PS 3026 Social Psychology

PS 3026 Social Psychology

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PS 3026 Social Psychology

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PS 3026 Social Psychology

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Course Code: PS3026
University: American College Of Greece is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Greece

Evaluate and discuss how the role of culture has shaped the various areas of social psychological study in the 21st century.

The twenty-first century has encountered several trends and changes in terms of multiculturalism through urbanization which has shaped the various areas of sociopsychology studies across the globe. For instance, humanities help us develop a sense of the present world complexities and formulate the basis of equality and social justice. Humanities based on multiculturalism and sociopsychology help us to observe various factors in relation to cultural dynamics in a creative thinking, critically, develop a strong moral sense, understand the complexity and depth of various histories, document the current with thoroughgoing objectivity, as well as striving for a well civilized, peaceful, and harmonious living environment. The aspect of social psychological studies relating to critical, analytical, as well as communicative skills have proved to be of instrumental use when rooted to cultural practices in this era of diversity that is full of global flow of culture, cities, and globalization, culture of capitalism, new communities, media and technological advancements, post-colonialism, neo-liberalization, publics and identities.
Humanities in the 21st Century
Sociopsychology goes to the extent of analyzing the way people from various dimensions have tried to make intellectual, moral, and spiritual sense of the world, it edifies us the tools and roadmap of understanding the nature with fellow feeling and responsiveness. Learning sociopsychology in the context of cultural influence and diversity also teaches us to apply logic and critical analysis when it comes to the issues to do with the subjective, imperfect, and complex information (Primc & ?ater, 2016). In this case, the 21st century has encountered complexity in communication industry with diversified communication platforms in social media such as Facebook, Google accounts, WhatsApp, Instagram, YouTube channels, radio stations, televisions, newspapers; just to mention a few. All these channels play role in social psychological studies in creating a platform for socialization and integration despite our various differences and cultural diversities. Therefore, social psychological studies enable an individual to develop a kind of flexible, independent and logical thinking in evaluating facts, making informed judgments or detecting hidden agendas and this is summed up by the ability to present their ideas in a creative manner.
Social sciences play a central starring role in building a comprehensive and open cultural world with diversity in a modern-day thinking as well as gathering efforts geared towards embracing a spectrum of humanities in understanding and advancing the society. It shows the need and urge of being conversant with both the ancient and modern in innovating, integrating, and making the difference in the center of multiculturalism in this twenty-first century (Spring, 2016). Based on this aspects, technological advancements and urbanization play a central role in the shaping of the various areas of social psychological studies across the world. Therefore, based on cultural aspects, history, literature, technology, philosophy, and foreign languages need to be taken into considerations as they too have a magnitude of impact in multiculturalism and social psychology.
Multiculturalism (Multicultural Society: ethnic, gender, and racial tensions)
Immigration including internal relocation has been key elements of multiculturalism in the United States. Culture is said to vary from one group to another and equally evolve with time. Native Americans are said to suffer and tortured during the nineteenth and part of early twentieth centuries through social injustices and enforced legal systems (Ruesch, Bateson, Pinsker & Combs, 2017). One of the most leading results of culturally-based physical patterns especially within American urban areas has been the imbalanced distribution of resources which has contributed to poverty and segregation based on economic capabilities.
The increased socioeconomic and cultural diversity among the American societies, some of the contemporary immigrants are found to settle in ethnic groups within a specific region. Some get to create places of settlement quite different from that of their European predecessors. The amalgamation of these various groups especially in the cities has led to the enlargement of multiculturalism, leading to both theoretical and practical issues associated with assimilation and non-assimilation processes and life patterns (Weiten, Dunn & Hammer, 2014). Racism is one of the most avoided topics of discussion to the present day. On contrary, for the Americans, the race is currently associated with domination which is significant as the country has made it significant to all levels including employment and political participation.
   However, the government since the end of the Civil War has laid institutions to strengthen integration in creating a society that embraces unity despite cultural and other interpersonal differences including achieving equity in resources and employment. The US has a long history of racial classification that goes beyond the Black-White schematics. Regardless of the wars and discrimination against native cultures of Indiana, it was slavery which played a role in the Civil War and consequently refined the American society to focus on a person’s skin color (Kato & Kanba, 2016). Preceding the Civil War, there was no doubt of the Whites prejudicing Blacks as it manifested in post-Civil War activities and accompanied by Social Darwinism. Racialism has since then penetrated the scientific dominions leading to a communal endorsement of beliefs and practices of the human population.
