Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders

Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders

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Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders

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Journal Of Autism And Developmental Disorders

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Intellectual disability further regarded as Intellectual Developmental Disorder is characterised by significant restrictions in general mental abilities as well as adaptive functioning that occur during the course of children’s development. Individuals with Intellectual development reflect considerably low intellectual functioning and further illustrate relative issues in perceiving as well as processing any new information in rapid and efficient way (Bjorklund & Causey, 2017). It is to be noted that children who experience lower socio economics adversity and belong to the vulnerable position of social deprivation often show early interruption or setback in cognitive development (Cook et al., 2017). The essay will intend to cast light on the way cognitive abilities develop differently in children and adults with intellectual developmental disorder. Furthermore, the paper will focus on the way development of cognitive skills emerge though Piaget’s stages of thinking and further utilize adaptations to underpin social, occupational and regular activities.
The incidence and prevalence of Intellectual Disability vary by age. The rate of Intellectual Disability has been observed to have more recurrently among school age children, adolescents in comparison to adult population. It is further to note that if all adults in a settlement are evaluated for the occurrence of Intellectual Disability, the pervasiveness can be estimated of around 1.25%. On the other hand, if school children are diagnosed, the rate of prevalence increases to more than 2% (Gee, 2014). It is further to consider that the rates of cognitive disabilities related to Intellectual Disability are more prevalent when individuals visit schools. The rate of children with intellectual disabilities in recent times has been elevating dramatically across the world. The World Health Organizations (WHO) has classified the core cognitive development into the levels of mild, moderate and severe (Crain, 2015). It is further to note that children with intellectual development disorder often possess several distinctiveness that pose restrictions for them in the process of their development. Children suffering from such disorders are reported to have an underdeveloped physical growth, deformation along with delayed movement and balance. However, several investigations have demonstrated the significant impact in the digital learning processes and the importance of collaborative activity sessions (Sigelman & Rider, 2014). These learning sessions have proved to have improved the cognitive experiences of children. On the other hand it is important to note that adults with intellectual development disorder tend to experience traumatic social communication and often implement maladaptive strategies to overcome and further sustain these social interactions (Gomez?Pinilla & Hillman, 2013). The experience of stress and anxiety has posed severe effects on the psychological welfare of adults with intellectual disability. The coping strategies utilized by adults has been further defined as the cognitive as well as behavioural efforts implemented in order to manage the demands posed by several external and internal factors related to traumatic situations or the emotions relative to such circumstances (Segal, Chipman & Glaser, 2014). At this juncture, it is significant to note that the concept of ‘active coping’, defined as the efforts to gain authority over stressful circumstances was ineffectively associated with to psychological distress  whereby the concept of ‘avoidant coping’ came into significance (Whalon et al., 2015). The two vital magnitudes of avoidant coping have been commonly recognized among adults with ID namely behavioural avoidance coping which is related to being distant from stressful circumstances involving efforts to physically avoid such situations on the contrary cognitive avoidance coping has been identified as strategies that incorporates efforts to circumvent or further avoid to develop thoughts of stress (Lindenberger & Mayr, 2014). Children with intense intellectual disability have been observed to have recognized in the early phase of infancy. Around half of the children with such profound intellectual development disorder will require consistent assistance and support from others in the course of their development. However, the sections of adults with these disorders who require incessant support and help from family as well as caregivers demonstrate chronic and unceasing medical issues and sensory impairments (Cook et al., 2017). It is to note that effective diagnosis of ID is resolute by the intelligence and adaptive functioning of both children and adults. Individuals and children both can reflect ID but have varied perceptions and responses towards it. For instance, a child aged 9 years might be suffering from Down syndrome and on the other hand an elderly suffering from similar disorder might have no recognizable cause of such impairments (Memari et al., 2013).
