Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

I posted all the information bellow answer the homework in one and a half page

Homework 5

Answer the question below in a short paragraph. (You may use this document.)


In our section on Cognitive Development, we first discussed Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and then we discussed several other theories about to cognitive development. Pick one of these other theories (Vygotsky and friends, over-lapping waves, dynamic systems, etc.), and discuss what that theory helped to explain beyond what Piaget’s theory talks about—what new perspective or information did the theory you picked add to our understanding of cognitive development? (Example: Vygotsky emphasized social contributions to cognitive development.)
• Name the theory and describe it briefly
• Describe the perspective/information on cognitive development it adds (relative to Piaget)
• Give a short example to illustrate Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay


This essay will discuss how play therapy improves the cognitive and social functions of young children. A brief review of child development theories and how these underpin play therapy will be done. A critical analysis of published literature on play therapy and its impact on child development will then be presented. Finally, a conclusion summarising the key points raised in this essay will be presented.

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Child Development Theories and Play Therapy
Piaget’s theory proposes that cognitive development of children occurs in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages (Nevid, 2008). Piaget observes that very young children engage in general patterns of behaviour once they are at play. These include being fascinated with objects, covering objects, filling or emptying containers, transporting objects and connecting them together. Crowley (2014) explains that these behaviours are known as schemas. As children assimilate new experiences and accommodate learning, these schemas will help them to make sense of the world around them (Crowley, 2014). Hence, allowing children to play and explore will help them develop a schema of their environment (Keenan and Evans, 2009). Piaget’s theory helps to underpin play therapy since it acknowledges that play will help children to construct knowledge and develop cognitive abilities. For instance, in the sensorimotor stage, providing children with a treasure basket will expose very young children to a wealth of sensory stimuli (Shaffer and Kipp, 2009). In turn, this will promote cognitive development as children become acquainted with different sounds, shape, colour, taste and texture of toys. Children, according to Piaget, develop through assimilation or through using an existing schema to make sense of a new situation or object (Shaffer and Kipp, 209). This is then followed by accommodation when existing schema has to be changed in order to deal with a new situation. As children continue to develop, new information is quickly assimilated based on existing schema. Piaget explained that equilibrium is reached when children learn to deal with new information through assimilation. Meanwhile, Vygotsky’s theory proposes that social interaction is crucial in the cognitive development of children (Shaffer and Kipp, 2009). He suggests that social, linguistic and interpersonal factors all play a role in the mental development of children. In this theory, social interaction during play is critical in developing cognitive learning. It has been shown that during play, social skills are developed along with skills on problem solving (Keenan and Evans, 2009).Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Critical Review of Play Therapy
Play has long been recognised as crucial in the healthy development of children (Ray, 2011). However, it was only in the 1900s when therapeutic settings began using play as a means for young children to express their emotions and feelings. Early proponents of play therapy include Melanie Klein and Anna Freud (Ray, 2011). They used play to help analyse childrens’ behaviour, feelings and responses to events or situations. Both early scholars used play to help children communicate non-verbally. Today, child-centred play therapy is widely accepted as a means of helping children resolve or prevent psychological and social difficulties and in helping them to achieve optimal development (Keenan and Evans, 2009). A meta-analysis (Bratton et al., 2005) on the efficacy of play therapy reviewed and pooled data from 94 studies that investigated play therapy outcomes. Forty-two of these studies were published in peer-reviewed journals while 50 were unpublished dissertations. Two of the articles were from the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. Studies included in the meta-analysis utilised the comparison or control-group design or pre and post-treatment measures. Treatment effect was calculated after pooling data from these studies.

Findings of the study reveal that the effect of play therapy on different treatment outcomes ranges from 0.66 to 0.84. According to Cohen’s guideline for interpretation of treatment effect, a value of 0.80 suggests a large treatment effect (Ellis, 2010). This suggests that play therapy is effective in managing behavioural and emotional difficulties in children. Although duration of treatment varies, findings suggest that 35-40 sessions of play therapy significantly improved treatment outcomes. Findings also appear to suggest that positive outcomes declined with prolonged sessions. For instance, findings suggest that positive outcomes declined after multiple sessions (40 sessions). This suggests that findings should be taken with caution in determining whether long-term play therapy is effective. In contrast, children ending play therapy prematurely or engaging in less than 14 sessions of therapy did not show positive treatment outcomes compared to children who completed 35-40 play therapy sessions. Meanwhile, investigators of the study failed to mention the average number of hours for each session. This could have provided important information on how long each session should last. Findings also show that gender and age were not significant predictors of the treatment outcomes, suggesting that this type of therapy is equally effective for boys and girls and across all ages of the children. Although the study shows equal effectiveness of play therapy for different age groups, this intervention might be more successful in younger children. Since play therapy is considered as sensitive to the development stage of the children (Nevid, 2008), it is reasonable to apply this form of therapy to younger children while older children might benefit more from traditional talk therapies (Bratton et al., 2005). The study also suggests that when parents are trained to partner with healthcare professionals in conducting play therapy, the treatment effect of play therapy significantly increased when compared to therapy conducted by professionals alone. Hence, when supervised by healthcare professionals and therapists, the involvement of parents would result in the greatest benefit.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

