MGT701 Managing Organisations

MGT701 Managing Organisations

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MGT701 Managing Organisations

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MGT701 Managing Organisations

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Course Code: MGT701
University: University Of The Sunshine Coast is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia


Describe how understanding theories of personality and perception can help a manager to be more effective with their staff.

Perception and personality on change management
The idea of change is the issue organizations are facing in day-to-day operations. Change in a business is gradual, rapid and radical. The environment is the factors which do not change, but human beings in society are the subject to changes over the time.  The impact of changes in an organization is often negative. On the numerous cases, the employee tends to resist change rather than accept (Fogel, Lyra, & Valsiner, 2014). Many employees have a negative perception, attitude, and perceptions. Employees feel of doing extra work, insecure on their status and jobs. A successful change in management depends on the how the firm is ready to change its culture which comprises the behaviors and attitudes of the members. Employee perceptions and attitudes are necessary for their productivity of the organization, leadership; rewards, job satisfaction, and appraisal are factors to measure on the employee attitude and behaviors (Whyte, 2013). Workforces are crucial to drive in the forming of an enterprise where they decide the operation of the business in term of achieving the goals and productivity.
The workforce turns the raw material into a finished product and therefore if there is no human force in business, there is no organization. Workforce has a different learning experience, innovation thinking, own abilities and the nature, and attitude of an employee will differ from one worker to another  (Whyte, 2013). Additionally, they vary in the perception, age and gender vary. Thus, the employee values matters and how well they relate to job and their performance will indirectly influence the organization operation of the organization. The books define perception as a manner in which people give meaning to the surrounding environment and sensitive systems  (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008).  Finally, perception is how individual see a thing.
To run the team management effectively and introduce change is important for the managers to have an understanding of the personality and perception trait of the employee that comprise the specific job responsibilities and employee psychology of an organization. However, the structure does not require every individual personality in its body climate, as it affects the organizational performance and behaviors  (Whyte, 2013). Therefore, it important for the managers and human resources management to understand the job designs of a business and employee personalities so that they best groove properly. Managers are having knowledge of individual difference and characters in particular on the reform; it will enhance efficient management of a firm.
Personality is a multifaceted organization of behaviors and cognitions that give a pattern and direction to the individual’s life. Characters include the memories of the past, effect of the past and the construction of the future and present  (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008). And so, the personality consists of reflection of the nurture and nature, and both the processes and structure. Therefore, this essay will   analyze the individual perception and personality on how they affect another person, group, and organization and impact on the managing change.
Literature review
Perception is a composite cognitive process that differs from one person to another depending on the values, needs, and expectations (Manusov & Spitzberg, 2008). Therefore, varying in the attitude of employees in the organization can cause conflict in an organization (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008). Perception is a process in which person selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a coherent and meaningful picture in the surrounding environment.
Perception is a process in which person holds and understand their sensory impression to give meaning to the surrounding environment (Roberts, 2009). Attribution theory can be used to evaluate on how individual perceive their behaviors and that of their colleagues. Attribution theory proposes that individuals behavior observation attempt to determine whether the cause was externally or internally (Kohut, 2013); the employee should understand the reason behind the action of the employee. Attribution theory occupies the way individual know and focuses on the perceived understanding behavior while explaining the method through which each realizes her or his behaviors and that of their fellow workmates. Hence, an organization should not make a decision on the perception of the employee. The organization can look for a way in dealing with employee behavior whether external or internal.
