ICT310 System Analysis And Design

ICT310 System Analysis And Design

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ICT310 System Analysis And Design

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ICT310 System Analysis And Design

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Course Code: ICT310
University: University Of The Sunshine Coast

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Country: Australia


Your manager has done some reading and is sure that an adaptive systems development approach is necessary for the new information systems project to develop Online Back-to-school ordering system.
a)Your manager has asked you to write short essay on adaptive systems development discussing the various methodologies of adaptive development. State under what circumstances each methodology would be used and how they may be applied to your case study project.
b)You manager has asked you to choose and justify the use of a methodology for the case study project.
Your target audience is executive business people, who have extensive business experience but limited computing knowledge.

Technology have proved to be of great prominence in assisting the business organisations in attaining the general operations of the firm. However, it is crucial that the technology used for the system are up to mark and offer accuracy and ease of use for the organisational operations. Information Systems is the most adopted technology and to ensure their accuracy and ease of use it is crucial that the development of the system is given proper attention (Muñoz-Merino et al. 2015). Hence, based on the above discussed fact the firm, School Supplies Pty Ltd has made plans to detail focus on the development of the system. The firm in discussion supplies stationery for the business clients. However, the case firm specialises in the educational supplies to the parents, carers and schools. Hence, it will be justified to state that the customer base of the firm is huge and is rapidly increasing which is evident from the case study. Hence, the firm has planned to design a system for the the process of Online Back-to-School ordering. The governing body of the firm believes that the development of the system should be carried out by adaptive methodology and hence, the discussed essay details the adaptive methodology, its types along with their use and application in the project. The paper has been concluded with recommending the most adequate methodology for the design and development of the system.
Adaptive systems development
Adaptive system development is the umbrella consisting of different methodologies that are able to accommodate changes during the development phase and are even adaptable in the turbulent scenarios. The process in discussion always evolve and hence, it can be stated that it is mission & client driven, iterative, collaborative and learning in nature. Certain other factors also define the approach however, the process adopted by the approach can be categorised in three phases (Consorti et al. 2015). The discussed phases are speculation, collaboration and learning. The three phases are repeating itself during the development phase so that the developed system is in context with the business requirement while offering innovative and disruptive functionality (Berkane, Seinturier and Boufaida 2015). The discussed development approach includes certain methodologies that can offer support in the development of a system and they have been detailed in the following sub-sections in context with the case needs.
System prototyping
One of the simplest methodology that can be adopted by the firm for the development of the system is the system prototyping model. As the name suggests the discussed methodology develops a prototype initially that is shared with the stakeholders and based on their feedback the system is developed by inducing the necessary changes (Abrahamsson et al. 2017). The most prominent benefit of the discussed methodology is that it resolves multiple issues which might impact the outcome of the system development. The core benefit of the discussed methodology is that as a prototype of the system is presented to the users, they can evaluate the functionality of the system and accordingly provide their feedback to improve th final system which also mitigate the failure threats (Giardino et al. 2016). However, certain cons of the methodology are also associated and they include the excessive investment of the resources which is undesirable and too many modifications may completely alter the functionality of the system. 
The discussed methodology can be adopted for the provided case if the firm is willing to invest additional resources for a prototype model (Krahn, Rumpe and Völkel 2014). However, before adopting the model it should be ensured that the feedbacks provided for the prototype model must be genuine and complete. Any incomplete or fake feedback will lead cite adverse impact on the system development and eventually lead to a faulty functionality of the final offering. The users of the system will be clients (parents/ carers), schools and internal stakeholders. The feedback of the internal stakeholders can be controlled but the same cannot be stated for the clients, if they become part of the requirement gathering. Hence, the firm should make decision over selection of the methodology based on the fact. 
