INFO1010 Introduction To Information Systems

INFO1010 Introduction To Information Systems

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INFO1010 Introduction To Information Systems

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INFO1010 Introduction To Information Systems

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Course Code: INFO1010
University: The University Of Newcastle is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Do research to identify the latest findings on the negative effects of sitting for long hours working at a computer. Find recommendations on how to arrange your desk and computer to avoid health problems. Prepare a brief presentation that summaries your finding and identifies what can be done to offset these negative effects.


This assignment deals with a problem that needs to be solved by analysing the factors and contributing to the steps so that unwanted situations could be eliminated. The alternative plans are designed to reduce the negative side effect of sitting for longer time duration. In the modern culture, there is a working hours of 8-9 hours where employees need to sit for longer time duration. This lifestyle have many consequence like burning less fat and blood circulation as it results in chances of heart disease. Sitting all day long also weakens the muscles which in turn also decreases the stamina. Sitting in a bad posture can cause pain in back, neck or shoulder (Clemes, et. al, 2016). Thus, in this report the problem faced are discussed and the solution is implemented. The outcome of this problem is also listed so that proper precautions are taken to avoid serious health issue.
Problem definition
In present time it is observed that most of the people have longer working hours that result in sitting for a longer time duration. Sitting for all day long is hazardous to health, as just sitting and not moving for hours can cause risk by having blood clots and lower extremities (Chastin, Fitzpatrick,  Andrews & DiCroce, 2014). By just sitting in front of computer excessive calories are not burnt. The problem associated with sitting for longer is weight gain (Clemes, et. al, 2016). Sitting for a longer time decreases lipoprotein lipase activity that is the ability of body to burn the fats. Thus, it increases the level of fat and carbohydrates. Apart from that, it causes poor blood circulation which leads to swollen ankles, blood clots and varicose veins. There is a consequence of burning less fat and blood circulation as it results in chances of heart disease. Sitting all day long also weakens the muscles which in turn also decreases the stamina (Chastin, Fitzpatrick,  Andrews & DiCroce, 2014). Sitting in a bad posture can cause pain in back, neck or shoulder. It is observed that repetitive movements can cause strain thus it is important to have physical movement. Sitting for longer time duration and working on computer can also cause eye strain (de Souto Barreto, et. al, 2016). Thus, in this report the negative effects of sitting for hours and working at a computer are discussed. Thus, few recommendations are discussed to avoid the health problems (English, Healy, Coates, Lewis, Olds & Bernhardt, 2016). Some of the solution are identified and then implemented so that health issues are resolved.  
Solution proposal
It is suggested that longer sitting should be avoided this could be done by arranging the desk and computer at an appropriate distance. It is suggested that short breaks should be taken so that a little movement take place (de Souto Barreto, et. al, 2016). It is recommended that the mode of travelling should be changed and the canteen and pantry of office should be at a distance so that little movement takes place. Additionally, activities are planned that could be done while standing in office that allow employees to work in different positions (D’Abundo, Sidman & Fiala, 2015). Employees should take a break from the screen so that insulin and metabolism gets improved. It is suggested that break should be taken in every 30 minutes. If the work is only at the desk, one should try standing and improvise a high table counter (English, Healy, Coates, Lewis, Olds & Bernhardt, 2016). Sometimes the one on one session can be taken while walking rather than sitting in the conference room and discussing (Li, et. al, 2017).
