PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

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PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

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PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

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Course Code: PSYC 384
University: Arium School Of Arts And Sciences is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Singapore

Discuss about the Effect of Imprisonment on Young Delinquents.

Progressively, research focuses to the negative impacts of detaining youth guilty parties, especially in adult detention centers. Research has demonstrated that detainment neglects to meet the formative and criminogenic needs of youth wrongdoers and is restricted in its capacity to give fitting restoration. Detainment regularly brings about negative behavioral and psychological well-being outcomes, incorporating continuous engagement in culpable practices. In spite of the fact that imprisonment of youth wrongdoers is seen as a vital methods security of the society, explore demonstrates that it is not a compelling alternative as far as either cost or result. The extreme behavioral issues of adolescent guilty parties are a consequence of intricate and intelligent individual and natural variables, which inspire and keep up culpable conduct. In this way, the concentration of successful treatment must be tending to such criminogenic needs and the various “frameworks” in which the youngster originates from. Current research shows that with a specific end goal to accomplish the best results for youth wrongdoers and the overall population, community based, socially supportive methods like group counseling and other  supportive methods should be used to treat the young offenders rather than imprisoning them.
Theories on Punishment      
There are two theories of Punishment, which generally exist, one is Utilitarian and another is Retributive(van der Geest, 2016). The utilitarian postulate of discipline tries to disdain guilty parties to dishearten, or “deflect,” future criminal activities. The retributive theory seeks to punish guilty parties since they require to be punished.
Under the utilitarian theory, rules should be made to keep the people happy. Utilitarians comprehend that a society free from crime is impossible to exist, but they choose to punish the criminals as it is needed to achieve discipline in the future of the society. The utilitarian postulate is consequential by nature(Lambie, 2013). It believes that discipline has results for both the criminals and society and holds that the total wellbeing delivered through the discipline ought to  pass beyond the aggregate malice. One outline of consequentialism in discipline is that a prisoner suffering from a deadly sickness. On the off chance that the prisoner’s is going to die really soon, society is not in any way benefitted by the person’s imprisonment  as he will never be again fit for carrying out any type of crime. Rehabilitation is another method followed in utilitarian theory(Baglivio, 2014.). Rehabilitation aims to improve the abilities of the offenders so that in future they can alleviate their social position and does not resort to a life of crime(Krohn, 2014.). The criminals suffering from drugs problem or from any mental illness are treated while staying in their period of rehabilitation, it also includes certain programs to develop certain skills in the detainees so that they can benefit from these skills in the later stages of their lives when they get out.
The other theory that existsis retributive; it counters the idea of utilitarianism. In this theory the criminals are punished because they deserve it, it emphasizes on the nature of the crime committed and punishes a person because he was involved in the wrongdoing, not for the betterment of the society(Taylor, 2013). According to retributive theory, human beings governs their own actions, thus unless the person is mentally incompetent he/she is responsible for their own actions and deserves to be punished if they disturb the balance of the society.
Theories on Imprisonment of Young Offenders
Imprisonment has profound effect on the young people who gets criminally charged. Two theories have been developed about how the young inmates are affected by imprisonment or incarceration. 
Irving Goffman, an American sociologist conducted a research on the experiences of the inmates inside a prison, his research focused on the difficulties and humiliation faced by the inmates. Gresham Sykes another sociologist describes in his work the levels of pain endured by the prison inmates(Martinez, 2013). These analyses have helped in developing modern theory of deprivation, it discusses the ways incarceration effects the lives of the prisoners in short term as well as in long term basis.
Sociologists developed another theory after analyzing the deprivation theory model and stated that the cultural ideologies, beliefs and social upbringing determines the behavior of the inmates in the prisons, this theory is known as the importation theory(Kinner, 2015). According to this theory, the feeling of deprivation does not influence the inmates but the pre acquired attributes of the person while he was in the society dominates his actions inside the prison.
The theories of importation as well as deprivation have been tested on the young offenders in prison. It has been seen that the juvenile offenders experience incarceration differently than the adults(Indig, 2016). The experience of imprisonment during the adolescent period can affect the individuals negatively and can lead to more serious consequences in the future.The youth goes through a lot of development or changes during this period of time so if they face such serious consequences it may lead to abnormal development.
The Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood
This study talks about the markers, which can be identified in individuals that indicates that they are attaining adulthood (Larson, 2016). It can include marriage, development of relationships with other individuals, having children or jobs, living alone. There is no certain sequence in the development of these markers. In this period of transition to adulthood, an individual experiences certain biological and psychological changes. A person attains adulthood once the individual has developed social skills, attains interpersonal relationships, can govern one’s own action without any supervision, and develops a unique identity.
Psychological Maturity and Crime