Rapid application design is a system development methodology that emphasises on working tools and techniques along with user feedback rather than emphasising on the requirement recording or strict planning. The discussed methodology believes in more practical activities rather than relying on theoretical activities such as planning and other similar activities (Abrahamsson et al. 2017). The methodology’s first step involves analysing of the requirement and making quick decisions. The users, designers and developers can gather around in a place and the decision over the requirements could be made in an instant. The next step involves developing of a working prototype which is continuously upgraded based on the feedback of the users to attain the an efficient and effective final offering. The discussed step is a repetitive step that is done to ensure that all the business requirements are met. The final step involves testing of the developed system in different environment and scenarios to ensure the success of the system.  
The core benefit of the methodology is that it is rapid in nature and is achieved in chunks (Fuggetta and Di Nitto 2014). Achieving the project in chunks is beneficial because it enables the developers to cite appropriate focus on each part of the system and ensures that each and every aspect of the system is functional and accurate. Additionally, involving the user also makes the developed system suitable for the users.
The discussed system can be adopted by the firm because the case study has made it evident that Rebecca is getting frustrated because of the workload and direly need the system. Moreover, the available pool of users such as the internal stakeholders can continuously offer their feedback. However, the high cost and feedback reliability is a question that needs to be considered before selection of the methodology. Furthermore, the need for skilled developer to leverage the methodology accurately is also a factor that needs to be accounted for.
Joint Application Development (JAD)
The discussed methodology considered to be the most efficient methodology for the business system because of its nature to focus more on the business requirements rather than the technical detailing (El-khoury, Gürdür and Nyberg 2016). Hence, it can be stated that the discussed methodology is a requirement driven methodology which includes periodic meeting between the end-users, developers and the project owners. A special sessions JAD sessions are adopted as part of the methodology to ensure that the clients and stakeholders are involved in the designing and development of the system. 
The most prominent benefit of the discussed development method is that it collects a large amount of data to successfully develop a system while resolving the differences through meetings and even allows brainstorming regarding the features during the meetings (Abrahamsson et al. 2017). However, the discussed methodology will consume a lot of time and effort by the project owner and stakeholders also that needs to be accounted for. Furthermore, the process will deem need for experienced and skilled developers to offer a reliable development.
The discussed methodologies have their share of advantages and differences however, it is recommended that is the firm wishes to save time than they should adopt RAD on the contrary, if they wish to save resources than JAD is a better option. Though, depending upon the current scenario of the firm RAD is recommended. 
To: [Name of the Destination]
From: [Name of the Student]
CC: [Name of the Professor]
Date: [Enter the Date]
Re: Handling the designing of the Human Computer Interface.
The aim of the memorandum is to offer an insight into the different approaches that will be considered to handle the designing of the HCI for the online system. Hence, to attain a reliable discussion a background of the project has been detailed which is succeeded by the core discussion. The discussion has made it evident that the three crucial aspects that will be considered while designing the system is its nature of UCD, its support at the system level and its compatibility with different environments. The UCD is crucial because the system will be used by the end-users and hence, designing the system with them in centre is crucial while attention on the system level support have been considered because the system will response to the user. Finally, the environmental factor has been considered because the system can be used in any environment, making it crucial to design the HCI to be supportive with a number of environment. The memo has been concluded to offer a summary of all the discussion as part of the conclusion.
School Supplies Pty Ltd is planning to develop a system to support the online sales of the firm and one of the crucial aspects of a system is the HCI abbreviation for Human Computer Interface. It defines the interactivity level between the human and the system and eventually becomes crucial for proper functionality of the system. Hence, the discussed memorandum is aimed at offering an insight into the processes involved in the designing of the HCI. Different approaches to design a HCI has been taken into discussion to offer an ease of support for the readers to understand the discussion.
