ITC240 IT Infrastructure Management

ITC240 IT Infrastructure Management

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ITC240 IT Infrastructure Management

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ITC240 IT Infrastructure Management

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Course Code: ITC240
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Task A ”The Queensland Health implementation project failure is the largest IS failure in the southern hemisphere to date, costing $1.25 billion AUD. This case highlights the importance of systematically analysing project fail ure. It examines the case organization details, royal commission report, audi tor general report and 118 witnes statements pertaining to the Queensland Health implementation project.(Eaden and Sedera, 2014Based on the Case Above as well as your Own Research on IT Service Delivery, answer the following questions:1. What were the key reasons for the IT implementation failure?2) In your view, who is responsible for the failure and why?3) Do some research on the use of IT by hospitals/health departments – give examples of success stories of the IT implementations and outline reasons for the success.4) Why was ”WorkBrain” not utilized properly?5) What would you recommend the Health Department to do to fix the current problems?Task B Write a paper for this assignment, you need to plan, research, and, use your initiative to express the knowledge you learnt in this subject as well as your own independent thinking and reasoning.Possible topicsYour attention in this paper can be focused on any of the following topics covered in our text such as for example:· Emerging Business Technologies· Raw Data Conversion/Mining· Comparative Analysis of the ERP Applications· IT Risk Management Strategies· E-Commerce Models and/or Implementation Strategies· Mobile Technologies.· Use of Social Media for Business.· Enterprise Systems and Applications.· Performance Management Using Data Visualization, Mashups, and Mobile Intelligence.

Task A
1:A key reason for IT implementation failure
There are various reason as to why many IT implementations fail. The first reason is lack of clear destination. The first step which the organization needs to do after making a decision that they need to implement an IT system is to be clear about the expectation and have a clear definition of success (Pritchett, Woolcock & Andrews, 2013). However, the consent of the problems by the organization results desired and specific financial justification of the IT project leads to challenges and issues which can lead to the project failure. Without a clear definition of success by the organization, the endpoints become moving targets. The second key reason for IT implementation failure is under-estimating the resources which are required to implement the system successfully. The organization should have a clear understanding of both the internal and external resources which are needed to complete the implementation of the project. The management should be aware of internal resources such as the time in which the project needs to be completed. Poor time management can lead to the project failure. Insufficient team resource is also termed as a leading cause of projects fail (Ponikowski et al., 2016). This happens when the team members do not have enough resources which are required to implement the system entirely. The team members can also be few which means the project has to take some time before it gets complete. Lack of expertise, skills, and knowledge of IT system implementation among team members leads to project failure. This is because to successfully implement IT expect it requires a lot of knowledge and skills. IT hopes implementation involves a lot of capital. Therefore, insufficient funding of the project can lead to project failure. The last reason for project failure is lack of testing of the project. Without severe and repeated testing of the project during its critical stages can lead to a collapse at the implementation phase.
2: Individuals responsible for IT implementation failure
Statistics show that in the past 75% of the project implementation was considered a failure as they were not able to meet the set objectives and goals within the budget of the project (Singh et al., 2013). Various groups of individuals are termed responsible for project failure. The first group is a vendor. This is because the expectations of the project should be set at the right level based on the willingness and the capability of the customer to take part in the implementation process. In case the customer is not able to educate the vendor on what is expected and the operation of the project due to lack of skills and knowledge, it is, therefore, the role of the vendor to ensure that they inform the customer and make them aware that they are most likely going to get a more generic installation one which sometimes cannot be used to improve their operational efficiencies as they expected. It is therefore apparent that professionals have had bad experiences with the previous implementation as vendors should ensure that the customer can understand what they should expect with their lack of involvement. Apart from vendors, customers are also responsible for project failure (Birkland, 2015). This happens because customers are the ones who are supposed to pay bills with IT software to improve their efficiency. It is the role of the customer to educate the vendor on all the needs and objectives which they expect to achieve from the project. Failure to this the vendor may not be aware of what the customer needs, and they end making mistakes as they design the plan without the knowledge of the customer which can lead to failure during implementation period as customers reject it.