Employees should stand in every 90 minutes so that blood flow is appropriate. The posture of sitting should be noted. It is suggested that employee should not sit at 90 degree angle that could cause strain in joints. While reaching the workplace, stairs should be used instead of lifts and elevators (Clemes, Patel,  Mahon & Griffiths, 2014). This will keep movement in body and could be seen as an exercise. Thus, some of the remedies that are suggested to avoid negative effects are taking frequent breaks and stretching, adjusting the posture to reduce strain on your wrists, keeping your hands and arms relaxed and using little force while using mouse or keyboard (Li, et. al, 2017). There should be a cushion that should be used for taking support of back. It minimizes the load on the back and manages the strain. Apart from the sitting posture, the eye should be aimed at the centre of screen so that neck strain could be reduced (Parrish,  Trost, Howard, Batterham, Cliff, Salmon & Okely, 2018).
Some of the actions that will help in reducing the risk of developing sitting related health problems. Some of the steps are taking 10 minutes’ walk in the lunch time or in breaks so that healthy blood flow is maintained (Dempsey, et. al, 2018). Some other implementation could be standing up regularly as it keeps the cellular functions activated. A track should be kept about the steps so that fitness level could be tracked. At the workplace every day in the morning or after lunch a session could be kept in which activities are undertaken to improve the health parameter (Brakenridge, et. al, 2016). It is suggested that movement should be made more during the working hours by setting alarm and schedule breaks or by taking part in some office activities. It is suggested that breaks should be taken at regular interval.
Solution implementation
The implementation could be done by keeping the distance of computers at a fixed position. Additionally, every day in the morning there should be an activity session in which physical exercise is done. This will definitely keep all the employees active and fresh the entire day. In the office a relaxation zone could be created so that employees and go and relax when they wish to take a break (Gao, et. al, 2018). This will help in relaxing the muscles and making sure that ankles are relaxed. The conference meetings could be done by standing and one on one session could be done while talking. It is important to find ways so that longer sitting could be avoided. Short breaks should be taken so that strain is not caused. Sitting for more than eight hours can lead to postural problems like disc damage, strained neck and swayed back in long run (Puig-Ribera, et. al, 2015). Thus, it is suggested that all the corporate employees work in sitting position for long hours complain of these postural problems. The modern workplace has the ability to allow humans to stand and work (Chen, Zhang, Zhang & Zhao, 2018). The environment of workplace should be modern and flexible that allows employees to work in any way in any direction (Stephens, et. al, 2014). Even while sitting at the place body should be starched instead of sitting at a single position. Meeting should be taken while walking this will also help in managing the stress (Lynch & Owen, 2015). The office should also have an area where pool and gym should be there so that while going back to home little amount of time could be spent (Saidj, Jørgensen,  Jacobsen, Linneberg, Oppert & Aadahl, 2016). The office should be organised in a way that stand up and move around office could be managed.
Studies say that if you sit for long day it has negative effect on the molecular level. It is bad for the human body as it is not designed for that way.  It is recommended that you should stand up and move so that frequent movements take place. The outcome of sitting for longer time duration has negative health effect (Bailey, Broom, Chrismas, Taylor, Flynn & Hough, 2015). Like it is observed that sitting for longer time causes dementia and can raise the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure and cholesterol. Sitting for long time also cause lack of strength and cause body weakness. It also increases the risk of diabetes and psychological stress (Bailey, Broom, Chrismas, Taylor, Flynn & Hough, 2015). Exercising regular will help in overcoming from the negative side effects and will also compensate with the damage caused from sitting for period. One should take initiative to support health and well-being by getting up every hour and scheduling the meetings in a way that more walking is possible.
Thus, it can be concluded from the above report discussion that sitting for longer time can cause serious health issues. Thus, it is necessary to have proper implementation through which negative effects could be overcome. Thus it is recommended that as one can’t exercise during the day, then they should be sure that exercise should be done regularly throughout the week to maintain your health. It is suggested that exercise sessions should be kept in the morning like dancing, hiking, aerobics or whatever could be done for burning some calories and toning up the body. The problems along with the outcome and solutions are discussed.
