PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology

PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology

Free Samples

PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology

0 Download10 Pages / 2,416 Words

Course Code: PSYCH245
University: University Of Washington is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States


You will need to conduct a review of the published research literature and write a concise summary and evaluation of the research that is related to your area of interest. The review should contain a description of information with research citations related to the topic of interest. You will need to include the identification of any theoretical conflicts or controversies related to the topic also any needs or questions for further research should be addressed.


Halo-effect is frequently referred to as cognitive bias. This cognitive bias acts during generation of impression towards a person’s attitude and personality based on his or her looks or the physical appearance. For example, the majority of the people consider that celebrities are intellectual, kind hearted and funny. The formation this kind of positive mindset about the celebrities is mainly due to their apparent attractive looks in their public gatherings and virtual media (Cherry, 2016). According to Lewis-Beck, Bryman and Liao (2003), the main definition of Halo-Effect is: what looks beautiful is assumed to be good. It is regarded as a habitual tendency of people in order to rate the attractiveness of an individual more favorably for their traits in personality in comparison to those individuals who are assumed to be visually unattractive.  Halo effect thus gives rise to biased judgments where feelings overcome the cognitions while appraising others.
The following paper aims conduct a critical review of a scientific paper based on Halo-Effect. The review will contain a concise summary and evaluation of the research followed by detailed descriptions of the theoretical conflicts and controversies related to the topic. At the end, the assignment will highlight the future prospects of the research as revealed from the research gap of the study conducted by the paper that will be critiqued in the following pages.
Research critique
The paper selected for the critical analysis is the study conducted by Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014) in order to document the influence of halo-effect stereotyping an individual’s personality. According to Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014), two well-documented phenomena an individual’s perceptions are attractiveness halo effect (nurturing positive impressions towards the attractive person) and baby-face stereotype (nurturing childlike impressions towards baby-faced persons) as shown by the children, young adults and people who are from diverse cultural background. The aim of the study was to compare and contrast effects for the younger adults (YA) and the older adults (OA) on personality stereotyping in the domain of halo effect. This can be considered as a strength of the study as the aims and the objectives of the study along with the projected population has been clearly described. Under the methods section, the author used judging capacity of YA and OA against competence, health, untrustworthiness, hostility, attractiveness, and baby-faceness of younger and older neutral expression faces. The Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014) used multi-level modeling assessed effects for the rater age and face age on appearance stereotypes. According to Heck and Thomas (2015) multilevel modeling is helping in analyzing the outcome of the psychological studies in an unbiased manner. The results highlighted that like YA, OA also showed both the attractiveness halo effect along with babyface stereotype. However, it was highlighted the OA have weaker effects of attractiveness over the impressions of the untrustworthiness. Moreover, only OA associated with the higher level of competence. The study also revealed own-age accentuation in relation to OA and YA. OA and YA displayed stronger face stereotypes for the features of the face, which are closer to their own age bracket. The difference in the respective strength of the stereotypes showed OA positivity effect over influencing positive facial qualities on impressions or comparative less influence over the negative ones. The authors finally concluded that OA personal age-biases which was previously shown in age, emotion, identity recognition and OA positively effects which was previously found to lay in attention, social judgments and memory also influence the differences in the strength and the content of the appearance stereotypes (Zebrowitz & Franklin, 2014). In details, it can be stated that the OA are just as vulnerable towards the face stereotype like that of YA. The OA showed an attractiveness halo-effect. The effect was executed while judging people that are more attractive. Attractive people are assumed to be more competent and healthy persons and less hostile and untrustworthy and it is consistent with the mindset of the YA. On contrary, OA showed weaker halo effect  in comparison to YA for the impressions of health and competence of the younger faces while they have stronger effect for impressions of the health for the OA. The halo effect is also modulated by the cultural and age-wise preference. Thus, people place more values on the health of the similar peers and thereby explaining the halo-effect on age specific and culturally specific manner. However, in the domain of intelligence and trustworthiness a inversely proportional halo-effect relationship exists between the perception of the OA. However, in case of YA the people who are found to be more attractive and successful in achieving trust thus showing a directly proportional relationship.
The study conducted by Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014) however, has numerous limitations. One of the limitations of the study is its small sample size. Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014) screened 48 YA participants of which 23 were men and the average age group was 18 to 22. 48 participants were also selected from the OA of which 24 are men and the average age group is 65 to 85 years. According to Marshall et al. (2013), poor sample size hamper the generalization of the data. However, both the selected group of participants in the study was provided equal treatments. The only difference is, OA were screened with the help of Mini-Mental Health State Examination. None of the YAs were screened with this mental health state examination tool and thus might give rise to the generation of biased results. The images of the pictures, which were used as the critique, are of 69 YA between the age group of 25 to 39 years and 68 OA between the age group of the 60 and 74 years. It should be noted that Ya faces which are used to the scrutiny have higher age brackets in comparison to the respondents of the research of YA group. This difference in the age group is used in order to nullify the predicted own-age accentuation effect of “own-age verses other-age”. This can be highlighted as the strength of the study.
Social Theory Evolving Halo-Effect
