Theory X and Theory Y as coined by Douglas McGregor in his book “The Human Side of Enterprise” represent the assumptions about human nature and behavior. These two sets of assumption are important to the practice of management as they play an imperative role in human resource management, administrative development and behavior analysis of organizations.The theories look at the behavior of individuals at work focusing on organizational behavior. According to McGregor (1960) these theories help organizations alter their view on human resource and its practices. He postulates that one theory is negative i.e. Theory X whereas the other one, Theory Y is positive. This essay will explain Theory X and Y and determine its impact on the study of organizational behavior.IMPACT OF THEORY X AND Y ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Essay.


            Theory X proposes that employees innately hates to work and they will escape it when given a chance. The theory look at the negative part of human nature where people are viewed as irresponsible thus require constant supervision in order for the them to do their job as required. Thus they must be controlled, compelledor threatened with punishment for failing to achieve set goals so that they provide maximum output they possibly can. A normal person prefers to be directed, loathe responsibilities and yearn for security at all times. The organization, therefore, has to impose tough rules and regulations to govern and control the employees’ behavior. Punishments and tight controls are imposed on employees in a bid to achieve and maintain harmony in the organization. McGregor (1960) states that employees will display little or no hard work unless they are enticed with incentive program. Managers who are guided by theory X believe that everything has to end in blaming somebody. They believe that the sole goal of employees is to earn money and not to achieve the goals of the organization. They therefore blame the employees in everything they do. Those that critique this theory say that the manager could be reason to inhibition of employee productivity and drive.

Proponents of theory Y suggests that management influenced by this theory is characterized with employees being ambitious, concerned and self-motivated. Contrary to theory X, employees in theory Y accept and pursue responsibility and practice self-control autonomy and self-driven towards achieving set goals and objectives. They utilize all their mental and physical efforts in an appropriate manner in their occupations. Here, the employees do not require coercion, threat or control in order to attain maximum performance in their jobs since they are self-driven and require minimal supervision thus threat cannot be a necessity for them to work as required by the organization. Provided the job is satisfying, then the employees are bound to be committed to the organization with no need of compulsion or threat of being punished failure to achieving set goals and objectives of the organization. One advantage theory Y has over theory X regarding organizational behavior is that the organization uses employees’ creativity, imagination and inventiveness to solve numerous problems. Under this theory of management, the intelligence capacity of an average man is partly utilized thus proposing that employees have a vast pool of knowledge that can be utilized to achieve maximum success of an organization (Davis, 1960).IMPACT OF THEORY X AND Y ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Essay.

These theories impact by a large percent to organizational behavior such that according to theory X, organizational behaves in a manner to control all those elements that gear the businesstowards achieving its predetermined goals; these elements include, money, equipment, materials and human work force. Under the same theory, organizations managers and supervisors are tasked with the responsibility of supervising, motivating and controlling employees’ actions towards accomplishing needs of the organization (Jameson, 2007). Without vigorous intervention by organization’s management, employees can inactive or even reach the extent of resisting the organizations needs that require them to put much effort in their jobs. Therefore, there is need for the organization to persuade, reward or punish employees in a bid to ensure they work towards the organizations goals and objectives. This theory, therefore,impacts on organizations behavior such that the management is tasked with getting things done via other people. However, theory x management proponents have harsh restrictions imposed on employees by the organizations mangers which in turn restrict employees’ output, mutual cynicism.

McGregor put forward assumptions that will alter organization behavior that can lead to effective management of workers, a theory he calls theory y. Theory y is referred the soft style of management where employees are self-motivated towards need satisfaction therefore the management requires less effort for motivation and supervision. However… Suggests that the soft style of organization leads less performance of mangers to perform since employees are self-motivated. Also, the employees can exploit manager’s overly permissiveness by performing at lower that required yet they demand more. Milner (2007) suggests that theory x leads to ineffective management since human’s needs are arranged in levels where physical needs are placed at the bottom of hierarchy and self-actualization being at the top of the rank. He proposes that once the worker archives his needs then he is not motivated any further thus unmet wants are motivational. Since most employees have already satisfied their physical needs, they shift their motivational emphasis to self-actualization. Consequently, the management is tasked with providing the employees with self-actualization motivation failure to which the employees would not be contented in their jobs. To avoid tis draw-back, the management should allow employees to participate in decision making and stressing on good work group relation.

In conclusion, theory x and theory y as put forward by McGregor impacts on managerial behavior as theory x emphasizes on organizations motivation and constant supervision on employees so that maximum output is achieved. This requirement is as a result of human nature of refusing responsibility and requiring rules to drive employees towards organization’s needs. Also, McGregor theory y influences organizational behavior as supervision is not a mandatory as human beings are viewed as self-motivated.IMPACT OF THEORY X AND Y ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Essay.

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