3: Use of IT by hospitals and healthcare departments
With the use of IT in the healthcare sector and hospitals, patients are now capable of accessing more and better treatments and medication methods. A study conducted has indicated that IT has increased accessibility and tangible ways in which all patients even in remote areas can be able to afford (Pritchett, Woolcock & Andrews, 2013). IT has led to the opening of many more avenues which can be used by healthcare professionals for research and exploration so that they can make healthcare more driven and productive by providing high-quality health care services to patients than ever before. IT has led to improved health care services and efficiency. This is because healthcare professionals and doctors are now capable of using computers to keep patients record which can be retrieved and used in the future. Technology has enabled the patient to be able to use applications in their mobile phones to master their medication progress and also be able to understand health diets which they can take to reduce risks of been exposed to certain infections (Grol et al., 2013).
4: Why work brain is not utilized properly
Workbrain is in most cases not used appropriately because team members are not committed, and they tend to participate in other projects and activities. For an organization to be able to implement change, there must be a complete commitment (Kihl, Babiak & Tainsky, 2014). Another reason as to why work brain is not utilized correctly is lack of communication. This happens when team members are not communicating effectively with each other, and they are not able to share ideas and opinions. Poor communication leads to very many adverse effects. For example team members who are not resisting to change because their ego and self-interest may also not be able to participate in the project altogether. Another impact of poor communication is that team member who feels isolated and excluded are not able to give out their ideas and opinions because of fear. Poor leadership is another reason as to why work brain is not utilized correctly in most organizations (Candido & Santos, 2015). Every organization needs eligible leaders with adequate knowledge and skills so that they can be able to lead other employees in the right direction. Failure to this leads to lead to unappropriated utilization of work brain.
5: Recommendations used in the health department to resolve problems
The first step in which an organization can apply to be able to solve the issues and challenges which they are experiencing is by determining the problem so that they can be able to solve the problem. After realizing that something is not working in the organization, leaders and team members should consider what is interrupting the normal flow of operation so that they can come up with a solution which will prevent the problem from occurring again in the future (Hoch & Dulebohn, 2013). The second recommendation is describing the problem and the reason as to why it is happening. Finding the cause of the problem can be the tool which will be used to solve it. Another way of solving problems can be through brainstorming ideas from various employees to gather potential solutions which can be used to solve problems. Leaders and team members should not jump into conclusion by selecting the first idea, and they should not isolate other employees from participating in the problem-solving method. They should instead involve so that they can also make their opinion about a specific problem which can be very significant. Instead of firing a potential employee because of a minor issue, they should locate his skills and capabilities and place them in a position where they can be able to utilize their skills more effectively.
Task b
Emerging Business Technologies
The effects and influence of emerging technologies in almost every sector of business and society have not been overstated over the last decade. Use of robotics and nanotechnology among other has led to a better community and business can operate smoothly as these technologies have played an essential role in shaping our today industry and society for a better tomorrow. The emergence of robotics and nanotechnology have been triggered and inspired by the fundamental needs of companies and the community at large. Some of these needs include the need for greater efficiency by businesses, better healthcare services in healthcare institutions, a hygienic and cleaner environment by the society and security (Schoffman et al., 2013). Robotics and nanotechnology are just among several emerging business technologies which are introduced into our new century whose effects on business and culture is not yet fully determined. Determining the impacts of these emerging technologies is not a simple task. However, use of these emerging technologies in business and society has its own merits and demerits which will continue to occur as the as the evolution takes place.