In relations to the theories and the controversies related to halo-effect, Talamas, Mavor and Perrett (2016) stated that despite the old age saying do not judge a book by its cover, the facial cues are frequently used in order to guide the first impressions. As per the literature, facial cues guides towards assessing the level of health and intelligence. However, the majority of the roles are overshadowed by “attractiveness halo” where the desirable attributes are ascribed preferentially towards the attractive people. The influence of the attractive halo-effect over the perceptions of the overall academic performance under the classroom settings revealed that it has potential influence over the performance of the students. In relation to this theory, Talamas, Mavor and Perrett (2016) conducted a research in order to study the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo in the perceptions of the overall academic performance university students (n= 100). The findings suggested that there is a misleading effect of the attractiveness on the level of accuracy of the first impressions of competence and this might have potential consequences in several areas like education and hiring. There it can be said that social theory of halo-effect is guided by the concept that the persons who have good looking or an attractive face develops a perceptions upon the opposite persons that he or she is quite intelligent. The same have been highlighted in the study conducted by Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014). Malkinson et al. (2013) stated that the facial attractiveness might be associated with the level of actual intelligence. However, it is based on various other potential paths. These paths are mainly guided by the biological factors like the good genes, environmental factors like the impact of nutrition, influence of intelligence on the concept of grooming and in taking the healthcare decisions and self-fulfilling prophecy under which the individuals who looks visually appealing are expected to be smarter. They are also provided with greater opportunities in order to achieve higher positions in life. Thus, the social structure of the society mainly guides or assists the people who are visually appealing. The relationship between the facial attractiveness and intelligence is mainly guided by the bad gene hypothesis where attractiveness is used as a cue to intelligence. However, the study conducted by Mitchem et al. (2015) stated that the facial attractiveness has no direct relation with the concept of intelligence. Mitchem et al. (2015) proved their hypothesis by conducting their study over the genetically informative sample.
Future Research Prospects
The future research approach of the research that has evolved from the study of Zebrowitz and Franklin (2014) that has been critiqued in this paper is to examine mechanisms underlying the own-age accentuation along with the OA effects of positivity over the face stereotypes. One possible mechanism can be variation in the attention. The research conducted by Isaacowitz et al. (2008) based on eye tracking highlighted that OA showed higher level of attention towards more positively attractive faces and comparatively less attention towards the negatively valence faces. It can also be said that people showed greater level of attention towards the similar-age faces. Other associated process is variations in the differentiations. It is the degree to, which an individual perceive the level of variation among the faces. An individual’s ratings over the different traits or the quality appearance can highlight higher level of differentiation of own-age faces and thus OA might show higher differentiation towards the positively valenced faces and comparatively less level of differentiation towards the negatively valenced faces. In the future study, this can be analyzed with the help of an index, which was developed by Linville, Salovey and Fischer (1986). It would be applied in order to investigate the level to which an individual perceive the variations in other-race in comparison to the own-race faces.
Controversies surrounding the Halo-effect
The halo-effect has significant application over the hiring process. Yates, Hooley and Bagri (2017) stated that the companies, which places a premium over the hiring attractive people have their average revenues higher in-comparison to the other similar organizations which ho dot higher attractive employees. Yates, Hooley and Bagri (2017) are of the opinion that the public rewards business, which are guided by beautiful faces. This leads to hiring of the non-deserving candidates only on the basis of the looks and creating a sense of frustrations in the mind of the most promising and potential job seeker. Beautiful women have it better and at times get away with things, which the ordinary people cannot. Due to their good looks, they have an inherent capacity in influencing the mind and the thought process of the people and thereby helping to get their work done in ease and that too providing minimal effort. All these can be explained under the banner of the halo-effect. The concept of beauty or good looks holds prominent significance across both the gender. The good-looking individuals can fetch more smile, more admirers and better treatment.  However, these special treatments, which are exclusively reserved for the good-looking persons at times hampers the balance in the society. The good-looking people who are boastful for their looks, set up for them powerful expectations. They start expecting others to fawn and then expect things to be smoothly handed over to their silver plate. This over-confidence at times generates a sense of depression when they come across their success. Moreover, the individuals who are fawned for their beauty and love to take advantages, have fewer amounts of friends and at times suffer from loneliness (Mears, 2014).
Thus from the above discussion it can be concluded that halo-effect in social psychology holds prominent significance. Under the influence of the halo-effect, people tend to nurture a positive thought for n individual who is blessed with good looks, in spite of indulging into an active conversation with that individuals. These positive thoughts are mainly concentrated in the domain of intelligence, kindness and success in life. However, this theory is socially bias. The theory of halo-effect might create increase in the level of dis-satisfaction among the truly deserving candidates at the time of job-interview who only is rejected because of not having good looks in comparison to others. Future research will aim to highlight the underlying psychological basis of the halo-effect. This should be done in separate studies. One study with investigate the halo-effect from the perspective of OA and another study will reveal the perspective of the YA.
Cherry, K. (2016). What is the Halo effect. Psychology. Retrieved from:
Fung, H. H., Isaacowitz, D. M., Lu, A. Y., Wadlinger, H. A., Goren, D., & Wilson, H. R. (2008). Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: Older Chinese look away from positive stimuli. Psychology and Aging, 23(2), 440.
Heck, R. H., & Thomas, S. L. (2015). An introduction to multilevel modeling techniques: MLM and SEM approaches using Mplus. Routledge.
Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. E., & Liao, T. F. (2003). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods. Sage Publications.
Linville, P. W., Salovey, P., & Fischer, G. W. (1986). Stereotyping and perceived distributions of social characteristics: An application to ingroup-outgroup perception. In Portions of this chapter are based on a paper presented at the Conference on Social Cognition, Nags Head, North Carolina, May 1983.. Academic Press.
Malkinson, S., Waldrop, T. C., Gunsolley, J. C., Lanning, S. K., & Sabatini, R. (2013). The effect of esthetic crown lengthening on perceptions of a patient’s attractiveness, friendliness, trustworthiness, intelligence, and self?confidence. Journal of periodontology, 84(8), 1126-1133.
Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A., & Fontenot, R. (2013). Does sample size matter in qualitative research?: A review of qualitative interviews in IS research. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54(1), 11-22.
Mears, A. (2014). Aesthetic labor for the sociologies of work, gender, and beauty. Sociology Compass, 8(12), 1330-1343.
Mitchem, D. G., Zietsch, B. P., Wright, M. J., Martin, N. G., Hewitt, J. K., & Keller, M. C. (2015). No relationship between intelligence and facial attractiveness in a large, genetically informative sample. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(3), 240-247.
Talamas, S. N., Mavor, K. I., & Perrett, D. I. (2016). Blinded by beauty: Attractiveness bias and accurate perceptions of academic performance. PloS one, 11(2), e0148284.
Yates, J., Hooley, T., & Bagri, K. K. (2017). Good looks and good practice: the attitudes of career practitioners to attractiveness and appearance. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 45(5), 547-561.
Zebrowitz, L. A., & Franklin Jr, R. G. (2014). The attractiveness halo effect and the babyface stereotype in older and younger adults: similarities, own-age accentuation, and older adult positivity effects. Experimental aging research, 40(3), 375-393.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 10 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2021). PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology. Retrieved from

“PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology.” My Assignment Help, 2021,

My Assignment Help (2021) PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 19 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology’ (My Assignment Help, 2021) accessed 19 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. PSYCH 245 Introduction To Social Psychology [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 19 December 2021]. Available from:

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



Need assignment help in Canada? Get in touch with At, 3000+ PhD holder subject matter experts provide high-class assignment help to students in Toronto and other cities. If you are wondering, ‘who can do myassignment or write my assignment in Canada,’ you can definitely get in touch with us. We offer solutions for all types of assignments.

Latest Psychology Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

PHIL100 Introduction To Philosophy
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PHIL100
University: Macalester College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Case study
It is a matter of great pride for me that I am the best psychologist and a counselor in my town. To be able to access a psychologist cum counselor who has expertise and experience like me, one needs to travel 30 miles from the town. So, I am very respectable by people in the town. I get invitations to join as the chief guest for almost every humanitarian and social work related events that take place within the town I live….
United States Columbia Humanities Counseling and Sexual Orientation University of Columbia MBA 

PSYC101 Introductory Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC101
University: University Of New England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Happiness and Mobility
The choice of lifestyle and the environment in which a person dwells play a vital role in determination of one’s mental well being and happiness as well.  How and where we live has a great impact on the same.  However the association of city structure to physical health is finally getting the desired kind of attention.  The outline of the society and the neighbourhood impacts the health of a pe…

PSYC103 Introduction To Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC103
University: Northampton Community College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

The teratogen affects behavior problems among the offspring (Loomans et al., 2012). Prenatal and parental exposure of alcohol is found to generate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children (Ware et al., 2012). ADHD causes over activity, impulsivity and are unable to sustain attention under the stereotypic school settings (Getahun et al., 2013). It also causes poor self-esteemed, mood swings, dysthymia and…

PSYCH 1001 Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYCH1001
University: University Of The West Of England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Basically, severe deprivation points to acute, compounded or persistent economic hardship. Predominantly, acute economic hardship is characterized by living below the poverty life meaning there’s low supply of critical resources whereas compounded hardship implies disadvantages be they psychological, materially or socially. Mainly, persistent economic hardship implies a continuous disadvantageous condition. Persisten…

PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so f…
Australia Perth Management Mba dessertation University of Western Australia Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by

× WhatsApp Us