Patriarchy And Gender Inequality In Nigeria

Patriarchy And Gender Inequality In Nigeria

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Patriarchy And Gender Inequality In Nigeria

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Patriarchy And Gender Inequality In Nigeria

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“Poverty is a state of lack of materials or want. The lack of or possessing little wealth and in possession of low-quality assets like clothing, shelter or personal means of transport. It also includes no or poor access to services” (Mader, 2015). Nigeria is among the countries that experience extreme poverty despite the fact that the country has a lot of natural resources such as oil. . Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 in Nigeria plans to achieve on ending poverty through related strategies to all the people in the world. The approaches involve providing good employment, the access of safe and sustainable water, proper hygiene, proper sustenance and essential health services for the poor.  (Griggs et al., 2013). However, Nigeria is unlikely to achieve SDG1 target 1 due to increased political instability and terrorism.
 The eradication of poverty is one of the most difficult challenges that face a developing countries. This is because the poor population covers the majority inhabitants (Griggs et al., 2013.) Nigeria is a sub-Saharan African country in which half of its people live in extreme poverty. There is proof that indicates Nigeria has an increased number of poverty numbers in Nigeria (Maigida, Saba & Namkere, 2013). Furthermore, due to the armed conflicts that occurred in 2014, more than 42,000 people in Nigeria were enforced to leave their homes in search of protection (Deribe, Negussu, Bosco & Davey 2018). A large proportion of the Nigerian society has been consumed by an enormous, and persistent poverty which has led to starvation, illiteracy, famine, infection, joblessness and low life expectancy (Gberevbie, 2014).
The impact of poverty on health in Nigeria
In Nigeria, the connection between poverty and health care forms a large sequence or cycle. This occurs where ill-health is caused poverty while it sustains poverty. It is because individuals in well-developed countries have better access to health care services than individuals in developing countries (Idris & Agbim, 2015). An individual’s health gets worse when health care services are deferred or not easily acquired. This, in turn, leads to income loss and an increase in health care which later contributes to poverty. Individuals are unable to obtain health services and have a high risk of diseases due to lack of material possession and the level of income (Levesque, Harris & Russell, 2013). Moreover, health status strongly supports both human development and poverty. Results from a survey discovered that approximately 8.0 percent of the population consulted health care providers due to the illiteracy, reduced services, and increased prices (Awojobi, 2014).
Factors that influenced the likelihood of Nigeria not achieving SDG 1
Nigeria has experienced several types of disasters such as plane crashes, fire explosions, flooding, oil pipeline vandalization, road accidents, and building collapsion. The main human factors that have led to poverty in Nigeria are pipeline vandalization, conflict, and poor governance (Okoli & Orinya, 2013).
Oil pipeline outburst is a major incident that occurs in Nigeria and had been a significant threat to human security (Okoli & Orinya, 2013). The country highly depends on oil exportation and disregards other sources of income. The Nigerians lose their lives from vandalization due to fire disaster to make quick money making the repeated attack on pipelines is due to poverty and greed. For example, in the early 1990s, unemployed youths or poor residents sold fuel to shady business or unsuspecting motorists by puncturing or from leaking pipes (Okoli & Orinya, 2013).
There has been high rates of conflict in Nigeria. The increase in disputes or crime such as shootings and gang killings in many countries of the world has dishonored the quality of life. The poor in cities are mainly susceptible to social problems even though it affects all individuals from socioeconomic groups. The conflict has a severe economic cost in a case where the limited proportion of public resources is expected to toughen police implementation, sustenance of prison occupants, healthcare provision to individuals injured by violence (Idris & Agbim, 2015). Due to the diverse nature of the poor, it is difficult to associate poverty with violence, crime or conflict directly. Nevertheless, poverty is closely related to the antagonistic social consequences of crime such as losing lives at a fruitful age and loss of a large number of properties (Awojobi,2014).
Poor Governance and Political Instability
Nigeria has experienced high cases of poor governance and Political instability. Awojobi (2014) argues that poor governance such as political instability, the effectiveness of the government and poor decision making has linked a country to the inescapable of poverty. Thus Nigeria’s GDP is inversely related to governance displays.  This makes it a major hindrance to growth and decline of poverty in Nigeria (Aworh, 2015).
Cultural Factors
The idyllic Nigerian emphasizes hard work, equity, collective survival, and self-reliance.T his resulted in the beginning of mass poverty in Nigeria. Cultural factors that led to poverty in Nigeria are gender inequality and Religion (Okafor, 2015). Women and men become poor differently and unequally which makes poverty termed as “gendered.” Gender inequality triggers and extends poverty in a society. Thus measures to eradicate poverty should be undertaken by the community (Okafor, 2015).
In Nigeria, different societies view production and reproduction of gender. Men play a significant role in working and earning in most of the world but have a minor role in the family for reproduction which is unpaid in the family (Makama, 2013) On the other hand; women have an essential part in the family where their work is unpaid which involves caring for the family. Generally, across all societies and among poorer households, it is highly evident that women and girls are more disadvantaged than men and boys (Okafor,2015).
Recent research shows the correlation between religion and real ownership. Some religious groups experience poverty differently than others (Christiano, Swatos Jr & Kivisto, 2015). Conservative Protestants (CPs) in Nigeria are highly shown at the lowest level of distribution of wealth mainly financial possession (Christiano et al., 2015). They are church members who profoundly believe in the traditional religion, accept the Bible as God’s word and emphasize social issues as important in Christian’s faith (Wald & Calhoun-Brown, 2014).