Types of Emerging Business Technologies
It’s fantastic to know the different kinds of technology available for use in business and organizations.  This technology gives the power to retrieve any information and also give you the ability to communicate in every way possible.  Every day there seems to be something new.  New technology is bigger and better than the one being used. For the year 2017, seven major technological trends may be useful in a variety of business sectors (Eldredge et al., 2016).  If starting a business any of these will be great to use.  If your business is already up and running these technologies are available to help in every aspect of improving your business.  These seven emerging technologies include IoT and smart home tech or (Internet of Things), AR and VR (augmented and virtual reality), machine learning, automation, humanized big data (visual, empathetic, qualitative), physical-digital integrations and everything on-demand.  Of the seven, I will describe, compare and assess two of these, IoT and augmented and virtual reality (Morganti et al., 2013).
IoT (Internet of Things)
The IoT refers to the connection of devices to the internet, methods other than computers and smartphones. Different ways may include cars, appliances and heart monitors.  As IoT continues to grow more devices will be able to connect (Fridkin et al., 2014).  In theory, IoT is a network of connectable internet objects that can collect and exchange data by using embedded sensors. IoT has been able to produce a broad range of consumer technologies (Berry et al., 2014). IoT is not just designed to empower things but also to enable individuals. Connected devices through IoT can accelerate the existing trends of employees and mobility giving employees the capability of been more productive no matter their position in the business.
Application of IoT (Internet of things)
Smart Home is the most popular since it is more affordable and available to customers.  Examples include the Amazon Echo and the Nest thermostat.  These and other products that are available that users can control with their voices making their lives more connected Wearables (watches) are not only for telling time the Apple Watch and other smartwatches are used for texting, phone calls, emails, bill paying and much more.  Other devices like the Fitbit have helped to revolutionize fitness workouts by giving users data on their fitness workouts. With IoT, Smart Cities can help to solve everyday problems within cities that are faced by citizens on a daily basis (Manyika et al., 2013).  Examples are traffic reduction, reduction of crime and noise and pollution.  IoT Connected Car is internet accessed having the ability to share information the same as sharing or connecting to the internet at home or in the office.
Cost of IoT
Connected devices all require a support system.  This is called infrastructure.  This makes entering into the IoT market expensive. Figuring out the value of your IoT starts with a concept.  Preparing it will cut your cost but if not the price first begins with covering person-hours for research and prototype expenses.  Second is the cost of design and hardware. If this is costly, you can always use prototypes.  The third is complexity.  The more complex, the more expense you will have.  Unless there are millions to invest over a period, it is best not to challenge the industrial or home automation markets of IoT.  Fourth is the budget (Ju & Sohn, 2015).  It may take 20 to 30mpercent of your budget for developing an IoT app.  Partnering with a vendor can help absorb the cost.  Last is marketing.  Money is needed for marketing.  Convincing the consumer to use your app depends on your marketing technique.  The value of IoT is high.  Funding has grown by more than 30% within the last year.  If your idea is a feasible one, there may be an investor willing to help with the developmental cost.
Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
Augmented reality and virtual reality opposite technologies that are used to accomplish and deliver different results to users. Virtual reality offers digital recreation of real-life settings, and augmented reality provides virtual elements as covering to the real world settings (Bohnsack, Pinkse & Kolk, 2014).  Both AR and VR uses some of the same technology, and both give the user an enhanced experience when used.  VR is artificial and computer-generated.  It simulates or recreates real-life environments or situations. VR immerses the user by making them feel like they are experiencing reality firsthand, but it is reproduced using their vision and hearing.  This is achieved by the user wearing a headset (Facebook Oculus) equipped with the technology needed for this type of simulation.
Applications of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
VR creates imaginary reality for gaming and entertainment such as movies, computer and video games).  It also enhances real-life training environments by creating simulations of reality giving users the ability to practice before real life occurrences (flight simulators for pilots).  VRML coding (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) is used to create these images, and types of interactions needed for specific use Augmented reality (AR) is technology layering computer-generated enhancements on top of an existing fact.  This type of layering makes existence more meaningful because it enables the user to interact with it (Palo & Tahtinen, 2013).  AR is apps based and can be used on mobile devices giving the ability to blend digital components actions by enhancing each other but also staying separate.  AR is used for pop-out 3D emails and score overlay displays on telecasted sports games, photos and text messages on mobile devices.  AR is also being used with holograms and motion-activated commands. Using some of the same technology, both AR and VR gives users an enhanced and enriched experience.  Both are used in entertainment, business, medicine, and science.  
