Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Womens Health

Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Womens Health

Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health

Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health
The third most common cancer in women worldwide is Cervical cancer and is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality with about 300,000 deaths annually (, 2013). According to Siegel, Naishadham, & Jemal in 2013, there was an estimated 12,340 new cases of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and 4,030 estimated mortality. There was actually a 50% decrease in cancer death the past 30 years due to early detection using the Pap smear that provides detection of precancerous cells and cancerous cells in their earlier stage (, 2016c; Vegunta, Kransdorf, & Mayer, 2014). Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health.
Pap smear is used primarily to identify the cytology of the cervix and vagina and can also be used to identify presence of infection. Cervical cancer takes about 3–7 years for high-grade changes to occur and screening with Pap smear can detect these changes before they become cancer (, 2016b)
The USPSTF (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) (2012) recommends screening for cervical cancer in women age 21 to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years if cotesting with HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is not obtainable (, 2016b; Langsjoen, et al, 2015). However, beginning at age 30, the women who wants a longer interval of screening should combine cytology and HPV testing every 5 years (, 2016b;, 2012; Moyer, 2012) because women older than 30 years correlates with increased incidence of high-grade lesions (, 2016b; Langsjoen, et al, 2015). Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health.
The USPSTF discourages screening for cervical cancer through Pap smear for women younger than 21 years (, 2016b;, 2012; Moyer, 2012). According to Vegunta, Kransdorf, & Mayer (2014), 90% of HPV infections resolve in 2 years and although women below 20 years have the most incidence of HPV infections, they have minimal risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. Also, false positive can lead to unnecessary treatment that have an adverse effect on childbearing (Mayo, 2012). An example is the loop electrosurgical excision procedure that is linked with preterm delivery and increased risk of premature rupture of membranes (Vegunta, Kransdorf, & Mayer, 2014).
The USPSTF also discourages Pap smear for women older than 65 years who had sufficient prior screening and are considered low risk, as well as those who had hysterectomy with cervical excision without history of High-Grade Precancer or Cervical Cancer (, 2016b;, 2012; Moyer, 2012). Based on a systematic review, risk of high-grade cervical lesions decreases with age and screening women older than 65 would not provide any benefit (, 2016b; Vesco, et al., 2014; Moyer, 2012). Sufficient prior screening means that a woman “do not have a history of moderate or severe abnormal cervical cells (dysplasia) or cervical cancer, and have had either three negative Pap test results in a row or two negative co-test results in a row within the past 10 years, with the most recent test performed within the past 5 years” (, 2016b). The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends Pap smear screening for women who had hysterectomy but the cervix is not removed (2016b). If the cervix is removed due to cervical cancer, Pap smear screening should be done for the next 20 years after surgery (, 2016b). However, if the cervix is removed but there is no history of cervical cancer, there is no need for screening (, 2016b). Frequent Pap smear screening is needed among women who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol before birth or have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), immunocompromised or history of cervical cancer (, 2016b). Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health.
Women are still encouraged to follow up for well-woman exam (pelvic exam or internal exam) and check-up for counseling on birth control, vaccination, health screening, and preconception (, 2016b).
References: (2016a, February). Cervical Cancer Screening. Retrieved from: (2016b, February). Frequently Asked Questions: Cervical Cancer Screening. Retrieved from: (2016c). Pap smear (Pap test): Resource Overview. Retrieved from:
Langsjoen, J., Goodell, C., Castro, E., Thomas, J., Kuehl, T. J., Wehbe-Janek, H., & Hinskey, M. (2015). Improving compliance with cervical cancer screening guidelines. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 28(4), 450-453. Retrieved from:
Moyer, V.A. (2012, June 19). Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Clinical Guideline. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(12), 880-891. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/ROGELIOMD/Downloads/cervcancerrs.pdf (2013, March 29). Cervical Cancer. Retrieved from:
Siegel, R., Naishadham, D., & Jemal, A. (2013). Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63:11–30. (2012, March). Final Update Summary: Cervical Cancer: Screening. Retrieved from:
Vesco, K.K., Whitlock, E.P., Eder, M., et al. (2011, May). Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). (Evidence Syntheses, No. 86.). Retrieved from:
Vegunta, S., Kransdorf, L. N., & Mayer, A. P. (2014). Why more is not always better: New Pap Smear Guidelines. Journal of Women’s Health (15409996), 23(1), 105-106. doi:10.1089/jwh.2013.4634. Retrieved from: Pap Smear Essay – MN 576 Primary Care of Women’s Health

Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by

× WhatsApp Us