagnosed. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(2), 129-137.
Bagalman, E., & Napili, A. (2014). Prevalence of mental illness in the United States: Data sources and estimates.  Journal?
Becker, S. M. (2004). Detection of somatization and depression in primary care in Saudi Arabia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(12), 962-966.
Blanco, C., Olfson, M., Stein, D. J., Simpson, H. B., Gameroff, M. J., & Narrow, W. H. (2006). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder by US psychiatrists. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 67(6), 946-951.
Davis, R. G., Ressler, K. J., Schwartz, A. C., Stephens, K. J., & Bradley, R. G. (2008). Treatment barriers for low?income, urban African Americans with undiagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 21(2), 218-222.
Elbarazi, I., Loney, T., Yousef, S., & Elias, A. (2017). Prevalence of and factors associated with burnout among health care professionals in Arab countries: a systematic review. BMC health services research, 17(1), 491.
Hafizi, S., Tabatabaei, D., & Koenig, H. G. (2014). Borderline Personality Disorder and Religion: A perspective from a Muslim country. Iranian journal of psychiatry, 9(3), 137.
Koenig, H. G., Al Zaben, F., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., Al Ahwal, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., & Al-Habeeb, A. A. (2014). Mental health care in Saudi Arabia: Past, present and future. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4(02), 113.
Kronfol, Z., Khalifa, B., Khoury, B., Omar, O., Daouk, S., ElAzab, N., & Eisenberg, D. (2018). Selected psychiatric problems among college students in two Arab countries: comparison with the USA. BMC psychiatry, 18(1), 147.
 Krupnick, J. L., Sotsky, S. M., Elkin, I., Simmens, S., Moyer, J., Watkins, J., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2006). The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy outcome: Findings in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Focus, 64(2), 532-277.
Mahgoub, O. M., & Abdel-Hafeiz, H. B. (1991). Pattern of obsessive-compulsive disorder in eastern Saudi Arabia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 158(6), 840-842.
Mental Health America (MHA). (2017). 2017 State of Mental Health in America – Prevalence Data. Retrieved from
Olfson, M., Blanco, C., & Marcus, S. C. (2016). Treatment of adult depression in the United States. JAMA internal medicine, 176(10), 1482-1491.
Roberts, A. L., Gilman, S. E., Breslau, J., Breslau, N., & Koenen, K. C. (2011). Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychological medicine, 41(1), 71-83.
Tanios, C. Y., Abou-Saleh, M. T., Karam, A. N., Salamoun, M. M., Mneimneh, Z. N., & Karam, E. G. (2009). The epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the Arab world: a review. Journal of anxiety disorders, 23(4), 409-419.
Tek, C., & Ulug, B. (2001). Religiosity and religious obsessions in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 104(2), 99-108.
Vancampfort, D., Stubbs, B., Mitchell, A. J., De Hert, M., Wampers, M., Ward, P. B., … & Correll, C. U. (2015). Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta?analysis. World Psychiatry, 14(3), 339-347.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 20 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2021). PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology. Retrieved from

“PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology.” My Assignment Help, 2021,

My Assignment Help (2021) PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 19 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology’ (My Assignment Help, 2021) accessed 19 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. PY 100 Intoroductory Pscyhology [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 19 December 2021]. Available from:

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



Getting nightmare regarding pending chemistry assignment? Then it is high time you consider hiring chemistry assignment help service of We at deliver quality subject specific assistance on more than 100+ subjects. For us, students’ need is foremost, and we work round the clock to offer science, humanities and commerce assignment help. Among Commerce wing, our one of the most popular services is capital budgeting assignment help. In science segment, we have gained popularity with biology assignment help.

Latest Psychology Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

PHIL100 Introduction To Philosophy
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PHIL100
University: Macalester College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Case study
It is a matter of great pride for me that I am the best psychologist and a counselor in my town. To be able to access a psychologist cum counselor who has expertise and experience like me, one needs to travel 30 miles from the town. So, I am very respectable by people in the town. I get invitations to join as the chief guest for almost every humanitarian and social work related events that take place within the town I live….
United States Columbia Humanities Counseling and Sexual Orientation University of Columbia MBA 

PSYC101 Introductory Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC101
University: University Of New England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Happiness and Mobility
The choice of lifestyle and the environment in which a person dwells play a vital role in determination of one’s mental well being and happiness as well.  How and where we live has a great impact on the same.  However the association of city structure to physical health is finally getting the desired kind of attention.  The outline of the society and the neighbourhood impacts the health of a pe…

PSYC103 Introduction To Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC103
University: Northampton Community College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

The teratogen affects behavior problems among the offspring (Loomans et al., 2012). Prenatal and parental exposure of alcohol is found to generate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children (Ware et al., 2012). ADHD causes over activity, impulsivity and are unable to sustain attention under the stereotypic school settings (Getahun et al., 2013). It also causes poor self-esteemed, mood swings, dysthymia and…

PSYCH 1001 Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYCH1001
University: University Of The West Of England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Basically, severe deprivation points to acute, compounded or persistent economic hardship. Predominantly, acute economic hardship is characterized by living below the poverty life meaning there’s low supply of critical resources whereas compounded hardship implies disadvantages be they psychological, materially or socially. Mainly, persistent economic hardship implies a continuous disadvantageous condition. Persisten…

PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so f…
Australia Perth Management Mba dessertation University of Western Australia Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by

× WhatsApp Us