Cost of Virtual and Augmented Reality
The value of Virtual and Augmented Reality depends on several things.  As stated before both apps will hit an all-time high by the year 2020 with AR being three times more profitable than VR.  Because of what they can do for businesses some factors can influence the developmental cost of the apps.  For AR, platforms and business models can affect the value. These platforms can include Apple iOS, Android and Web/PC.  Complexity and application features and design can also change the price of the apps.  These are just a few and can send the price of AR upwards from $10,000 to $1,500,000. VR is set to reach $30 billion by 2020.  These apps are developed once it is known what is needed.  With this, the cost of VR development for business and other users can start at the cost of $40,000 to $100,000 (Seidel & Chatelier, 2013).  There of things that factor into the price of these apps whether high or low. In businesses, research and development will affect the cost of implementing VR apps.  The contents and software development will also change the price.  The complexity of the material negates the complexity of the software which can drive the cost.  Others factors that may force the apps cost are marketing and distribution, development, features, and integration.
Trends in IoT, Virtual and Augmented Reality
Research predicts that by 2020 there will be more than 24 billion IoT devices in use with an estimated four devices for every human on the planet.  This is predicted to be a $6 billion market which may include application development, device hardware, security, connectivity, and system integration.  By 2025 this will generate more than $13 trillion.  The entities that will benefit the most from the use of IoT ecosystems are consumers, businesses, and government. With revenues of $5.2 billion in 2016 and projected revenue of $150 billion by 2020, it is believed that everyone will be impacted by AR and VR at some point.  Business is using AR and VR for marketing (Valentine & Stewart, 2013).
An example of this is directing a shopper to go to a specific location to receive digital coupon codes.  Within businesses, VR and AR technology can change the way a company operates.  Training in companies can be done virtually without having to factor in safety issues (Yi, Qin & Li, 2015).  And can be more engaging for those being trained.  Conferencing and remote work becomes more comfortable in a virtual or augmented environment.  This may help reduce business costs.  VR and AR shopping allows the consumer to shop and try on items without leaving their homes and there is also the ability to have virtual tours within the travel industry
Security Risk of IoT, Virtual and Augmented Reality
Being connected brings about risks. These risks are to security and privacy.  These are the primary concerns of IoT business and consumer users and VR and AR users.  Cyber-attacks are a significant concern and threat to companies as more connected devices are used.  Hackers can access cars, homes, critical infrastructures resulting in businesses focusing more on cybersecurity that ensures the safety of data being collected (Dastjerdi & Buyya, 2016).  Businesses and consumers will be the top users of IoT and VR and AR because it can help reduce operating cost, increase their productivity and help expansion into new markets, product design and product offerings.  All pose a risk of privacy invasions, digital data, and physical security risks.
Comparison between Virtual reality and Augmented Reality
In contrast, VR and AR apps allow users to step into reality.  VR allows you to use a set of goggles or a headset that enables images to feed into eyes from two small lenses creating an artificial environment.  AR works without a headset or glasses (Chen, 2017). Using your mobile phone AR overlays information over existing information.  IoT is a network of objects connected by the internet that enables the user the ability to collect and exchange data by using embedded sensors (household appliances and personal electronics).
The emerging use of information technology affects the day to aspects of many businesses and organizations.  New and emerging technology changes everything on a daily basis affecting the way we conduct business or do things around the house.  With these emerging technologies, companies can implement the use of apps throughout their organizations.  These apps can help with marketing, training, production, and demand. The purpose of technology also helps business globally.  IoT, VR, and AR all in some degree can assist companies in their communication processes. With the use of the many devices available for use, emerging technology will continue to have a significant impact on business and society.  
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