In the earlier days it has been perceived that individuals with ID supposedly to have benefitted from sessions of psychotherapy. However, mental condition and disabilities experts have identified such therapeutic measures as ineffective to be a misinterpretation of abilities of individuals with cognitive incapability to achieve expertise and further reduce symptoms of emotional or mental disorders in the course of these curative sessions. The establishment of the co-occurrence of these emotional healthcare disorders in individuals both children and adults with ID has resulted to more explicit diagnosis approaches (Lindenberger & Mayr, 2014). The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) which has been referred as a conventional professional organization is dedicated to the observation and assistance of individuals with cognitive impairments (Memari et al., 2013). The AAIDD has been promoting effective cure through observation, advocacy and induction. The organization since the 1900s have been offered certain procedures and guidelines for the effective recognition of Intellectual Disability and the most effective techniques to support children as well as adults with this condition (Wright, Masten & Narayan, 2013). However, there lies one distinction in the conceptualization of Intellectual Disability that further accentuates on the concept of needed support. This concept has been further referred to a wide range of assistance and aid that would help the individuals to function and react in effectual manners in their daily lives. Furthermore, the AAIDD authorizes four potential levels of supports that are based on the degree and the duration of assistance required for aid and support to these individuals namely the intermittent regarded as occasional in time of crisis or predicament, limited known as short term, widespread or extensive that is long term and pervasive also referred as constant (Smith & Pourchot, 2013). The AAIDD has further introduced a semi-structured consultation to assist clinicians or experts to identify the type and strength of assistance and supports required for children, adolescents and adults with Intellectual Development Disorder (Lindenberger & Mayr, 2014). These approaches introduced by AAIDD in order to categorize individuals with ID in relation of needed aid and supports has produced two primary advantages whereby the first approach expresses detailed information of clients rather than producing effective categorization of the individuals with ID. On the other hand, the second approach concentrates on the individuals’ competences rather than on their impairments (Cook et al., 2017).
Delay in the growth and development of cognitive skills and capacities are considered to be primary consequences of Down syndrome (Wright, Masten & Narayan, 2013). Regardless to these cognitive impediments, children or young children with ID of Down syndrome can be regarded as emphatic, demonstrative and engaging. It is important to consider that not only the potentialities of considerably autonomous ‘domain specific’ developmental courses for certain social and cognitive abilities but further to function to the extent to which cognitive as well as social developmental aptitudes, which further appear primarily to develop relatively in autonomous manner to each other come in interaction with as well as mutually manipulate one another and further lead to innovative developmental results (Gee, 2014). It must be noted that children with Down syndrome reveal radical differences in the level of competence and ability whereby some being immensely handicapped whereas the others with moderate, reasonable or occasional learning difficulties, further expose clearly that the cognitive growth and development in the group of children might not be predetermined since birth of the individuals. However, there has been a significant gap in the process of comprehending the process of developmental in children with Down syndrome, probably because of a distinctive decline in the IQ scores of children with further development (Smith, Cowie & Blades, 2015). Children with Down syndrome face prolonged steady developmental advancement, but as the progression level is slower than ordinary children, their concrete IQ score reveals to be comparatively lower over the time. It has been further noted that psychologists typically produce immensely complex, specialized language explanation in order to comprehend the study of concept from the theoretical framework of Piaget. The theoretical framework of Piaget has further provided adequate stages of thinking in the process of development of cognitive skills in children with Down syndrome (Meadows, 2013). Piaget believed that children at about 18 months are capable to establish symbolic illustrations and as a consequence is related to cognitive skills development that involves vocabulary development, symbolic play as well as deferred restrictions all of which require the effective representation of a component to create symbolic representations before the completion of two years (Gee, 2014). However, it can further be proposed that the fundamental changes at the age of 18 months are regarded as the capability to raise certain hypothetical demonstrations about events which have never been experienced by the children (Sappok et al., 2013). Piaget’s theoretical framework