Racially-motivated policies and structures including anti-miscegenation regulations, associated with criticism of darker races have been avoided to promote a multicultural society beyond skin color. Segregation was indeed practiced back in the 19th and 20th centuries that propagated racial conflicts among the Americans (Greene, 2017). For instance, Jim Crow Laws are among those institutional mechanisms imposed on people and stirred up segregation between the White and Non-White communities nationwide (Caiazza & Dauber, 2015). During the Civic Era, racial issues got incorporated into scholars’ curriculum in high schools, making Americans conscious of racial and discrimination issues. Up to date, the Americans are indeed satisfied with the explanation and generalization concerning equitable differences as said that all cultures are not equal.
Personality and Social Psychological Conception of Collective Identity
This aspect in regard to cultural influence on various aspects of social psychological studies in the twenty-first century, the conceptual framework is basically applied in providing unique features of national or societal collectivity and as a source of identity. It pertains to the beliefs of collective identity that symbolizes and signifies categorization and recognition of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive consequences in a given group (James & Prout, 2015). This is a shared awareness among the constituents of that particular society as being unified members of that group.
Socio-psychological Determinants of Public Acceptance of Technologies and Culture
Historically, it has been found that technologies have always been associated with cultural and societal controversies and this has led to their rejection and acceptance from the public (Heugh, 2015). Therefore, some of the key social psychological determinants of public acceptance of various technological trends include factors such as trust, the risk associated, knowledge, attitude, perceived benefits, as well as individual benefits on these technological trends experienced in the twenty-first century (Cote & Levine, 2014). Based on diversity and multiculturalism, different cultural contexts across the world have a different perception of such trends which determines public acceptance and its implications to the society.
Technological advancements in the current century have continued to be part and parcel of the course of the evolving civilization. The search for knowledge as well as scientific enquires has driven the humanity and human nature to explore advancements in the scientific world as well as applying them to settle the human needs and requirements. It is the application of technology with the capacity needed to transform societies by creating and manipulating physical, and cultural forms within the environment (Cenoz & Gorter, 2015). Thus, the social science studies on cultural and technological exploration have included various perspectives drawn from a multiple of disciplines which include sociology, economics, as well as political science.
Ethno-cultural diversity has fuelled intergroup relationship drawing from different ideologies and models such as multiculturalism to different things such as political philosophy, demographic composition or other expectations regarding group identities as well as cultural pluralism.
Culture and Multiculturalism
Scholars claim that multiculturalism to have played role in promoting equal opportunities, changes, and mutual cultural diversity (Hartmann, 2015). Also, multiculturalism has been said to support the interests by both the minority and majority and promoting their uniqueness as well as their participation in the mainstream of the societal activities (Karkhanis & Winsler, 2016). Thus, multiculturalism tends to have supported and maintain cultural heritage. Different methodological-theoretical traditions can as well be used to answer various research questions such as the attitude climate within a given population and the cognitive oriented social psychological interactions.
Diversity is considered a necessary and desirable tool for the development of positive intergroup relations, and ethnic identities and also challenged for being a threat to social cohesion.
Cultural diversity and identity examine immigration including its effect on social diversity from psycho-social perspectives. Immigration increases multiculturalism and breaks the gap of belonging, adaptation, and unity within societies. Cultural diversity can enrich societies and communities to new trends of social cohesion and ideological exchange as well as political dynamics (King & Chetty, 2014). Thus, social psychology can equally play an important role in solving and resolving intergroup conflicts as well as helping the society to harmonize within a multicultural environment. Immigration should, therefore, be looked from a cultural-rich perspective between intergroup in new environments instead of discrimination and drawing differences. This is important since the current society involve quite a number of migration of people from one point to another for various reasons which include the search for employment, natural calamities, education, diplomatic reasons, sports, business, just to mention but a few.
Religion and Culture
