PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

Free Samples

PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

0 Download7 Pages / 1,532 Words

Course Code: PSY002-1
University: University Of Bedfordshire is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Describe the theoretical underpinnings of self-affirmation theory in the context of self-enhancement. Include details of, empirical studies and reviews that have previously explored this theory. You can use both qualitative and quantitative research to form your rational for this study. End your introduction with a research question.
Research Question: Who self-affirms more on Twitter, celebrities or politicians?

The core idea of Self-affirmation theory is to keep the self-perceived idea of an individual intact. The individual feels threatened when a circumstance arises where his or her values of self-image is attacked. The theory offers a conceptual structure to understand the reason behind an individual’s feeling of resistance. The theory recommends certain strategies with the application of which one can supress this feeling and overcome it completely. The theory uses the method of self-reflection of one’s valued actions and attributes. The purpose of prior studies was to understand that whether social networking platforms such as Facebook and so on has a self-affirming value to it. The participants received a feedback based on their respective task. It was observed that the participants who remained in their own profile were more accretive of the feedback that they received. Therefore, there was a decreased possibility for interaction in ego-protective mechanism. For instance, criticising the task or the person-in-charge. The theory as well states that individuals are expected to revive their initial feelings of self-worth whenever a situation arises which would threaten his or her own self. Steele has implicated various sources from where the self-related threat may arise. Study one evaluates Facebook users self-affirming traits such as self-worth and self-integrity. Whereas study two interrogates the probable question of whether the Facebook users have the maximum amount of self-affirmation qualities by seeking ego repair mechanism. The results of study one shows that Facebook profiles represent the maximum supply of self-affirming qualities.
 Design – For this particular study, the usage of qualitative research is taken into account. The use of manifest context analysis is adopted. The information’s were taken from Twitter where we took 25 celebrities and 25 politician’s accounts for the purpose of study. Qualitative analysis is significant for this particular study since it brings out the underlying reasons, views and triggers that is responsible for the self-affirmative qualities in an individual. This particular design of study sheds light into the matter. It may even help to create a hypothesis for potential qualitative analysis.
Participants – For this specific study, 10 candidates took part among which four were females and six were male candidates. The participating candidates were either celebrities or politicians. The age of these candidates ranged from 24 to 70 years old. The analysis was based upon the tweets from these candidate’s Twitter accounts. The tweets generally consisted of videos and images.
Materials – The materials that was used for this specific study was a computer which was essential to collect and analyse the tweets from the internet. In addition to this, the code table was used for the purpose of identifying the various codes and identifying the various tweets of celebrities and politicians. These tweets were also analysed in order to understand the context and references of those tweets. The collection of data and results were achieved with the application of these codes and rules.
Procedure – In this qualitative research with the help of internet, the tweets of various celebrities and politicians were collected. Additionally, the code table helped me to identify to relate each tweet with their relevant codes. Each tweets from the candidates were compared. The tweets were spotted and then segregated with the help of this code table and the rules that came in with this research. The code as well as the rules provided me with the approach of to collect and get the results from it.
Results – The results were achieved from the tweets of celebrities and politicians only. The results were based on whether the tweets inclined towards negative or positive impact. The code table was used to determine what these tweets suggests. Depending on that, suggestions would be made for overcoming the resisting feeling.
The chart bar was used to show the comparisons between the tweets of celebrities and politicians. These tweets were further analysed in order to identify whether these tweets indicated a negative or a positive hint. The tweets of fifty celebrities were taken into account for the purpose of examination, among them twenty-five were celebrities and twenty-five were politicians. The code table was used to determine whether the tweets of celebrities were constant compared to tweets of the politicians. The distinguishing figures could be drawn out with the usage of chart bar shows. The final results showed that the tweets of the politicians were comparatively positive than the tweets of celebrities. This comparison was drawn out with the help of the chart bar. An example of these tweets were also provided. For instance, the tweet of politician Sadiq Khan was “when our city faces adversity, we stand up for our values and we stand together.” This tweet clearly hints a positive impact on others as the politician with his tweet talks about standing up against the adversity together. His ideology suggests of unity even though he recognises the matter that is happening at the moment. Whereas, in the contrary, the tweet of a celebrity such as Britney Spears – “Feels good to be at work”. This tweet may not hint directly into a negative feeling however, this might subtly hint towards negativity as she might not want to go to work however, is forcing herself to go to work.
            The Self-affirmation theory states that the individuals are bound to maintain a positive and stable self-image. However, from the above-adopted methodology it appears that the manipulation resulted in additional positive feelings and intentions of an individual.
            However, the other research findings suggests that the fundamental premise of individuals with high vanity could draw in positive self-resources as soon as they come face to face with threatening information, which attack their integrated self-image. The severity of impact as a result of the exposure to feedback brings out concerning thoughts of personal failure (Dodgson & Wood, 1998). The theory of Self-affirmation additionally states that it brings out a defensive response from individuals. However, the current studies examines the social media users move in influencing readers or viewers responses to an article, which consists identity-threatening data.
            The prior analysis shows that the individuals of self-affirmation have a decreased defensive process of a message instead have an additional in-depth process of a message. It is observed that people who tend to guard their egos have chances of converting into a positive aspect by applying self-affirming exercises. In addition to this, the analysis reveals that the social media users do create their profiles that have self-enhancing properties to it. It is noticed that individuals with self-affirmation characteristics have a concept in their mind that people are actuated to keep up their self-integrity (Cohen & Sherman, 2014). Depending upon the ideologies of Claude Steele the candidates in the study conducted were asked to spend at least five minutes examining their own profiles on Facebook. They were asked to examine from whichever section however, they were restricted to check someone else’s profile. This scenario suggests that self-affirmation progressively reduces the defensive process of health messages.
            Social media platforms have extensively affected the way that we communicate with each other. The previous analysis has generated a consistent evidence that self-affirmation decreases defensive process of defensive health messages (Sherman & Cohen, 2002). However, the potential moderators of the outcomes of self-affirmation that hinted towards negative reactions tend to draw in comparatively less attention. There are other studies on the topic of self-affirmation, which shows that individuals are at completely different levels of risks for health issues. The results of the findings suggest that self-affirmation theory appears to be a helpful structure for understanding the reason behind the tendency of individual to spend their time on social media platforms such Twitter, Facebook, and so on. The analysis from the data collected shows results that self-affirmations help the individuals to enhance their own positive instincts such as their own inner voice that encourages self-acceptance. Their belief ranges from self-confidence as they believe that they are smart individuals. The self-affirming individuals suggests that individuals self-integrity remain intact (Sherman & Cohen, 2006). Evidences from former studies suggests that self-affirmation has a positive impact on message acceptance and other factors which are related to behavioural change concerned to health (Epton  & Harris, 2008). It is also observed in many individuals that there is increased intensity of vulnerary which is relative to threatening messages (Klein, Harris, Ferrer & Zajac, 2011).