A meta-analysis allows pooling of data from studies with small sample sizes and hence, insufficiently powered (Polit et al., 2013). It should be noted that small studies are often rejected for publication due to sample size or once published, have limited applicability due to insufficient treatment effect (Polit et al., 2013). Hence, a meta-analysis would be able to address this issue since findings are pooled (Ellis, 2010). A review of the study of Bratton et al. (2005) reveals that all resources for both published and unpublished studies were exhausted to avoid publication bias (Burns and Grove, 2013). Further, investigators only included studies that reported statistics and have sound methodological procedures. Further, the study was able to establish that play therapy could be an agent in changing children’s behaviour, help them adjust socially and adapt to a group in order to fit in. Likewise, play therapy also appears to be uniquely responsive to the children’s developmental needs. However, play therapy was compared only to no intervention, making it difficult to establish if play therapy is the most effective intervention for children’s behavioural, social and cognitive difficulties. Comparing play therapy with other form of interventions might help to provide more information on its effectiveness in improving the behaviour of children.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Apart from promoting positive treatment outcomes, play therapy also facilitates social competence and problem solving skills in preschool children (Stone and Stark, 2013; Chinekesh et al., 2014). Stone and Stark (2013) reveal that short-term therapy groups were shown to facilitate development amongst 3-5 year old preschool children. Findings are noteworthy since it has been suggested that very young children are not yet developmentally prepared to engage in a group process (Stone and Stark, 2013). However, findings of the study suggest that very young children are able to participate in structured play therapy. Further, they benefit from these structured plays as evidenced in improvements in their social skills. Meanwhile, Chinekesh et al. (2014) investigated the effects of play therapy on children’s emotional and rational skills. A total of 372 pre-school children were recruited in the study and randomly assigned to the group play therapy and control group. Pre and post-tests were done to compare the children’s self-regulation, self-awareness, empathy, social interaction and adaptability before and after the intervention. Findings between case and control groups were also compared. Results of the study suggest that play significantly improved the children’s social and emotional skills (p0.001). Further, Chinekesh et al. (2014) observe that play therapy could help improve the children’s ability to learn problem-solving skills and communicate with other children. Providing an environment where children are engaged in unstructured play would help them develop their social skills as they learn to interact with other children (Chinekesh et al., 2014).Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Play therapy has also been shown to improve outcomes among children with disabilities. For instance, the studies of Abdollahian et al. (2013); Kasari et al. (2012); Wilkes-Gillan et al. (2014); Cantrill et al. (2015) have similar findings and suggest that play therapy is effective in improving social play skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For instance, Kasari et al. (2012) suggest that play therapy could help improve the language skills and communication of children with ASD. This was a longitudinal study and followed preschool children who received early play therapy intervention. During the 5-year follow-up, children who received play therapy were more likely to have better language skills. The strength of a longitudinal outcome is its ability to show patterns regarding how play therapy improves the social and cognitive skills of children over time (Ellis, 2010). However, panel attrition might affect the findings of a longitudinal study (Gray, 2009). Panel attrition could occur if several members of a cohort decide to drop out or are unable to participate during the last stages of the study. In addition, play therapy (Abdollahian et al., 2013) has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms associated with ADHD. Abdollahian et al. (2013) emphasise that play therapy would be effective in managing symptoms associated with ADHD. Meanwhile, Cantrill et al. (2015) point out that children’s social play skills are further enhanced when parents are involved in the delivery of the therapy. A third study (Wilkes-Gillan et al., 2014) suggests that social play outcomes of children with ADHD significantly improved following play therapy. Although this study has a small sample size (n=5 children with ADHD), it was able to demonstrate preliminary efficacy.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

In summary, recent literature has shown that play therapy consistently promotes positive outcomes for children with or without disabilities. Specifically, it promotes social and cognitive skills in very young children and could be used as a method to prepare these children for transition from kindergarten to infant school. The effectiveness of play therapy is also not influenced by gender and age, suggesting its effectiveness for both boys and girls and those in the younger or older age group. However, the impact of play therapy appears to be greatest amongst younger age children. This form of therapy could also be used to improve language skills in children suffering from autism (Kasari et al., 2012). Literature also demonstrates that the participation of parents significantly enhances the effectiveness of play therapy. This suggests that parents should be involved to facilitate sustained positive outcomes in children.

