PSYC2300 Cognitive Psychology

PSYC2300 Cognitive Psychology

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PSYC2300 Cognitive Psychology

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PSYC2300 Cognitive Psychology

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Course Code: PSYC2300
University: The University Of Newcastle is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Purpose of this assignment: The purpose is to a) check your ability to find articles, b) evaluate your ability to select important information from an article, c) evaluate your ability to summarize research, and d) encourage application of research designs, issues, and questions.
Part I:
Articles for each group: (note: the articles listed below are NOT in APA style, you will need to consult your APA manual in order to write them correctly)

Authors: Brian Gendron, Kirk Williams, and Nancy Guerrab. Journal: Journal of School Violencec. Year: 2011d. Title: An Analysis of Bullying Among Students within Schools: Estimating the effects of individual normative Beliefs, self-Esteem, and School Climate

Part II:
Task: Work with your group members select two articles that Everyone in your group will use for Assignments 4 and 5 (i.e., Summaries 2 and 3). Most students communicate through their D2L group discussion board.

Remember, articles should be peer-reviewed, empirical, and published in a psychological- related journal within the last 10 years.
Most students start by posting the articles they identified in Assignment 2.
If a few of your group members are nonresponsive, continue on without them and select the articles with which the majority of your group appears to be in favor.


Gendron, B. P., Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2011). An analysis of bullying among   students within schools: Estimating the effects of individual normative beliefs, self-  esteem, and school climate. Journal of school violence, 10(2), 150-164.
An Analysis of Bullying among Students within Schools: Estimating the effects of individual normative Beliefs, self-Esteem, and School Climate
Purpose and Significance
This study explores the relationship between beliefs, social context, and school setting and bullying among students. The study also examined whether personal attributes related to violent behavior have adverse impact on the actual behavior relative to the school’s climate.
The survey was offered in Spanish or English as per the participant’s needs. Training assistants collected the data using wireless devices in schools. Before starting the survey, the assistants explained the study to the students and helped them log into the encrypted questionnaire.
Participants were a sample of 7,299 students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Female students were the majority of participants at 51%. The students who participated had the ages between 13-15 years.
Data collected from the participants were grouped within institutions. More so, evaluation was carried out using an ordinary least squares regression method.  
Harassment in schools was evaluated using an eight-item scale. The scale consisted of five items drawing out from physical harassment. The remaining three items were collected from verbal bullying. The eight items were linked to bullying by stating the frequency through which the action was and if the victim was singled-out or weaker. Under the T1 items, students were asked to check how frequent bullying has happened in the past year. Subsequently, in the T2 subset, they were to mark the frequency of occurrence since the start of the year. The items were totaled up and divided by eight to achieve the average score. The students were asked to state relative to how they felt when around other students. Normative beliefs related to bullying were estimated using the six-item index. Participants were asked to give their opinion about bullying. The students were asked to state to which degree they concurred with the statements about their school’s ecology.
It was found out that bullying is rampant among the youth between the ages of 12 and 13, with male students having a higher tendency of bullying than female students. The school climate has great significance in bullying (Waasdorp, Pas, O’Brennan, & Bradshaw, 2011). Self-esteem and status quo were related to bullying. Students indulged in bullying to prove themselves as superior and robust. On the other hand, students with low self-esteem or have poor social integration are highly victimized (Ang, Li, & Seah, 2017). Also, bullied students have been found to be physically weak. According to Swearer, and Hymel (2015) students who are physically weak are vulnerable to victimization. The perception of the school climate was vital about self-esteem and bullying. The attitude of self-confidence is dependent on the social perspective. The social beliefs had a significant effect on bullying. Students who viewed harassment as an approved habit were more likely to exhibit violent habits. More so, harassment is linked with other health behaviors such as sexual addiction (Hertz, Everett Jones, Barrios, David?Ferdon, & Holt, 2015)
The experiment was conducted only in nine communities, which constituted only 2%. Additionally, the results are based on the self-response. Therefore, the credibility and the accuracy of the response is not thoroughly convincing. More so, the perceptive on school climate was also based on individual opinion. Individual perception regarding the social setting about school climate and normalized understanding of bullying was essential in determining the bullying behavior.
The study should be more contextual and include more schools. Bullying is the relationship between the interactions between parties. Therefore, interpersonal interactions should be addressed since violence among students is not only personal but also inter-relational. The relationship between the youth and adults should be addressed to determine the relation between respect to adults and bullying.
Reflection of Experience
It took almost two hours to thoroughly read through the whole study while taking down short notes. After that, it took me close to an hour and a half to come with a summary draft, and another thirty minutes to type the edited script. The most challenging part of this task was understanding and interpreting the results I had to re-read the results section. The simplest parts were identifying the participants and the hypotheses.
Ang, R. P., Li, X., & Seah, S. L. (2017). The Role of Normative Beliefs About Aggression in the Relationship Between Empathy and Cyberbullying. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(8), 1138-1152.
Hertz, M. F., Everett Jones, S., Barrios, L., David?Ferdon, C., & Holt, M. (2015). Association between bullying victimization and health risk behaviors among high school students in the United States. Journal of school health, 85(12), 833-842.
Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward  a social-ecological diathesis-stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344.
Waasdorp, T. E., Pas, E. T., O’Brennan, L. M., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2011). A multilevel perspective on the climate of bullying: Discrepancies among students, school staff, and parents. Journal of school violence, 10(2), 115-132.

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