PSYC 462 Cultures In Contact

PSYC 462 Cultures In Contact

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PSYC 462 Cultures In Contact

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PSYC 462 Cultures In Contact

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Course Code: PSYC462
University: Victoria University Of Wellington is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: New Zealand


Drawing on your visit to the Marae and your own research, answer the following questions:
1. How does an indigenous approach to business differ from traditional approaches? Discuss those differences using examples.
2. What intercultural issues were evident to you on your Marae visit (e.g. language as a barrier, and cultural influence on perception)? Discuss these issues drawing on intercultural research.
3. What evidence did you see on your Marae visit of conflict between cultural approaches / ideas / patterns? Discuss these observations drawing on intercultural research.


An increasing number of business companies throughout the world are currently recognizing the importance of the indigenous tradition and the cultural values together with their approaches in the business. In New Zealand, the Maori culture is widely recognized as the indigenous group of people. The Maori communities throughout the New Zealand use the Marae as the focal point. The Marae is a complex, fenced all around consisting carved buildings and grounds. The iwi tribe is the owner of the place. The place is used as the Maori’s place to stand and belong (Hutchinson, 2014). In this report a discussion is made on a visit to the Marae and the way it differs from India. The difference between the indigenous approach to the business and traditional approach to the business together with the relevant intercultural issues and conflict among the cultural approaches is discussed in the assignment as per the observations from the visit to the Maori community.
Difference between an indigenous approach and traditional approach to business:
The traditional approaches are the common methods that were usually popular in the early stages of business. It limited the role of businessin several ways and it locks several possibilities as well. Starting from planning process till the outcome, the business is based only on profit making. A traditional business set their goals based on making profit and satisfying company needs. It targets for quantitative outcomes in future ignoring the real life situations. These kinds are suitable in the short term and in the conservative environment however it is important to realize the ways globalization has compelled business adapt new methods for growth and take up more responsibilities (von der Porten& de Loë, 2013).
Today, business all around have been taking responsibilities for various social aspects and one such approach of business is indigenous approach.
An indigenous business approach includes the outlining of the business policies, strategies, goals, targets and planning considering the aboriginals, Torres Strait islander people and other existing tribal people. The business along with their business operation takes steps to involve and support indigenous population. It provides rightful place and position to the indigenous entrepreneurs in the domestic and international economy. It makes them realize their ambitions and their value in the business. The indigenous approach includes a nation building approach as it has the potential for improving the nation as a whole without leaving social group lagging. India is country consisting approximately 700 tribal groups.
On the other hand, the tradition approach in the scenario of the Indian context to business encircles on the target over the perspective from the short term performance horizon, the explicit co-ordination and the approach involving communication and development of clear rules. The population owned by Indian indigenous people is second largest in world after Africa. It is important that these people are taken care by government, society and the corporate sectors. Due to large population in India, industries were often found taking lands from the indigenous people. From the perspective of business approach, the indigenous approaches differs a lot since it is based on the sustained interaction of the community people with the environment over the generation apart from the practices on the specific places that constitutes the tradition approaches to business in the Indian context. The business approach of the Indigenous group is connected to the environment and the nature as compared to the Indian approach.
Intercultural issues:
Maori culture is recognized as one of the indigenous culture in New Zealand. On visiting Marae, there were several mannerism that were encountered as well as few of the obstacle in the way of better cross-cultural understanding. Language has been one of the most prominent factor that often arose while making communication (Warter&Warter,2014). The expression and mannerism observed were often misread due to the cultural differences. Few of the traditional activities were hard to interpret such as the mandatory rule of taking shoes off before entering a Maori meeting house. While a Maori was performing a hakka on face, it was polite to keep an expressionless face. In order to ensure polite behavior a constant look on the speaker’s face was important. The things that was observed by the visit to the region was that Maori is one of the rich cultures. It is important to respect for the main building of the TE WHARENUI which is in shape of a human body displaying a specific ancestor of the tribe. The people of Maori also arrange formal welcoming to the people arriving in their complex. The Maori life also includes sleeping together on floor mattress in occasions. They Eat together, and learn together through debates and arguments (Lohmann, 2013).
