PSY002-1 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

PSY002-1 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

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PSY002-1 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

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PSY002-1 Introduction To Psychological Research Methods And Data Analysis

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Course Code: PSY002-1
University: University Of Bedfordshire is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

In this assignment you will be investigating the role of goal setting in the performance on a timed coordination task.   

You should provide an overview of goal setting theory with regards to motivation to complete both mental and physical tasks. What is goal setting theory? What role does goal setting have on the completion of physical or sports related goals? You should give examples of other relevant research experiments and studies in order to form an argument. Demonstrate with evidence from the literature.


Goal setting can be defined as a conscious methodology that aims at achieving the desired result. Goal setting can be incorporated in multiple degrees, the sincere aspiration to accomplish an aim whether it is for individual advantage, make people have better feeling (Burton, et al., 2013). There is always desire by the human being to do better whenever there is a challenge since it is the innate characteristic of everybody (Larsen & Engell, 2013). However, expectation, motivation, self-efficacy as well as enjoyment purposes often play an essential role on how these objectives are achieved. It is always significant for a goal setter to have a better understanding that implementing the wrong strategy when setting goals can make it difficult to accomplish the desired goals and the performance (Burdina,  Hiller  & Metz, 2017). Therefore, goals that are established should often be realistic and challenging but achievable. In case the goals that are set are unrealistic as well as challenging, then there will be a decline in motivation making performance failure inevitable. On the other hand, if the goals are too simple, then the motivation will fade thereby reducing the efforts making the performance to suffer (Ede, Sullivan and Feltz, 2017).
Method Section: Design
A self-determining measure of experimental strategy was used. The self-determining variables were categorized into two levels; goal-setting group given the normal score of the previous years and the control group who are instructed to give their best performance. Consequently, Dependent variable consisted of the performance from the Batak score that is attained within a timeline of 30 seconds.
A total of 99 first-year students who are pursuing psychology participated in the experiment. The recruitment of the participant was done through convenience sampling. A total of 14 males representing (14%) and 85 female representing (86%) participated in the research. Ages ranged from 17 to 55 years old, and the mean age was 24.32 SD=10.13). There was a random assignment of the participants into their corresponding group. From the research, a total of 52 contestants were placed in a control group while the remaining 47 were placed in a goal-setting group.
The Batak Machine was mainly used while the whiteboard representing the goal-setting objective to distinguished from the trial group. A Batak machine is described as a square container that measures roughly 600mm x 600mm. Additionally, the apparatus consists of 12 LED cluster buttons that are usually bright that are arranged in an elevated formation of hand motion and are controlled by a microcomputer that is advanced. Targets are often randomly lit up or through specific objectives (Woodman, et al., 2010). Usually, it is always used in aiding mobility as well as training, agility, reaction time and dexterity. A Batak Micro has two displays that are digital.

LCDs which consist of accumulator program generally known as (the counter)
LCDs are the time that is measured in second.