offers details of three deposits of distinctive relations between cognition and speech, whereby one relation involves an association between the implementation of cognitive relational words about desertion along with the competence to pass object-permanence operations which require children to comprehend that an object can be situated in several locations (Piaget, 2013). A second and similar relation is considered to be situated in between cognitive relational words that depict an understanding of success or failure related to any event and also the competence to pass means-ends performance whereby children have to select strategy that would produce the most effective outcomes (Berk, 2017). Furthermore, the third link is considered to be situated in between the abilities to organize objects into separate groups along with the vocabulary as this frequent and hurried development of vocabulary is proposed to be based on the level of ability of the children with Down syndrome (Smith, Cowie & Blades, 2015).
It has noted that individuals often exhibit social, communication as well as cognitive insufficient characteristics with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In Piagetian theoretical frameworks, it is further developed that a structural outline of thoughts or schema is developed whereby social events are incorporated with misrepresentation such that social world is restructured as a hostile situation for inhabitation. It can further be argued that developmental delay or the pathology of thought structure have been further shaped the altered structural outline of the cognitive social representation (Berk, 2017). According to the Piaget, cognitive schema has further accommodated as maturational aspects of brain development that interact with socially-produced information specifically as the consequence of social transactions with the peer groups. It must further be noted that the concept of brain pathology in autism may develop interaction with insufficient social learning scopes and opportunities (Meadows, 2013). The abnormal growth in the realm of Piaget’s theory has shed light on the capture, which is the inability to develop through the hypothesized stages of cognitive development in adults.
Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that the progress of cognitive skills and capabilities have varied occurrences in children and adults with intellectual developmental disorders. However, the essay has further focused on the ways certain adaptations can be applied in order to aid and strengthen the individuals with such disorders in social and daily activities. Furthermore, it has also focused on the cognitive developmental abilities of children with Down syndrome and adults with Autism Syndrome Disorder.
Berk, L. (2017). Development through the lifespan. Pearson Education India.
Bjorklund, D. F., & Causey, K. Business-law. (2017). Children’s thinking: Cognitive development and individual differences. SAGE Publications.
Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., … & Mallah, K. (2017). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric annals, 35(5), 390-398.
Crain, W. (2015). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Psychology Press.
Gee, J. (2014). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses. Routledge.
Gomez?Pinilla, F., & Hillman, C. (2013). The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities. Comprehensive Physiology.
Lindenberger, U., & Mayr, U. (2014). Cognitive aging: is there a dark side to environmental support?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(1), 7-15.
Meadows, S. (2013). Parenting behaviour and children’s cognitive development. Psychology Press.
Memari, A. H., Ziaee, V., Shayestehfar, M., Ghanouni, P., Mansournia, M. A., & Moshayedi, P. (2013). Cognitive flexibility impairments in children with autism spectrum disorders: links to age, gender and child outcomes. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3218-3225.
Piaget, J. (2013). The construction of reality in the child (Vol. 82). Routledge.
Sappok, T., Budczies, J., Bölte, S., Dziobek, I., Dosen, A., & Diefenbacher, A. (2013). Emotional development in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: A retrospective, clinical analysis. PloS one, 8(9), e74036.
Segal, J. W., Chipman, S. F., & Glaser, R. (2014). Thinking and learning skills: Volume 1: relating instruction to research. Routledge.
Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2014). Life-span human development. Cengage Learning.
Smith, M. C., & Pourchot, T. (Eds.). (2013). Adult learning and development: Perspectives from educational psychology. Routledge.
Smith, P. K., Cowie, H., & Blades, M. (2015). Understanding children’s development. John Wiley & Sons.
Whalon, K. J., Conroy, M. A., Martinez, J. R., & Werch, B. L. (2015). School-based peer-related social competence interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis and descriptive review of single case research design studies. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 45(6), 1513-1531.
Wright, M. O. D., Masten, A. S., & Narayan, A. J. (2013). Resilience processes in development: Four waves of research on positive adaptation in the context of adversity. In Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 15-37). Springer, Boston, MA.

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