The intercultural issues observed from the visit to the Maori community illustrated the two main factors of concern prevailing within the community. These are differing sets of the values of the culture among the white people of the New Zealand and the Maori targeting the issue of racism and the problems related to the legacy of the colonial imperialism in the particular alienation the Maori land.
Evidences of conflict between cultural approach, ideas, patterns.
As per the observations during the visit to the Maori community, some of the essential factors that was highlighted in the community includes the richness of the culture together with the cultural and traditional involvements of the community people towards the enrichment of their livelihood. Whie there has been far more linguistic and cultural diversity among the maori communities, it is evident that there lies certain of the cultural and the social conflicts among the people of the community. The context of racism, health issues, and the lack of primary education are some of the factors that were observed in the community. Furthermore it was evident how the Maori people are more inclined to the nature and worship the nature as their god which is a wide cultural difference among the other people and community of New Zealand(Smith, 2016). Therefore the chances are the culture values will not be respected by the businesses penetrating in the tribe. However, an indigenous approach of business may solve the issue. In India, more and more industries are considering the schedule tribes in order to help them understand the benefits the business will give them and their value in society (Bhagat, 2016). Business can have negotiating conflicts as there is language barrier in having appropriate communication. It is not only the language but also the different ways of negotiation that every culture follows while negotiating (Ting?Toomey, 2017). Hiring the people from different cultural backgrounds might lead to cultural conflict issues. It is important that companies emphasis on communication and leadership in order to avoid these conflicts. Business having multi-cultural aspects have several benefits such as different ideas, different perspectives which can result as an overall benefit of the business. One of the major factor for conflicts can be the advertising conflicts (Kastanakis&Voyer, 2014). While marketing it is important that companies be careful of not hurting any cultural sentiments. Advertising in foreign culture should be carefully reviewed specially from the perspective of the different cultures associated with it. The situation of Maori in New Zealand and the schedule tribes are similar in few circumstances and dissimilar in few situations. The issues faced by the tribes are similar to some extent such as invasion in territory, isolation from land and many more. The dissimilar situations would be the ways companies are cooperating and incorporating indigenous norms and values (Haar et al., 2014). It can thus be concluded that despite the continuous effort of the government of New Zealand towards the improvement of the level of discrimination and the relation among the community people with the non community one, the tension still lies beneath the surface regarding the persistent problem of the growing inequality in the Maori community. The high level of poverty, illness, abuse, incarceration are some of the present day evidences regarding the conflicts on cultural and ideological approaches that still suffers from the present day injustice.
The Marae is the place owned by the iwi tribe. The place is used as the Maori’s place to stand and belong. Due to growing globalization business have managed to reach in many places. Indigenous population are important to consider as they are equally important like any other culture. Appropriate approach is needed to be incorporated in order to have a socially inclusive society. The similarities and differences between Marae and India give idea regarding the situation of indigenous people. However with corporate social responsibilities business have introduced various ways not only to support them but also to involve them in the business models.
Bhagat, R. B. (2016). Internal migration in India: are the underclass more mobile?. In India Migrations Reader (pp. 132-150). Routledge India.
Haar, J. M., Russo, M., Suñe, A., &Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2014). Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 361-373.
Hutchinson, N. (2014). Notional transect across the Volcanic Plateau from Tukorehe scenic reserve to TeUrewa national park. Geography Bulletin, 46(2), 27.
Kastanakis, M. N., &Voyer, B. G. (2014). The effect of culture on perception and cognition: A conceptual framework. Journal of Business Research, 67(4), 425-433.
Kroth, S. (2013). Sing of the Land: M?ori Women in Performance. 2013 NCUR.
Lohmann, R. I. (2013). Sleeping among the Asabano: Surprises in Intimacy and Sociality at the Margins of Consciousness. In Sleep Around the World (pp. 21-44). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
Smith, W. (2016). As the Bard Turns. The American Scholar, 120.
Ting?Toomey, S. (2017). Identity negotiation theory. The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication, 1-6.
von der Porten, S., & de Loë, R. C. (2013). Collaborative approaches to governance for water and Indigenous peoples: A case study from British Columbia, Canada. Geoforum, 50, 149-160.
Warter, L. I. V. I. U., &Warter, I. U. L. I. A. N. (2014). Intercultural issues in mergers and acquisitions. Are cultural differences an asset or a liability. Bulletin of The Polytechnic Institute of Iasi, 60, 9-24.

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