Play therapy could help to improve both social and cognitive functions of children with or without disabilities. Hence, there is a need to provide children with a safe environment that would allow them to play and interact with other children. While most studies reviewed in the present essay used play therapy as treatment for behavioural and social difficulties, play therapy could also be used for children without disabilities. Specifically, it can be used for preschoolers to help them develop their social and cognitive skills. As Vygotsky’s theory suggests, social development would help children develop mentally. Hence, promoting play therapy amongst young children with no disabilities would not only help to develop their social skills but also their cognitive skills. Finally, play therapy could also promote social and cognitive skills in children with disabilities such as ADHD and ASD. It is recommended that play therapy should be introduced into preschool settings for better outcomes for children. It is also recommended that parents should be involved in order to enhance the impact of play therapy. Hence, there is a need to train parents on how to deliver this type of therapy on their children.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Cognition refers to thinking and memory processes, and cognitive development refers to long-term changes in these processes. One of the most widely known perspectives about cognitive development is the cognitive stage theory of a Swiss psychologist named Jean Piaget. Piaget created and studied an account of how children and youth gradually become able to think logically and scientifically. Because his theory is especially popular among educators, we focus on it in this chapter.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Piaget theory of Cognitive Development For this paper I will be exploring Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget, theorized that children progress through four key stages of cognitive development that change their understanding of the world. By observing his own children, Piaget came up with four different stages of intellectual development that included: the sensorimotor stage, which starts from birth to age two; the preoperational stage, starts from age two to about age seven; the concrete operational stage, starts from age seven to eleven; and final stage, the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and continues into adulthood. In this paper I will only be focusing on the…show more content…
On Piaget’s task for conservation of length, Piaget shows the subject two pencils equal in length and subject knows the pencils are the same length. But once one of the pencils is moved longer than the other one, the subject fails to recognize that they were the same. Piaget’s task for conservation for liquid, he shows the young child two identical glasses, then he pours the same amount of water both glasses. The subject knows that the two glasses of water are equal. But if water from one glass is poured into a longer thinner glass, the subject couldn’t comprehend this glass contains the same amount of water as the original two identical glasses. Piaget’s explains that children’s thinking is “perception bound” in preoperational stage, so they can’t focus their attention on two aspects of the new glass, they were attentive only to one aspect which is that one glass is taller than the other two; failing to realize the taller glass had the same amount of liquid.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Piaget was a psychological constructivist: in his view, learning proceeded by the interplay of assimilation (adjusting new experiences to fit prior concepts) and accommodation (adjusting concepts to fit new experiences). The to-and-fro of these two processes leads not only to short-term learning, but also to long-term developmental change. The long-term developments are really the main focus of Piaget’s cognitive theory.

After observing children closely, Piaget proposed that cognition developed through distinct stages from birth through the end of adolescence. By stages he meant a sequence of thinking patterns with four key features:


They always happen in the same order.
No stage is ever skipped.
Each stage is a significant transformation of the stage before it.
Each later stage incorporated the earlier stages into itself.
Basically this is the “staircase” model of development mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Piaget proposed four major stages of cognitive development, and called them (1) sensorimotor intelligence, (2) preoperational thinking, (3) concrete operational thinking, and (4) formal operational thinking. Each stage is correlated with an age period of childhood, but only approximately.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

The sensorimotor stage: birth to age 2
In Piaget’s theory, the sensorimotor stage is first, and is defined as the period when infants “think” by means of their senses and motor actions. As every new parent will attest, infants continually touch, manipulate, look, listen to, and even bite and chew objects. According to Piaget, these actions allow them to learn about the world and are crucial to their early cognitive development.