There are several links, which has been seen between criminal activities and in the transition of an individual. A person who does not feel responsible towards the society or the community as a whole is more likely to cause harm to the society. The social development of a individual relates with their community, schools, colleges, family and friends. Acts of delinquency is quite common inyouths, most of these acts remain hidden but some of them come into the attention of the justice system(Mears, 2014). The youths who get detained by law feel withdrawn from the society, family, friends and community along with the pressure of adjusting with the transition. The theories of importation and deprivation can help in analyzing the impact which imprisonment can have on the delinquents. Although the positive and negative effects of incarceration has not been proved but it is true that the young people experience a lot of problems after being incarcerated.
The Negative and Positive Effects of Juvenile Incarceration in Adult Courts
Positive Effects
Justice for Severe Crimes
While adolescents might be kids, they ought to be able to differentiate between right and wrong, particularly in extraordinary conditions. Victims and their families still deserve the feeling that justice has been served and the offender has been punished even if the person is an adolescent.
Justice System Focuses on Age than Crime
The courts meant for youth have a strong inclination to pay attention to the age of the delinquents as contradictory to the actual method and purpose used behind the committing the crime that they are held responsible for (Gonçalves, 2016.). A ten-year-old kid who displays no such regret for his crime that he committed would be given less of punishment anyway considering his age.
Mental Development Begins Much Earlier
Majority of the States see kids to be grown-ups when they attain 18 years. This age is not enough for the complete development of their character. In the event that they do not have the ethical morals ingrained in their character at that age, in this age they can be expected to commit more crimes
Adolescent Crime is Increasing
In the recent past there has been several records of numerous crimes committed by the young delinquents. This is a horrifying truth as it shows how the young people are avoiding the rules and regulations increasingly. (Scott, 2016. ). Quite a lot of the young criminals know about the existence of several loopholes in the youth justice laws and they use that information further to serve their own purpose.
Trial by Jury
A jury is absent in the courts meant for the young people, and the young people who have committed crimes do not go through a proper trial. The judges instead talk with a social worker or a mediator and decide what will be the best forms of punishments for the young criminals.
Negative Effects
High Risk for the Juvenile offenders
One of the serious issues of the juvenile delinquents is that they can be sent away to the prison meant for the seasoned criminals if they go for a trial in courts meant for adult offenders. This is severely detrimental, particularly because they are very young and do not have the mental composure of an adult. Majority of these young people do not have the sense of right and wrong and they are unable to deal with the situations they face in the prisons meant for the grown ups.
Message of Lost Hope
When the young people are punished by harsh methods then they feel hopeless and believe that they do not have any chances for having a bright future, they will only be marked as a criminal for the rest of their lives. This is alarming for the young individual and their families.
No Variety in Punishments
Judges in youth courts have the ability to impose curfews, imprisoning the delinquents in their own homes rather sending them to prisons (Parker, 2014.). In  adult courts the judges  have no such other alternatives and they have to sent the prisoners to jails.
Criminal Records Remain
Crimes which are in the juvenile records hold comparatively less weight on the future of the concerned individual than those records which they might have on their adult record(Holligan, 2015.). By sentencing the youths in adult courts, it is likely that the person’s adult criminal record will affect him/ her in future. This completely destroy their life and the records will haunt them throughout their entire lives.
In any case to conclude, the impacts of detainment demonstrates that possibly detaining adolescents isn’t the most ideal approach to teach them. It demonstrates to diminish teenagers’ inspirations to graduate and get a higher compensation while likewise leaving kids discouraged and getting comfortable with tensions.
Baglivio, M. E. (2014.). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders. Journal of Juvenile Justice., p.1.
Gonçalves, L. D. ( 2016.). Institutional infractions among young prisoners: a longitudinal study. . The Prison Journal., pp.462-484.
Holligan, C. ( 2015.). “The Cake and Custard is Good!” A Qualitative Study of Teenage Childrens’ Experience of being in Prison. Children & Society., pp.366-376.
Indig, D. F. (2016). Predictors and correlates of re-incarceration among Australian young people in custody. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology., pp.73-89.
Kinner, S. D. (2015). Substance use and risk of death in young offenders: a prospective data linkage study. Drug and alcohol review, , pp.46-50.
Krohn, M. L.-2. (2014.). Effects of official intervention on later offending in the Rochester Youth Development Study. Labeling theory: Empirical tests, pp.179-207.
Lambie, I. a. (2013). The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders. Clinical Psychology Review. Clinical Psychology Review, pp.448-459.
Larson, M. S. (2016). With or without you? Contextualizing the impact of romantic relationship breakup on crime among serious adolescent offenders. Journal of youth and adolescence., pp.54-72.
Martinez, D. a. (2013). Informal social support among returning young offenders: A metasynthesis of the literature. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology., pp.169-190.
Mears, D. C. (2014). The “true” juvenile offender: Age effects and juvenile court sanctioning. Criminology., pp.169-194.
Parker, A. M. ( 2014.). Sport in a youth prison: male young offenders’ experiences of a sporting intervention. . Journal of youth studies., pp.381-396.
Scott, E. B. ( 2016. ). Young Adulthood as a Transitional Legal Category: Science, Social Change, and Justice Policy. Fordham L. Rev., p.641.
Taylor, I. W. (2013). The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance. . London: Routledge.
van der Geest, V. B. (2016). The effects of incarceration on longitudinal trajectories of employment: a follow-up in high-risk youth from ages 23 to 32. Crime & Delinquency, pp.107-140.

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