Klein, W. M., Harris, P. R., Ferrer, R. A., & Zajac, L. E. (2011). Feelings of vulnerability in response to threatening messages: Effects of self-affirmation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(6), 1237-1242.
Epton, T., & Harris, P. R. (2008). Self-affirmation promotes health behavior change. Health Psychology, 27(6), 746.
Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2006). The psychology of self?defense: Self?affirmation theory. Advances in experimental social psychology, 38, 183-242.
McQueen, A., & Klein, W. M. (2006). Experimental manipulations of self-affirmation: A systematic review. Self and Identity, 5(4), 289-354.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 7 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2020). PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis. Retrieved from

“PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis.” My Assignment Help, 2020,

My Assignment Help (2020) PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 19 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis’ (My Assignment Help, 2020) accessed 19 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. PSY0021 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 19 December 2021]. Available from:

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.


Password: is one of the noted service providers that deliver essay help. We provide tailored essay assistance to make sure that student gets online essay help exactly in the way they want it to be written. We at have built teams of consultants, who readily attend every query related to help me writing my essay. We provide essay writing help in forms of tips and steps in order o assist students with tough essay assignments.

Latest Psychology Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

PHIL100 Introduction To Philosophy
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PHIL100
University: Macalester College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Case study
It is a matter of great pride for me that I am the best psychologist and a counselor in my town. To be able to access a psychologist cum counselor who has expertise and experience like me, one needs to travel 30 miles from the town. So, I am very respectable by people in the town. I get invitations to join as the chief guest for almost every humanitarian and social work related events that take place within the town I live….
United States Columbia Humanities Counseling and Sexual Orientation University of Columbia MBA 

PSYC101 Introductory Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC101
University: University Of New England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Happiness and Mobility
The choice of lifestyle and the environment in which a person dwells play a vital role in determination of one’s mental well being and happiness as well.  How and where we live has a great impact on the same.  However the association of city structure to physical health is finally getting the desired kind of attention.  The outline of the society and the neighbourhood impacts the health of a pe…

PSYC103 Introduction To Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYC103
University: Northampton Community College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

The teratogen affects behavior problems among the offspring (Loomans et al., 2012). Prenatal and parental exposure of alcohol is found to generate Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children (Ware et al., 2012). ADHD causes over activity, impulsivity and are unable to sustain attention under the stereotypic school settings (Getahun et al., 2013). It also causes poor self-esteemed, mood swings, dysthymia and…

PSYCH 1001 Psychology
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSYCH1001
University: University Of The West Of England is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Basically, severe deprivation points to acute, compounded or persistent economic hardship. Predominantly, acute economic hardship is characterized by living below the poverty life meaning there’s low supply of critical resources whereas compounded hardship implies disadvantages be they psychological, materially or socially. Mainly, persistent economic hardship implies a continuous disadvantageous condition. Persisten…

PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PSY111
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Exercise 1
Task 1
In this case, it is clear that Heather is suffering from Social Phobia, which is a type of Anxiety Disorder.
Task 2
Social Phobia is commonly known as Social Anxiety Disorder. This disorder involves fear of certain situations that includes situations that are unfamiliar to them or any situation where an individual have the fear of being evaluated or watched by the external world. These circumstances may be so f…
Australia Perth Management Mba dessertation University of Western Australia Masters in Business Administration 


Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by

× WhatsApp Us