Selective perception happens when an individual selects the consistent view of themselves and world and argue against the view that is inconsistent. Halo effect is where there is a generalization from a general assessment of peoples to a particular characteristic of an individual (Mischel, 2013). Halo effect can happen to a manager when rating the subordinates during the performance evaluation. Managers can relate one aspect of an employee to the other character, and assumes the employee is perfect in both situations. People do not consider the things that are unfamiliar to them but make decision on the known interest, background and attributes of the behavior. Stereotyping can happen if managers believe that members of the team share the same behaviors and characteristic (Beck, Davis, & Freeman, 2015). The real traits of individuals are different from those of stereotype and therefore the actual situation of a person is unique. Stereotyping can result in harmful consequences and factual errors. Therefore, it is important for managers to increase the efficiencies in making a decision on a certain environment. Additionally, stereotyping can lead to a poor decision which will have a consequence on the utilization of the human resources in case of the injustice on the individuals. Decision process occurs due to the need of problem-solving.  However, person’s perceptions depend on the decisions. The decision arises due to the choices from different alternatives.
Freud states that all human beings are born with two instincts which is life instinct (Eros) which is erotic instinct and self-preserving (Baltes & Schaie, 2013). Death instinct is aggressive, cruel and destructive. Freud theory states that the inborn force motivates and enables people to survive. Freud theory concerns about the preconscious, unconscious and preconscious mind. Much of people behaviors are due to the unconscious thoughts which are part of the big portion of the mind. The conflict between the unconscious forces results in psychological problems. Freud further suggests that personality consists of three structures including selfish, inborn and immediate gratification.
Carl roger’s theory of personality believes that people are aware of the feelings and thought and also they have the power to develop and change them. Rogers suggested that the necessary factors which affect people are individual’s experiences and not reality. Therefore, Rogers place emphasizes on the feelings, values, and experiences of a person. Human being values positive self-image, self-worth, and self-esteem. Hence, without the positive self-regard, people feel helpless, small and fail to self-actualize (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011). People need acceptance, respect, and affection from most significant people like the parent, peers, teachers or the managers. “Essential estrangement in human being occurs in the new self-concept development, a child moves from the natural organismic valuing as a result of negative activities taking place”  (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011). The experience and genes are vital in the personality.
The central concept of Freud’s theory is concepts like instincts, unconscious forces, and psychic energy.
However, Freud’s theory does not consider the cultural factors which are prevailing in the current society. Rogers’s theory believes that self is innate; the tendency of an individual develops capabilities which will assist to enhance and maintain themselves. However, the Rogers emphasizes on the environment  (Griffin & Moorhead, 2011). Additionally, believes that child experiences adult personality. The Freud theory depicts that personality traits comes from early life and remains constant throughout the life of an individual.  
Application of theories to workplace for managers
Attribution theory in an organization assists managers to determine and understand the cause of the employee behaviors and also help the workers in the understanding of their actions. If the individual’s  reason for behaving in a certain way and why other employees around you do so, then the worker has a better understanding of the other and the organization (McShane & Von Glinow, 2011). Additionally, the attribution theory has an impact on the motivation and affects the judgment and actions of the employee and managers. Attribution theory also assists the managers in the performance of the employee and also recruitment of the employee.
Managers understanding the attribution, Freud and Carol theory; it will lead to job satisfaction; reduce absenteeism and turnover (Baltes & Schaie, 2013). The high rate of turnover is significant to many companies. It leads to the loss of the talents, potentials and causes loss regarding the additional costs. So, managers should understand the perception and personality of the employees to bring the job satisfaction and avoid resistance to change. A Happy employee will increase the production and also the rate of the turnover and absenteeism will be lower.
Managers understanding the employee perception and personality will create the employee satisfaction will lead to the customer satisfaction. There is a link between the employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and profitability. Achievement and responsibility; accountability and performance are important aspects in their motivational factors will create the job satisfaction. Understanding the employee personalities will provide the employee with a sense of the competition for the workers and encourages the sense of the more responsibility.  Managers can use the strategies to improve the employee commitment, loyalty and ownership interest in their work.