Religion in the United States is chiefly a tale of popular movements influenced and conflicted with modern ideas, external intrusion, multiculturalism, and other non-American practices. The history concerning Christianity in America has been the lively and fascinating story. The respect for human rights and an interpersonal relationship is of great importance for peaceful coexistence, among individuals and nations (LeVine, 2018). However, with the current situation and political manipulations, the peaceful coexistence and social harmony are likely to interfere unlike the case experienced in the nineteenth century. For instance, Trump’s comments on immigration are to be expected to cause tension on immigrants as well as the United States’ relationship with other countries. Nevertheless, some of the sobering questions in the minds of many Americans is if immigrants did not embrace American culture and lifestyle will it likely to pose a threat to democracy? It was feared in the nineteenth-century experience that loyalties, beliefs, and customs different from American lifestyle and perspectives could have caused a detrimental effect on multicultural coexistence.
Nonetheless, from the immigration experienced in the nineteenth century about Christianity in the United States, we should acknowledge the importance of multicultural existence (Banks, 2015). Similarly, in the present world, American society should be accommodative if human rights and religious freedom of worship are observed. In promoting peaceful coexistence among the Americans and the immigrants’ cultural aptitude in multicultural setting should uphold with morals and spiritual awareness. Multiculturalism guidelines provide fairer requirements of integration, and it is compatible with the unity of immigrants with the Natives. Positive accommodation and recognition are required that promotes multiculturalism including the marginalized groups.
Gender Rights based on Cultural Aspects
In relating to the social indicators and the overall conventional statistics on the Arabic region, there is an indication revealing that the women are significantly disadvantaged both politically, socially, and economically compared with women from the other areas with similar economic stages on development or same levels of income such as Latin America. It is significantly reported that the majority of men in the Arabic States disagree with the opinion on gender equality despite the global trend on civilization and the rule of justice. Thus, women suffrage under the influence of male dominance (Western, 2018). Some of the Egyptian men interviewed on the women and gender roles agreed that in some situations a woman deserves to be beaten up. Such stereotypical and dehumanizing judgments are some of the apparent picture depicting how the Middle East women are being oppressed. It is in against the women’s rights and gender equality. Nevertheless, the issue of gender inequality as viewed from a broader perspective on the global arena has been of concern, particularly in the more recent years.
Consequently, the woman suffrage in most of these Muslim countries includes sexual abuse and violence against women particularly in Saudi Arabia. The male dominance and injustices against women propelled by gender inequalities prevent both girls and women from the full effort on the realization of their rights to equality and reproductive health. Gender inequality is a bit wider perception regarding the idea of the labor market, reproductive health, and women empowerment. Thus, workforce participation is also used to account inference on the extent of gender inequity among the Muslim country states. In the nineteenth century, the establishment of colonial powers in the Muslim land promoted the political role of women as they narrated the Western narrative of Islam (Thibaut, 2017). Also, the United Nation’s role in incorporating the rights of women and LGBT into its agenda in recent years from bias and discrimination has dramatically contributed to the gender civil liberties and transformation.
Changes in Organizational Culture
In the 21st century and cultural diversity, changes have considerably and globally become an integral and inherent part of organizational life. Information sharing, and interpersonal communication cut across multiple cultures and multiple languages both locally and internationally (Weber, 2017). Organizational management is a comprehensive process primarily aimed at the planning and implementation of desired changes within an organization in a way that minimizes both expenses as well as employee resistance (Sorokin, 2017). Therefore, as entrepreneurs or managerial personnel, understanding the phase concerning their organizational life cycle is paramount in exploring and dealing with trends in organizational leadership and change. Understanding and appreciating change are fundamental in fulfilling the aimed target efficiently. It is indisputable that change is inevitable based on time and other challenges regarding organizational life.
Changes that have/are Occurring in Organizational Life
Social and Interactivity Competence
Interaction is vital for communication. Proper communication channels always facilitate efficient results in any organization. For groups to work cohesively in order to achieve a vision while each playing its part social interaction must be done competently. The organization has however not embraced any of these due to the conflicts between workers and managers in different organizations. These places of work should ensure that they are common grounds for development and not workplace wrangles.
Also, current trends in the workplace include technological competence and competition pressures. Subsequently, organizational life tends to follow some features like job security, reliability, focused on customer perspectives, strategic-oriented on competition breakthroughs, and less in long life careers and hierarchical structure (Heer, 2018). Socialism and interactive competence are useful in building teamwork.
Different Ways of Thinking