Structural Factors
During the 18th century, the economy of Nigeria encountered many difficulties and challenges. This led to the decrease of oil prices and the main export of the country which led to debt burden from the outside countries of (Ayegba, 2015). The main factor that contributes to poverty in Nigeria is unemployment which creates a stable relationship with poverty. There is the depletion of the source of income, increased cost of living and decreased living standards (Ayegba, 2015).In 2007, the World Bank assessed the rate of unemployment in Nigeria as 4.9 percent and ranked it as the 61st across other countries of the world (Ayegba, 2015).
In Nigeria, the government can provide jobs to many graduates in Nigeria but not willing to give them jobs leaving them wandering in the streets. Employment depends on how connected an individual is with the leaders of the country. Which in turn leaves many qualified individuals to suffer (Ayegba, 2015).
Critical Analysis
In order to reduce poverty, some programmes were created and the provision of the government capitals to eradicate poverty in Nigeria (Farrar et al.,2013).The enterprises that were required to lessen poverty in Nigeria since the liberation day have borne minimal outcome. The programs lacked clear policy agendas with no proper guidelines to reduce debt and underwent political instability, intrusion, discontinued, run with corruption and dislocation of macroeconomics, political dishonesty, complete kleptomania, and unpleasant robbing .Thus cannot be (Aworh, 2015).
According to Amuda, Embi,  & Babatunde (2014), Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES), was created to provide unemployed youth to acquire skills, employment, and create wealth. The Rural Infrastructure Development Scheme (RIDS) was designed to deal with delivering and developing infrastructure in the rural areas such as transportation, water or electricity. The Social Welfare Service Scheme (SOWESS) deals with providing essential services to the society such as quality education, providing essential health services. The Family Support Programme (FSP) was established for families in the rural areas to deliver health care services, children’s well-being, development of the youth, and to improve the status nutrition (Adebayo & Nassar,2014).
The Better Life Programme (BLP) was established to improve rural women’s quality of life. This is because rural women in Nigeria are highly affected by poverty due to lack of education required to get employment. The programme harnessed the abilities of women impacting positively to the economy and improved the quality of life of many women (Amuda et al., (2014). Moreover, the private sector contributes to the reduction of  poverty actively contributing to employment and advanced incomes and fund to infrastructure development and deliver proper basic services such as training, wellbeing, and electricity (Amuda et al., 2014),
The government should ensure that put more effort in increasing income generating activities and hence creating employment. The government should also increase the fight against corruption so that revenue meant for development is properly utilized. People should also be trained on how to manage businesses to ensure that they have stable source of income.
In conclusion, Nigeria has been labeled as poor among the Nation committee and has a general poverty statistics. The reduction of Poverty in Nigeria need to adopt a holistic tactic that involves both the government and the society. However, when poverty decreases, individual’s health improves as they can be able to access health care services and get trained about health care. The main aim to reduce debt is to eradicate underemployment and provide maintainable employment to individuals that are unemployed or underemployed. The paper suggests   that the state of Nigeria should be changed to improve in poverty mitigation. Thus Nigeria can eradicate poverty by early 2030 because of the strategies and programme that have been created.
Adebayo, N. A., & Nassar, M. L. (2014). Impact of micro and small business entrepreneurship on poverty reduction in Ibadan Metropolis, South Western Nigeria. International Review of Management and Business Research, 3(3), 1603.
Amuda, Y. J., Embi, A. C., & Babatunde, O. H. (2014). An Agricultural Approach to the Commercialization of Cash Waqf between Malaysia and Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Management Science Vol, 2(4).
Awojobi, O. N. (2014). Microfinance as a strategy for poverty reduction in Nigeria: Empirical investigation. International Journal of Current Research, 6(9), 8944-8951.
Aworh, O. C. (2015). Promoting food security and enhancing Nigeria’s small farmers’ income through value-added processing of lesser-known and under-utilized indigenous fruits and vegetables. Food Research International, 76, 986-991.
Ayegba, U. S. (2015). Unemployment and poverty as sources and consequence of insecurity in Nigeria: The Boko Haram insurgency revisited. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 9(3), 90-99.
Christiano, K. J., Swatos Jr, W. H., & Kivisto, P. (2015). Sociology of religion: Contemporary developments. Rowman & Littlefield.
Farrar, J., Hotez, P. J., Junghanss, T., Kang, G., Lalloo, D., & White, N. J. (2013). Manson’s Tropical Diseases E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gberevbie, D. E. (2014). Democracy, democratic institutions and good governance in Nigeria. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 30(1), 133-152.
Idris, A. J., & Agbim, K. C. (2015). Micro-credit as a strategy for poverty alleviation among women entrepreneurs in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 6(3), 122.
Levesque, J. F., Harris, M. F., & Russell, G. (2013). Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), 18.
Mader, P. (2015). The financialization of poverty. In The Political Economy of Microfinance (pp. 78-120). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Maigida, J. F., Saba, T. M., & Namkere, J. U. (2013). Entrepreneurial skills in technical vocational education and training as a strategic approach for achieving youth empowerment in Nigeria. International Journal of humanities and social science, 3(5), 303-310.
Makama, G. A. (2013). Patriarchy and gender inequality in Nigeria: The way forward. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 9(17).
Okafor A, C. (2015). Gender Inequality in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Arts and Social Sciences, 4(1), 69-80.
Okoli, A. C., & Orinya, S. (2013). Oil Pipeline Vandalism and Nigeria’ s National Security. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research.
Wald, K. D., & Calhoun-Brown, A. (2014). Religion and politics in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield.

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