Freud and Carol theory on motivation can help in the motivation of the employee. Managers understanding and analyzing the employee personalities means one step closer to finding the sources of demotivation that might take away human capital (Allen, 2015).  Managers utilizing the employee assessment during the selection will help to ask a very different question during the interview process. Therefore, it will increase the retention rate because the employee is the best for the job and have the innate potential to be successful. Decrease the conflict and improves the collaboration. Resentment and disputes come from personal incompatibilities between colleagues which lead to a battle.  And so managers can face stress or poor management or end up with an employee who is unable to perform their duties to perfection  (Allen, 2015). Additionally, the managers can communicate effectively with an employee because they can learn and assimilate information in the same way. Unnoticing of outstanding and value information can occur if there is no proper understanding of the personalities.
Attribution theory argues that that people observe an individual’s behavior and try to determine if the cause was internal or external. As a result the determination will depend on the consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.
The biases or errors distort the attribution in the workplace. Managers tend to overestimate the influence of the personal or internal factors and forget the influence of the external factors (Cobb-Clark & Schurer, 2012). Managers tend to attribute the tendency of the success to internal factors such as efforts or ability while putting the blame on the external factors such as luck. There will be a distortion of the feedback by the recipients due to the self-serving bias.
Selective perception: it is quite impossible for the people to assimilate everything they see (Schunk & Zimmerman, 2012). A person, event or object characteristics will increase its understanding probability. People know what they like to see. Therefore, there is drawing of an unwarranted conclusion from an ambiguous situation.
Stereotyping: to maintain consistency, generalization means simplifying a complicated situation. Stereotyping is judging group perception by where he or she belongs.
Positive results when judging others helps the manager to save time and process a lot of information effectiveness. Evidence indicates that the senior managers make an inaccurate perceptual judgment (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Because the interviewers vary in the way they are looking for candidate and interviews have little consistent structure, review of the same interviewee will vary.
Freud theory of personality helps managers to focus in achieving effective communication, business excellence and complicated decision-making within the organization (Izard, 2013). It assists in the evaluation of the performance of each employee for the purpose of promotion.
Understanding worker’s personality and personality helps managers and staff to create an enriching working environment. The essay has explained the change, attitudes, perception, decision making, motivation and change management. Perception in the organization workplace is biased by the culture, experience, education and socialization  (Robbins & Judge, 2012). People make inferences about the situation and others without regard to the factual information. If the perception of the employee is negative, it will affect the performance and organization productivity. Also, the organization productivity will increase if the knowledge of the employee is confident, which further enhance the individual’s performance. The workers perceive the efforts of their manager or organization depending on the successfulness of the firm to plan and organize the employee work.
Allen, B. (2015). Personality theories: Development, growth, and diversity. Psychology Press.
Bakker, A., & Schaufeli, W. (2008). Bakker, A. B., & Sc Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 147-154.
Baltes, P., & Schaie, K. (2013). Life-span developmental psychology: Personality and socialization. Elsevier.
Beck, A., Davis, D., & Freeman, A. (2015). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. Guilford Publications.
Cobb-Clark, D., & Schurer, S. (2012). The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters, 115(1), 11-15. 
Fogel, A., Lyra, M., & Valsiner, J. (2014). Dynamics and indeterminism in developmental and social processes. Psychology Press.
Griffin, R., & Moorhead, G. (2011). Organizational behavior. Nelson Education.
Izard, C. (2013). Emotions in personality and psychopathology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kohut, H. (2013). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of narcissistic personality disorders. University of Chicago Press.
Manusov, V., & Spitzberg, B. (2008). Attribution theory. na.
McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M. (2011). Organizational behavior. Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Mischel, W. (2013). Personality and assessment. Psychology Press.
Robbins, S., & Judge, T. (2012). Essentials of organizational behavior. Essex: Pearson.
Roberts, B. (2009). Back to the future: Personality and assessment and personality development. Journal of research in personality,, 43(2), 137-145.
Schunk, D., & Zimmerman, B. (2012). Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications. Routledge.
Whyte, W. (2013). The organization man. University of Pennsylvania Press.

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