The designing of the HCI will be handled in three prominent ways to ensure that the final outcome of the product is effective, efficient and reliable. The first approach will be to include the users as part of the designing process. The discussed measure has been adopted because the end-users will be the ones who will be use the system and eventually offering their satisfaction with the interface most prominent. Hence the designing of the HCI will pursue the UCD (User Centric Designing) which is focused on the designing the interface taking consideration of the user’s perception. As part of this process Cognitive walkthrough evaluation will be adopted to evaluate the functionality of the interface in context with the user. The discussed evaluation approach evaluates the system based on the perception of a first time user. It will assist the developers to develop a UCD based HCI.
The second consideration that will be adopted to manage the designing of the system is to design the HCI to support the system. The reason for the above made statement can be supported by the fact that the system will not only interact with the humans but will also respond to their query which should be clear and visible. Furthermore, the internal processes and certain notification also needs to be displayed by the system and hence, it becomes crucial to consider the perspective of the system also. Hence, the designing of the HCI will considered the support of the system level as well to ensure that the output of the final offering is well established and reliable.
The final consideration that will be made will designing the HCI of the system is of the environment. The discussed consideration is crucial because the system will be used in different environments that may extend from the PCs to smartphones and hence, it becomes crucial that the HCI should support different environment. Furthermore, the clients may also use the system in broad daylight or in dark; may have a low connectivity; may be technology friendly or may not be, in the process making it crucial to consider all the possible environment before designing the HCI. The HCI should be responsive, keyboard supportive and should also consider other options that may occur due to a potential environment.
Hence, the discussion above can be summarised to state that the HCI needs to be supportive of different factors and aspects and hence, it becomes crucial that the designing of the system should consider those factors and aspects to handle the designing. The designing will be handled by testing the HCI for UCD, system level support and its efficiency in different environment.
Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J. and Warsta, J., 2017. Agile software development methods: Review and analysis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.08439.
Berkane, M.L., Seinturier, L. and Boufaida, M., 2015. Using variability modelling and design patterns for self-adaptive system engineering: application to smart-home. International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology, 10(1), pp.65-93.
Consorti, F., Basili, S., Proietti, M., Toscano, E. and Lenzi, A., 2015. LexMeter: validation of an automated system for the assessment of lexical competence of medical students as a prerequisite for the development of an adaptive e-learning system. Frontiers in ICT, 2, p.2.
El-khoury, J., Gürdür, D. and Nyberg, M., 2016. A model-driven engineering approach to software tool interoperability based on linked data. International Journal On Advances in Software, 9(3 & 4), pp.248-259.
Fuggetta, A. and Di Nitto, E., 2014, May. Software process. In Proceedings of the on Future of Software Engineering (pp. 1-12). ACM.
Giardino, C., Paternoster, N., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Gorschek, T. and Abrahamsson, P., 2016. Software development in startup companies: the greenfield startup model. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 42(6), pp.585-604.
Krahn, H., Rumpe, B. and Völkel, S., 2014. Roles in software development using domain specific modeling languages. arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.6618.
Muñoz-Merino, P.J., Kloos, C.D., Muñoz-Organero, M. and Pardo, A., 2015. A software engineering model for the development of adaptation rules and its application in a hinting adaptive e-learning system. Computer Science and Information Systems, 12(1), pp.203-231.
Manghisi, V.M., Uva, A.E., Fiorentino, M., Gattullo, M., Boccaccio, A. and Monno, G., 2018. Enhancing user engagement through the user centric design of a mid-air gesture-based interface for the navigation of virtual-tours in cultural heritage expositions. Journal of Cultural Heritage.
Mariano, L.J., Poore, J.C., Krum, D.M., Schwartz, J.L., Coskren, W.D. and Jones, E.M., 2015. Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models. Frontiers in psychology, 6, p.919.
Preece, J., Rogers, Y. and Sharp, H., 2015. Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. John Wiley & Sons.
Zhang, R., Wang, J., Wang, Z., Xu, Z., Zhao, C. and Hanzo, L., 2015. Visible light communications in heterogeneous networks: Paving the way for user-centric design. IEEE Wireless Communications, 22(2), pp.8-16.

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