There should be important sectors from each organization that identify inventions and innovations that can progress the organization to the next level. It would assist in being ahead of the market and upholding customer satisfaction to current and potential customers. New ideas revolutionize any industry. Offering support to such ideas that are habitats for greater achievements lays foundation for rapid growth of the organization.  
Educational Trends
Multiculturalism and increasing urbanization have really impacted the education sector. It is increasingly understood that the language of instruction at the start of a child’s education is decisive for his or her future learning using the second language (Hartmann, 2015). In this century and in line with technological advancement, inclusive education in multicultural and linguistic diversity is affected by one’s native language and the form of teaching framework employed in a classroom setup. Many cultural-based groups and organizations in various countries have been put in place within and beyond cultural perspectives and they are concerned with children’s rights, early education, and linguistic diversity globally (Smith, 2015). A comprehensive international agreement concerning the reputation of bilingual teaching in the education system is reflected in agreements and recommendations aimed at providing a healthy learning environment for children from diverse multicultural and multilingual backgrounds. The United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights also affirms that children are entrusted with rights to the education free from discrimination.  
In conclusion, some of the fundamental social psychological determining factors of public acceptance of various cultural-associated trends include factors such as trust, the risk associated, knowledge, assertiveness, perceived welfares, as well as individual benefits on these technological trends experienced in the twenty-first century. Social psychological studies have shown the evolution of society in the 21st century with ethical implications on social and cultural issues. Thus, based on diversity and multiculturalism, different cultural contexts across the world have a different perception of such trends which determines public acceptance and its implications to the society. This makes psychosocial perspectives a rather difficult decision for many people, especially the millennials who are more familiarized with the current contemporary society. Amid the strong inter-relations between culture and psychosocial effects, it is possible to adopt different adept skills, that will impart one with the right skills to effectively survive in the current contemporary society without necessarily going against one’s culture, and having to succumb to various psychosocial effects.
Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge Publishers. London
Caiazza, R., & Dauber, D. (2015). Research on M&As–time for consolidation. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(5).
Cote, J. E., & Levine, C. G. (2014). Identity, formation, agency, and culture: A social psychological synthesis. Psychology Press.Busch, B. (2014). Building on heteroglossia and heterogeneity: The experience of a multilingual classroom. In Heteroglossia as practice and pedagogy (pp. 21-40). Springer, Dordrecht.
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (Eds.). (2015). Multilingual education. Cambridge University Press.
Greene, R. R. (2017). Human Behavior Theory and Professional Social Work Practice. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (pp. 31-62). Routledge.
Hartmann, D. (2015). Reflections on race, diversity, and the crossroads of multiculturalism. The Sociological Quarterly, 56(4), 623-639.
Heer, D. (2018). Immigration in America’s future: Social science findings and the policy debate. Routledge.
Heugh, K. (2015). Epistemologies in multilingual education: Translanguaging and genre–companions in conversation with policy and practice. Language and Education, 29(3), 280-285.
James, A., & Prout, A. (2015). A new paradigm for the sociology of childhood: Provenance, promise and problems. In Constructing and reconstructing childhood (pp. 6-28). Routledge.
Kato, T. A., & Kanba, S. (2016). Boundless syndromes in modern society: An interconnected world producing novel psychopathology in the 21st century. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 70(1), 1-2.
Karkhanis, D. G., & Winsler, A. (2016). Temperament, gender, and cultural differences in maternal emotion socialization of anxiety, somatization, and anger. Psychological Studies, 61(3), 137-158.
King, J. R., & Chetty, R. (2014). Codeswitching: Linguistic and literacy understanding of teaching dilemmas in multilingual classrooms. Linguistics and Education, 25, 40-50.
LeVine, R. A. (2018). Culture, behavior, and personality: An introduction to the comparative study of psychosocial adaptation. Routledge.
Primc, K., & ?ater, T. (2016). The influence of organizational life cycle on environmental proactivity and competitive advantage: A dynamic capabilities view. Organization & Environment, 29(2), 212-230.
Ruesch, J., Bateson, G., Pinsker, E. C., & Combs, G. (2017). Communication: The social matrix of psychiatry. Routledge.
Spring, J. (2016). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality: A brief history of the education of dominated cultures in the United States. Routledge.
Sorokin, P. (2017). Social and cultural dynamics: A study of change in major systems of art, truth, ethics, law and social relationships. Routledge.
Smith, M. K. (2015). Issues in cultural tourism studies. Routledge Publishers. London
Thibaut, J. W. (2017). The social psychology of groups. Routledge Publishers. London
Weiten, W., Dunn, D. S., & Hammer, E. Y. (2014). Psychology applied to modern life: Adjustment in the 21st century. Cengage Learning.
Weber, M. (2017). Methodology of social sciences. Routledge Publishers. London
Western, D. (2018). Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. Routledge Publishers. London

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