PUBH6003 Health Systems And Economics

PUBH6003 Health Systems And Economics

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PUBH6003 Health Systems And Economics

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PUBH6003 Health Systems And Economics

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Course Code: PUBH6003
University: Laureate International Universities

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Country: United States

Question: 
To prepare for this assessment, choose one public health issue (e.g. obesity, a chronic disease) in yezzagatthia for which it is obvious that a systems thinking approach has not been, or is not being, applied. 
Describe the public health issue. 
Explain the roles of stakeholders, both within the health system and in other sectors in addressing this issue.
Drawing on research evidence, explain the obstacles that are preventing the application of a systems thinking approach to this issue.
Based on the literature, offer suggestions (e.g. new governance arrangements) for how a systems thinking approach could be applied to this issue. 
Answer: 

Obesity in Australia
Obesity is a growing health problem in Australia, and it is among the most rapidly growing infections in the country among children, teens, and adults. This infection has many meaning and definitions which people in Australia can use to interpret it. There are various signs and symptoms of obesity which makes healthcare professionals, parents, and relatives to be able to recognize the infection and prevent it early in advance (Huse et al., 2018). There are various things which can cause obesity in children, teens, and adults. Individual are advised to seek medical attention immediately after they notice signs of obesity so that healthcare professionals can be able to take actions. Obesity is a growing health concern in Australia, and in most cases, it is possible to predict the disorder in infants. This is because there are patterns among children which are capable of showing signs of obesity.
Children who grow faster have the highest risk of been obese as compared to children who grow slowly. This happens because kids who grow quicker either in height or weight have high chances of been overweight at some point in their life. Obesity is a severe infection which can be prevented, but it requires a lot of commitment from family members to healthcare professionals. People gain excess weight when they take more calories than their body uses them at a given period. This is because the excess calories which are not used in the collection are converted into fat which can make a person obese. There are many reasons as to why many people who live in Australia are obese (Rahman, & Harding, 2013). Poor diet is the leading cause of obesity. People who take fast foods are at high risk of been infected by obesity. It is therefore advisable to eat a healthy balanced diet to prevent obesity. People should participate in physical exercise because lack of these exercises can lead to obesity.
Roles of Stakeholders within Health System in Addressing Obesity in Australia
Various stakeholders in the health care system play a very vital role in addressing obesity in Australia. The first group of stakeholders includes parents, guardians, relative and friend. Children are at very high risk of been obese (Huang et al., 2015).  Therefore it is the role of their parents and guardians to ensure that they take balanced diets which is full of vitamins, cereals, proteins and carbohydrates and low in calories instead of exposing them to poor diets which can lead to obesity. Parents and guardians are also charged with the role of ensuring that their kids engage in physical activities either at home or even in schools. Physical exercises are essential in the prevention of obesity because they perform the role of burning excess calories in the body making a person healthy. Healthcare professionals are the second group of stakeholders who are charged with the responsibility of writing appropriate prescriptions which can be followed by patients to prevent obesity in Australia (Roberto et al., 2015). The government of Australia should ensure that there are enough healthcare institutions in the country so that people even those in remote areas can seek medical attention immediately when they recognize the signs and symptoms of obesity.
Obstacles That Are Preventing the Application of System Thinking Approach in Obesity
There is a various number of indications which shows that obesity is an obstacle to the implementation of system thinking approach. The first obstacle is the global scope. This is because obesity has become a global epidemic growing and spreading to many countries and populations. Low-income countries which are struggling with poor nutrition like Australia are now facing obesity (Chatterji, Green & Kumanyika, 2014). System thinking approach is not able to handle the diverse characteristics of this infection which is already spread to various countries apart from Australia. Obesity is associated with multiple heterogeneous patterns in different countries which makes it hard for the disease to be explained. It is believed that the prevalence of obesity started rising in the 1980s than in the previous decades. The trend of this infection varies from one country to another making it hard for application of system approach to prevent and manage the disease.
It is very challenging to apply a system thinking approach to control obesity in Australia. This is because this infection has a wide range of impacts on the patients which have complex effects. The central aspect which creates complexity in obesity is the time lag. A patient may experience changes in weight over a long period of time, and also, there may be a lag difference between the shift in pressure and the impacts of the gained weight. Weight increased by a patient may lead to infections such as hypertension and diabetes. Has implications of obesity may be biological, psychological and social. Biological consequences mean that the disease can be inherited from one generation to another (Frood, Johnston, Matteson & Finegood, 2013). A patient who is infected by this disorder by experience psychological effects in such that they are stressed by their health condition, and they may also be affected in social perspective in which they feel they are different from others and they end up isolating themselves from relatives, friends and other members of the society.
New Governance for How a System Thinking Approach Can Be Applied To Address Obesity in Australia
New methods should be implemented to make the system thinking approach applicable to addressing the obesity epidemic in Australia. These governance includes applying a holistic approach to solve the obesity issues which has become a health hazard in the country (Eldredge et al., 2016). This is because with use of this approach, challenges which are faced in resolving obesity health issues they always originate from the fact that do not occur in isolation but in most cases they arise about each other. Obesity health issues can, therefore, be studied in isolation. A holistic approach requires cooperation among stakeholders who are involved in addressing obesity health issues in Australia, and they should work together to design and evaluate innovative means which can be used to control and manage obesity. Defining approaches to be able to assess and understand the system thinking approach is another governance which is used to break the complexities associated with obesity into small components which are easy to handle among stakeholders (Swinburn & Wood, 2013). Healthcare institutions should be able to understand what role and responsibility should be assigned to different stakeholders so that it can be easy to address obesity in Australia.
References:
Chatterji, M., Green, L. W., & Kumanyika, S. (2014). LEAD: A framework for evidence gathering and use for the prevention of obesity and other complex public health problems. Health Education & Behavior, 41(1), 85-99.
Eldredge, L. K. B., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A., Kok, G., Fernandez, M. E., & Parcel, G. S. (2016). Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Frood, S., Johnston, L. M., Matteson, C. L., & Finegood, D. T. (2013). Obesity, complexity, and the role of the health system. Current obesity reports, 2(4), 320-326.
Huang, T. T., Cawley, J. H., Ashe, M., Costa, S. A., Frerichs, L. M., Zwicker, L., … & Kumanyika, S. K. (2015). Mobilisation of public support for policy actions to prevent obesity. The Lancet, 385(9985), 2422-2431.
Huse, O., Hettiarachchi, J., Gearon, E., Nichols, M., Allender, S., & Peeters, A. (2018). Obesity in Australia. Obesity research & clinical practice, 12(1), 29-39.
Rahman, A., & Harding, A. (2013). Prevalence of overweight and obesity epidemic in Australia: some causes and consequences. JP Journal of Biostatistics, 10(1), 31.
Roberto, C. A., Swinburn, B., Hawkes, C., Huang, T. T., Costa, S. A., Ashe, M., … & Brownell, K. D. (2015). Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. The Lancet, 385(9985), 2400-2409.
Swinburn, B., & Wood, A. (2013). Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in A ustralia and N ew Z ealand. Obesity Reviews, 14, 60-68.

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