The infant’s actions allow the child to represent (or construct simple concepts of) objects and events. A toy animal may be just a confusing array of sensations at first, but by looking, feeling, and manipulating it repeatedly, the child gradually organizes her sensations and actions into a stable concept, toy animal. The representation acquires a permanence lacking in the individual experiences of the object, which are constantly changing. Because the representation is stable, the child “knows,” or at least believes, that toy animal exists even if the actual toy animal is temporarily out of sight. Piaget called this sense of stability object permanence, a belief that objects exist whether or not they are actually present. It is a major achievement of sensorimotor development, and marks a qualitative transformation in how older infants (24 months) think about experience compared to younger infants (6 months).Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

During much of infancy, of course, a child can only barely talk, so sensorimotor development initially happens without the support of language. It might therefore seem hard to know what infants are thinking, but Piaget devised several simple, but clever experiments to get around their lack of language, and that suggest that infants do indeed represent objects even without being able to talk (Piaget, 1952). In one, for example, he simply hid an object (like a toy animal) under a blanket. He found that doing so consistently prompts older infants (18–24 months) to search for the object, but fails to prompt younger infants (less than six months) to do so. (You can try this experiment yourself if you happen to have access to young infant.) “Something” motivates the search by the older infant even without the benefit of much language, and the “something” is presumed to be a permanent concept or representation of the object.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

The preoperational stage: age 2 to 7
In the preoperational stage, children use their new ability to represent objects in a wide variety of activities, but they do not yet do it in ways that are organized or fully logical. One of the most obvious examples of this kind of cognition is dramatic play, the improvised make-believe of preschool children. If you have ever had responsibility for children of this age, you have likely witnessed such play. Ashley holds a plastic banana to her ear and says: “Hello, Mom? Can you be sure to bring me my baby doll? OK!” Then she hangs up the banana and pours tea for Jeremy into an invisible cup. Jeremy giggles at the sight of all of this and exclaims: “Rinnng! Oh Ashley, the phone is ringing again! You better answer it.” And on it goes.

In a way, children immersed in make-believe seem “mentally insane,” in that they do not think realistically. But they are not truly insane because they have not really taken leave of their senses. At some level, Ashley and Jeremy always know that the banana is still a banana and not really a telephone; they are merely representing it as a telephone. They are thinking on two levels at once—one imaginative and the other realistic. This dual processing of experience makes dramatic play an early example of metacognition, or reflecting on and monitoring of thinking itself. Metacognition is a highly desirable skill for success in school, one that teachers often encourage (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Paley, 2005). Partly for this reason, teachers of young children (preschool, kindergarten, and even first or second grade) often make time and space in their classrooms for dramatic play, and sometimes even participate in it themselves to help develop the play further.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

The concrete operational stage: age 7 to 11
As children continue into elementary school, they become able to represent ideas and events more flexibly and logically. Their rules of thinking still seem very basic by adult standards and usually operate unconsciously, but they allow children to solve problems more systematically than before, and therefore to be successful with many academic tasks. In the concrete operational stage, for example, a child may unconsciously follow the rule: “If nothing is added or taken away, then the amount of something stays the same.” This simple principle helps children to understand certain arithmetic tasks, such as in adding or subtracting zero from a number, as well as to do certain classroom science experiments, such as ones involving judgments of the amounts of liquids when mixed. Piaget called this period the concrete operational stage because children mentally “operate” on concrete objects and events. They are not yet able, however, to operate (or think) systematically about representations of objects or events. Manipulating representations is a more abstract skill that develops later, during adolescence.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

Concrete operational thinking differs from preoperational thinking in two ways, each of which renders children more skilled as students. One difference is reversibility, or the ability to think about the steps of a process in any order. Imagine a simple science experiment, for example, such as one that explores why objects sink or float by having a child place an assortment of objects in a basin of water. Both the preoperational and concrete operational child can recall and describe the steps in this experiment, but only the concrete operational child can recall them in any order. This skill is very helpful on any task involving multiple steps—a common feature of tasks in the classroom. In teaching new vocabulary from a story, for another example, a teacher might tell students: “First make a list of words in the story that you do not know, then find and write down their definitions, and finally get a friend to test you on your list.” These directions involve repeatedly remembering to move back and forth between a second step and a first—a task that concrete operational students—and most adults—find easy, but that preoperational children often forget to do or find confusing. If the younger children are to do this task reliably, they may need external prompts, such as having the teacher remind them periodically to go back to the story to look for more unknown words