Bailey, D. P., Broom, D. R., Chrismas, B. C., Taylor, L., Flynn, E., & Hough, J. (2015). Breaking up prolonged sitting time with walking does not affect appetite or gut hormone concentrations but does induce an energy deficit and suppresses postprandial glycaemia in sedentary adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(3), 324-331.
Brakenridge, C. L., Fjeldsoe, B. S., Young, D. C., Winkler, E. A. H., Dunstan, D. W., Straker, L. M., & Healy, G. N. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of organisational-level strategies with or without an activity tracker to reduce office workers’ sitting time: a cluster-randomised trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 115.
Chastin, S. F., Fitzpatrick, N., Andrews, M., & DiCroce, N. (2014). Determinants of sedentary behavior, motivation, barriers and strategies to reduce sitting time in older women: a qualitative investigation. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(1), 773-791.
Chen, X., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., & Zhao, R. (2018). The effects of cigarette smoking on the associations between sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. European journal of public health.
Clemes, S. A., Barber, S. E., Bingham, D. D., Ridgers, N. D., Fletcher, E., Pearson, N., … & Dunstan, D. W. (2016). Reducing children’s classroom sitting time using sit-to-stand desks: findings from pilot studies in UK and Australian primary schools. Journal of Public Health, 38(3), 526-533.
Clemes, S. A., Patel, R., Mahon, C., & Griffiths, P. L. (2014). Sitting time and step counts in office workers. Occupational medicine, 64(3), 188-192.
D’Abundo, M. L., Sidman, C. L., & Fiala, K. A. (2015). Sitting behavior and physical activity of college students: Implications for health education and promotion. International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology (IJAVET), 6(3), 61-78.
de Souto Barreto, P., Morley, J. E., Chodzko-Zajko, W., Pitkala, K. H., Weening-Djiksterhuis, E., Rodriguez-Manas, L., … & Izquierdo, M. (2016). Recommendations on physical activity and exercise for older adults living in long-term care facilities: A taskforce report. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(5), 381-392.
Dempsey, P. C., Hadgraft, N. T., Winkler, E. A., Clark, B. K., Buman, M. P., Gardiner, P. A., … & Dunstan, D. W. (2018). Associations of context-specific sitting time with markers of cardiometabolic risk in Australian adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 114.
English, C., Healy, G. N., Coates, A., Lewis, L., Olds, T., & Bernhardt, J. (2016). Sitting and activity time in people with stroke. Physical therapy, 96(2), 193-201.
Gao, L., Flego, A., Dunstan, D. W., Winkler, E. A., Healy, G. N., Eakin, E. G., … & Wiesner, G. H. (2018). Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the” Stand Up Victoria” trial. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 44(5), 503-511.
Li, I., Mackey, M. G., Foley, B., Pappas, E., Edwards, K., Chau, J. Y., … & Winkler, E. (2017). Reducing office workers’ sitting time at work using sit-stand protocols: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(6), 543-549.
Lynch, B. M., & Owen, N. (2015). Too much sitting and chronic disease risk: steps to move the science forward. Annals of internal medicine, 162(2), 146-147.
Parrish, A. M., Trost, S. G., Howard, S. J., Batterham, M., Cliff, D., Salmon, J., & Okely, A. D. (2018). Evaluation of an intervention to reduce adolescent sitting time during the school day: The ‘Stand Up for Health’randomised controlled trial. Journal of science and medicine in sport.
Puig-Ribera, A., Martínez-Lemos, I., Giné-Garriga, M., González-Suárez, Á. M., Bort-Roig, J., Fortuño, J., … & Gilson, N. D. (2015). Self-reported sitting time and physical activity: interactive associations with mental well-being and productivity in office employees. BMC public health, 15(1), 72.
Saidj, M., Jørgensen, T., Jacobsen, R. K., Linneberg, A., Oppert, J. M., & Aadahl, M. (2016). Work and leisure time sitting and inactivity: effects on cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. European journal of preventive cardiology, 23(12), 1321-1329.
Stephens, S. K., Winkler, E. A., Trost, S. G., Dunstan, D. W., Eakin, E. G., Chastin, S. F., & Healy, G. N. (2014). Intervening to reduce workplace sitting time: how and when do changes to sitting time occur?. Br J Sports Med, bjsports-2014.

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