Impact Of Childcare On Young Children

Impact Of Childcare On Young Children

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Impact Of Childcare On Young Children

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Impact Of Childcare On Young Children

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Discuss about the Impact of Childcare on Young Children.

Over the last few decades, an increase has been determined in the number of young children in preschool settings, where children are left under non-parental care. It is also believed that 2/3 of the children are currently under non-parental care arrangements. On an average, a child spends 32 hours per week in such settings (Laughlin, 2010). Also such kind of transition occurs very fast after the birth of the child. The transition of child’s life from parental care to non-parental care occurs very rapidly. The impact of child care is very significant as it affects the development of the child. Due to the rising trend and increasing number of working mothers, the children are entering the non-parental care, as early as in three months age. The findings of different studies related to early childhood health (Almond and Currie, 2010), and early education can pose a lasting effect on the mental and emotional development of children. The social functions of the children under non-parental care are affected. 
The industrialized societies have marked an augmentation in the number of maternal employment in the last three decades. Different countries respond differently towards the non-parental childcare. In some countries it is the responsibility of the state, however some other countries it is private concern. The quality of the childcare is very diverse. This literature review is going to present the overview of the risks associated with child’s social and emotional well-being under non-parental care. The literature review will present the impact of center based care on children.
Literature Review
The recent work of literature provides extensive evidences for the outcomes related to the incidence of infection, injuries to social-emotional health and cognitive development. The non-parental care emerges in two different forms (Bradley & Vandell, 2007; Pianta et al., 2009). According to the literature the first forms is the center based care, which does not provide very favorable results for the children, as these centers provide adverse effects on the child development, which provide slight improvement in the mental ability of the children but increased behavior problems. Second, is the high quality care setting for children, which can be considered as favorable for the economically disadvantaged children? The families who are using non-parental care are different from those who are not using such care facilities, have not been fully accounted.
According to the study done in Australia by Gray, Baxter & Alexander (2008), it has been noticed that there have been an increase in the non-parental care. However, it was also found that families having a young child, who is breastfeeding, are more parent-care based. However, it do not suggest that involvement of father is more, thus mother organize their time according to their children. In this study it also stated that, parent care was the main choice and mother reduced her working hours or working as freelancers.
The early relationship of the child and mother is considered as the foundation stone for the mental, emotional and social development. It also defines the later psychological development of the child. Thus, the first focus of the research is that does this early separation of mother and child by non-parental care can disturb this mother-child relationship. It has been found that prolonged separation of mother and child, due to this non-parental care can reduce the mother’s ability to respond sensitively towards the child needs. In contrast, it results in reducing the child’s confidence and consistency of the parent’s responsiveness.
In the early life of child’s, the separation from mother and the routine non-parental care can be linked with increased attachment insecurity in children and reduces maternal sensitivity. Some of the studies also explored that non-parental care has increased the injuries and communicable disease in children. It is often perceived that when a child is exposed to a larger group of people, the risks associated with pathogens increases in young children. The prolonged effect of the child care could be nil, as it may be possible that children who are under non-parental care from the early phase of life develop immunity against diseases. Yet it has also been observed that childhood illness and injuries have resulted in increased social cost. The work of Gordon et al., (2007), states that when a child spends more time in center based care and less in family based environment increases the risk of ear infection and respiratory problems. But, the impact of such disease diminishes as the child attains the age of three years, which indicates the immunizing effect of the early exposure.
The second part of the research focus on the children’s behavioral development and cognitive ability, positive peer interaction, compliance and self control. For the child’s early achievement, it is important that child must acquire such skills. The mental and behavioral functioning of the child in the childhood defines his personality in future. The early parental care allows the children to develop better cognitive and mental skills and attachment. However, in the non-parental care can be linked with weak bonding and interaction with peers, increased behavioral problems and underdeveloped cognitive skills. According to the study of Belsky et al. (2007), the center based care for the children increases the disruptive behavior that may persist in children throughout their childhood. According to Bernal & Keane (2011), the same results are seen in the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