A cognizant agreement was acquired from the participants as well as the explanation of the withdrawal rights was channeled to each one of the 99 participants. Each participant was taken to the laboratory and requested to sit down while facing the Batak tool. The experimenter employed two scenarios; the participants who were under the control members were asked to try their best. In case they came from the experimental side, then the whiteboard was used.  The researcher then advertises the average scored achieved last 44 years within 30 sec. Participants were then asked by the experiment to set genuine targets basing their understanding on the earlier score. The mark set by participants was recorded below the achieved score of previous year with the primary aim of having visual as well as marked goal target. As soon as the participants start to face Batak machine, timer was initiated and fixed for 30 sec. of all the 12 lights, one will begin to light up unsystematically while the next only lights up if the contestant pushed the button for light up. The participants aimed to smash and ignited up button as many times as probable in the time frame of 30 seconds. Once the exercise was complete, there was note down of the score and comparison to the previous year results done. Finally, the participants were questioned concerning the nature of the research, informed the group they were in as well as the expectation of the researcher’s hypothesis.
Goal Setting Theory
Edwin Locke in 1960 defines goal setting theory as the willingness of the people to work with the aim of achieving a particular objective (Gaudreau, & Braaten, 2016). The theory claims that goal setting is mainly associated with task performance. According to goal setting theory by Edwin, specific as well as challenging goals together with proper feedback contribute to higher and better duty performance (Krenn,  Würth,  & Hergovich, 2013). The underlying hypothesis concerning goal setting philosophy is that job enactment is directly controlled by the conscious goal that people are trying to undertake in a task. The theory holds that a hard goal leads to a better level of performance as compared to an easy target (Locke, & Latham, 2013). Moreover, the theory claims that individual goal dictates how performance is generally affected by time limits, monetary incentives, knowledge degree of commitments as well as competition (Latham, Brcic & Steinhauer, 2017).  
Result Section
The t-test independent model was used to assess the variances between the two groups. From the test, mean score for the control group was found to be 43.85 representing an (Standard deviation of 5.96 while the mean score for goal setting group represented 44.23 equivalent to Standard deviation =6.52. Therefore, t-test indicated that the outcomes found were less important, t (97) = -.31 p = .38. The outcomes suggest that between the two groups, there was little variance regarding improvement over the trial. Nevertheless, there was clear evidence that a relationship between physical activation, physical strength as well as performance level existed (Smith, 2016). An individual who achieved higher levels of “hit and lit up button” within the 30 second was said to have scored more in the test. They were said to have more physical strength/activation. Therefore, the trend suggests that Batak task performance often approaches prime when the actor is mentally as well as physically motivated and up for the task. Consequently, this means that performing in various states of readiness on the Batak system can offer assessable means of measuring an optimal level of a psychological sportsperson physical activation for a particular reaction task (Larsen,  & Engell, 2013). There is hope that there will be a continuation of study in this area so that more ideas are explored.
The pattern of the result is illustrated in the figure below.
Goal setting is one of the debated topics with regards to psychological sport, exercise environment as well as within the organization settings (Vidic & Burton, 2010).  There has been an adaptation of various concepts with the goal of understanding as well as explaining different ways of measuring goal setting thereby improving people in exercise setting and sports psychology (Sari, 2015). There has been overwhelming empirical evidence, nevertheless, going by the majority of the sport related-academic articles, an investigation that is carried out concerning goal setting is mainly applied to individuals or group of people whereby there is an eminent desire in that discipline.
Wack, Crosland, and Miltenberger, (2014) carried research of participants with the aim of improving their running distance. Initially, the participant showed interest to improve their running. The three researchers established weekly goals for the participants in addition to monitory as well as giving weekly feedback.  The study was carried out to develop a baseline of the participant in that they would take part in running for two weeks and the feedback not being given to the runners. After participating for two weeks, the researcher would increase the target in cases the runners achieved their goals and feedback given to them previously. After the test, the result of the research indicated tremendous improvement in the running distance after recording the feedbacks.
Latham et al., (2017) researched goal setting with the objective of setting goals without the consent of the participants to enable them to explore the relationships that exist between goal setting and ways in which unconscious mind of the participants reacts to stimuli thus altering the behavior of the participants. The contestants were grouped into three categories, those lifting 400, 200 as well as 20 pounds and corresponding photograph shown for each group. The contestants were asked to push hard on the digital weighing scale. According to the result that the researcher got from the competition, it matches the hypothesis that the contestants with the 400 pound pushed the scale firmer as compared to other members. Additionally, contestants with 200-pound pressed a little harder as compared to the one with 20 pounds. Therefore, the research goes in line with goal setting theory which argues that higher expected goal often results in a higher expected performance (Seitchik, & Harkins, 2014).
Going by the numerous and overwhelming observed evidence that has been demonstrated by various studies and investigators concerning different approaches to goal setting, it is thus declared that the overall hypothesis concerning goal setting set against goals setting is accepted. However, it is worth noting that goal setting work best when it is task-specific whereby the target is being assumed in line with the ability of someone. Additionally, taking consideration of individual motivation as well as the requirement for the challenge that lines head and addressing them correctly.
In future if
Previously, various methodological challenges that have affected goal setting research mainly in the sport, as well as exercise, have been comprehensively discussed (van de Pol, & Kavussanu, 2011). Going by some of the shortcomings and various variable that are impacting on the importance of goal setting, sports psychology can take multiple different directions to help clarify as well as extending the already existing literature. Course concerning future research will be debated with the aim that a true foundation can be generated regarding the effectiveness of goal setting in sports psychology as well exercise environment.
Burdina, M., Hiller, R. S., & Metz, N. E. (2017). Goal Attainability and Performance: Evidence from Boston Marathon Qualifying Standards. Journal of Economic Psychology , 58, 77-88.
Burton, D., Gillham, A., Weinberg, R., Yukelson, D., & Weigand, ;D. (2013). Goal setting styles: Examining the role of personality factors on the goal practices of prospective Olympic athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 36(1), 23.
Ede, A., Sullivan, P. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2017). Self-doubt: Uncertainty as a motivating factor on effort in an exercise endurance task. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 28, 31-36.
Gaudreau, P., & Braaten, A. (2016). Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?. Psychologica Belgica, 56(3).
Krenn, B., Würth, S., & Hergovich, A. (2013). The impact of feedback on goal setting and task performance. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 21, 46-184
Larsen, C. H., & Engell, C. (2013). The art of goal setting: A tale of doing sport psychology in professional football. Sport Science Review, 22(1-2), 49-76.
Latham, G. P., Brcic, J., & Steinhauer, A. (2017). Toward an Integration of Goal Setting Theory and the Automaticity Model. Applied Psychology, 66(1), 25-48
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (Eds.). (2013). New developments in goal setting and task performance. Routledge.15 (2), 441-492
Sari, I. (2015). Does goal orientation matter for trait anxiety, self-efficacy and performance? An investigation in university athletes. Education, 136(2), 169-178.
Seitchik, A. E., & Harkins, S. G. (2014). The effects of nonconscious and conscious goals on performance. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36(2), 99-110.
Smith, A. L. (2016). Coach Behaviors and Goal Motives as Predictors of Attainment and Well-Being in Sport. Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: From Theory to Practice, 415.
van de Pol, P. K., & Kavussanu, M. (2011). Achievement goals and motivational responses in tennis: Does the context matter?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(2), 176-183.
Vidic, Z., & Burton, D. (2010). The roadmap: Examining the impact of a systematic goal-setting program for collegiate women’s tennis players. The sport psychologist, 24(4), 427-447.
Wack, S. R., Crosland, K. A., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2014). Using goal setting and feedback to increase weekly running distance. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 47(1), 181-185
Woodman, T., Zourbanos, N., Hardy, L., Beattie, S., & McQuillan, A. (2010). Do performance strategies moderate the relationship between personality and training behaviors? An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(2), 183-197

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