The other new feature of thinking during the concrete operational stage is the child’s ability to decenter, or focus on more than one feature of a problem at a time. There are hints of decentration in preschool children’s dramatic play, which requires being aware on two levels at once—knowing that a banana can be both a banana and a “telephone.” But the decentration of the concrete operational stage is more deliberate and conscious than preschoolers’ make-believe. Now the child can attend to two things at once quite purposely. Suppose you give students a sheet with an assortment of subtraction problems on it, and ask them to do this: “Find all of the problems that involve two-digit subtraction and that involve borrowing from the next column. Circle and solve only those problems.” Following these instructions is quite possible for a concrete operational student (as long as they have been listening!) because the student can attend to the two subtasks simultaneously—finding the two-digit problems and identifying which actually involve borrowing. (Whether the student actually knows how to “borrow” however, is a separate question.)Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

In real classroom tasks, reversibility and decentration often happen together. A well-known example of joint presence is Piaget’s experiments with conservation, the belief that an amount or quantity stays the same even if it changes apparent size or shape (Piaget, 2001; Matthews, 1998). Imagine two identical balls made of clay. Any child, whether preoperational or concrete operational, will agree that the two indeed have the same amount of clay in them simply because they look the same. But if you now squish one ball into a long, thin “hot dog,” the preoperational child is likely to say that the amount of that ball has changed—either because it is longer or because it is thinner, but at any rate because it now looks different. The concrete operational child will not make this mistake, thanks to new cognitive skills of reversibility and decentration: for him or her, the amount is the same because “you could squish it back into a ball again” (reversibility) and because “it may be longer, but it is also thinner” (decentration). Piaget would say the concrete operational child “has conservation of quantity.”

The classroom examples described above also involve reversibility and decentration. As already mentioned, the vocabulary activity described earlier requires reversibility (going back and forth between identifying words and looking up their meanings); but it can also be construed as an example of decentration (keeping in mind two tasks at once—word identification and dictionary search). And as mentioned, the arithmetic activity requires decentration (looking for problems that meet two criteria and also solving them), but it can also be construed as an example of reversibility (going back and forth between subtasks, as with the vocabulary activity). Either way, the development of concrete operational skills support students in doing many basic academic tasks; in a sense they make ordinary schoolwork possible Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

The formal operational stage: age 11 and beyond
In the last of the Piagetian stages, the child becomes able to reason not only about tangible objects and events, but also about hypothetical or abstract ones. Hence it has the name formal operational stage—the period when the individual can “operate” on “forms” or representations. With students at this level, the teacher can pose hypothetical (or contrary-to-fact) problems: “What if the world had never discovered oil?” or “What if the first European explorers had settled first in California instead of on the East Coast of the United States?” To answer such questions, students must use hypothetical reasoning, meaning that they must manipulate ideas that vary in several ways at once, and do so entirely in their minds

The hypothetical reasoning that concerned Piaget primarily involved scientific problems. His studies of formal operational thinking therefore often look like problems that middle or high school teachers pose in science classes. In one problem, for example, a young person is presented with a simple pendulum, to which different amounts of weight can be hung (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). The experimenter asks: “What determines how fast the pendulum swings: the length of the string holding it, the weight attached to it, or the distance that it is pulled to the side?” The young person is not allowed to solve this problem by trial-and-error with the materials themselves, but must reason a way to the solution mentally. To do so systematically, he or she must imagine varying each factor separately, while also imagining the other factors that are held constant. This kind of thinking requires facility at manipulating mental representations of the relevant objects and actions—precisely the skill that defines formal operations.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

As you might suspect, students with an ability to think hypothetically have an advantage in many kinds of school work: by definition, they require relatively few “props” to solve problems. In this sense they can in principle be more self-directed than students who rely only on concrete operations—certainly a desirable quality in the opinion of most teachers. Note, though, that formal operational thinking is desirable but not sufficient for school success, and that it is far from being the only way that students achieve educational success. Formal thinking skills do not insure that a student is motivated or well-behaved, for example, nor does it guarantee other desirable skills, such as ability at sports, music, or art. The fourth stage in Piaget’s theory is really about a particular kind of formal thinking, the kind needed to solve scientific problems and devise scientific experiments. Since many people do not normally deal with such problems in the normal course of their lives, it should be no surprise that research finds that many people never achieve or use formal thinking fully or consistently, or that they use it only in selected areas with which they are very familiar (Case & Okomato, 1996). For teachers, the limitations of Piaget’s ideas suggest a need for additional theories about development—ones that focus more directly on the social and interpersonal issues of childhood and adolescence. The next sections describe some of these Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Essay

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