According to the attachment theory, a secure and healthy attachment of the child with family is derived by the mother and child relationship and availability of the mother. The availability of the mother also ensures secure attachment and secure child’s appraisal. Availability of the mother stands for presence of mother and mother being accessible of the child. The lack of mother’s accessibility induces feeling of loss or separation in children. The accessibility of the mother is defined in two forms, first is that child may be able to understand that lines of communication are open with mother and second is child must have the confidence that mother would respond to his or her needs (Kobak & Madsen, 2008). As, the children, who are emotionally and physical attached to their mother, are able to tolerate physical distance in older age because they know that they have attachment with their mother. The early disruption in the physical accessibility of the child towards mother is also related with maternal insensitivity, and disturbed socio-emotional and language development of child (Narea, 2014).
According to Bowlby (2008), the center based care in the early childhood implies the separation of the child from mother for long hours and separation of the child from the primary attachment. Thus, the early experience of the child with non-parental center based care can disturb attachment bonds and gives adverse impact on the socio-emotional development. The study of Camilli, G. et al., 2010 provides database, which also includes quasi-experimental and randomized studies. This study verified the cognitive outcomes on children, which states that early childhood interventions and education interventions have significant impact on the cognitive development of children. Some of the researches explain that the impact of center based care and the childhood developmental outcomes are diverse, which depends upon the child’s age and time that child spends in the center. Baker, Gruber and Milligan (2008), used the model called as “differences in difference model”; where the children from Canada were the control group. The children from Quebec were the treatment group. This study found out that publically funded non-parental care centers are responsible for providing negative impact on the social and motor skills of children between the ages 0 to three years. The significant decline of 10% was noticed in the standard deviation. This situation has been explained by the author that publically funded care centers have lead to more employment of mothers. This has essentially resulted in the decline of attachment and emotional relationship between child and parent, and it has also potentially reduced the parental health. Both the situations results in low child development.
However, the study of Felfe and Lalive (2012), used the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for their study and proved that very young children and those from deprived socio-economic background are benefited by the center based care. According to the study of Loeb et al. (2007), the average age of the children starting it center based care is 0-4 years. They found that children starting center based care at 2-4 years of age have positive and enhanced skills of readings and mathematics. 
The literature review provides the details about the impact of center based care on the social, mental, emotional well-being of young children. The literature informs that center based care affects the development of the child by impacting the cognitive and social skills. The maternal separation at the young age may develop distress in the child and lack of emotional sensitivity in the mother. The quality of care is also an important factor, which children receive in center based care. However, some of the studies even state that center based care are beneficial for children who come from low deprived background.
Almond, D. & Currie, J. (2010). Human capital development before age five. NBER Working Paper No. 15827. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research
Baker, M., Gruber, J. & Milligan, K., 2008. Universal Child Care, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being. Journal of Political Economy, 116(4), pp.709– 745.
Bowlby, S.R., (2008). Attachment , what it is , why it is important and what we can do about it to help young children acquire a secure attachment QOC Volume. C. Clouder, B. Heys, & M. Matthes, eds., Belgium: European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education and the Alliance for Childhood European Network Group 2009/10.
Bernal, R. & Keane, M. (2011). Child care choices and children’s cognitive achievement: The case of single mothers. Journal of Labor Economics, 29, 459-512.
Belsky, J., Vandell, D. L., Burchinal, M., Clarke-Stewart, K. A., McCartney, K., Owen, M. T., et (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care? Child Development, 78, 681–701.
Bradley, R. & Vandell D.L. (2007). Child care and the well-being of children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 161, 669-676.
Burger, K., (2010). How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), pp.140–165.
Camilli, G. et al. (2010). Meta-Analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112(3), pp.579–620
Felfe, C. & Lalive, R. (2012). Early child care and child development: For whom it works and why. , (7100), pp.1–44
Gordon, R., Kaestner, R., & Korenman, S. (2007). The effects of maternal employment on child injuries and infectious disease. Demography, 44, 307-333.
Gray, M., Baxter, J., & Alexander, M. (2008). Parent-only care. A child care choice for working families? Family Matters, 79, 42-49. Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Kobak, R., & Madsen, S. (2008). Disruptions in attachment bonds: Implications for theory, research, and clinical intervention.
Laughlin, L. (2010). Who’s minding the kids? Child care Arrangements: Spring 2005/Summer Current Population Reports P70-121. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau
Loeb, S., Bridges, M., Bassok, D., Fuller, B., & Rumberger, R. W. (2007). How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children’s social and cognitive development. Economics of Education review, 26(1), 52-66.
Narea, M. (2014). Does early centre-based care have an impact on child cognitive and socio- emotional development? Evidence from Chile (No. case183). Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
Pianta, R., W. Steven Barnett, Margaret Burchinal, & Kathy R. Thornburg. (2009). The Effects of preschool education: What we know, how public policy is or is not aligned with the evidence base, and what we need to know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 49–88.

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