HUBS1401 Human Bioscience

HUBS1401 Human Bioscience

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HUBS1401 Human Bioscience

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HUBS1401 Human Bioscience

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Course Code: HUBS1401
University: The University Of Newcastle

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Country: Australia

Question
Write an essay Homeostasis of the body and discuss skin homeostasis as an example ( an argumentative essay not descriptive) .

Answer 
Homeostasis
Introduction
The human body is made up of various cells that altogether serve in the maintenance of the entire organism (Standring, 2015). While the cells, tissues, and body organs execute very diverse functions, all the body cells are comparable in their metabolic requirements. Keeping a continuous interior environment by giving the body cells with what they require to live and what is essential for the health of both separate cells and the whole body (Standring, 2015). The numerous methods by which the human body maintains its interior atmosphere are together called homeostasis (McEwen, & Wingfield, 2010). The corresponding activity of main body systems upholds homeostasis. Homeostasis denote as the constancy, balance, or steadiness inside a cell or the human body. It is the organism’s capability to retain a continuous internal atmosphere and is the essential feature of living things (Humphrey, Dufresne, & Schwartz, 2014). In this particular essay, the term homeostasis will be discussed and skin homeostasis will also be mentioned as an example.
Role of homeostasis in the physiology of the human body
Homeostasis plays the main part in the appropriate running of the body. This is controlled by diverse reactions like thermoregulation, osmoregulation, and the chemical regulation by altering structures in the human body, such as digestive system, breathing system, urinary system, and nervous system (Sherwood, 2015). These body systems uphold the constancy of the human body by freeing the inducement when the hormonal quantity rises or declines. The inducement is produced; the cells work consequently to uphold the suitable working of the cell (Sherwood, 2015). Therefore feedback regulation work and uphold the cells to reach to the fixed point. The body’s endocrine system of the body has a controlling influence on other body systems. The hormones in the muscular body system regulate muscle breakdown, energy generation, and development. The hormones in the body’s nervous system, impacts neural breakdown, control liquid and concentration of ion and assist with generative hormones that affect brain growth (Sherwood, 2015).
Three major mechanisms controls Homeostasis are:

Osmoregulation
Thermoregulation
Chemical Regulation

These events occur in the human body by the numerous systems like the endocrine system, reproductive system, nervous system, respiratory system, and urinary System (Tabarean, Morrison, Marcondes, Bartfai, & Conti, 2010).
Feedback Regulation
Hormones control the action of body cells. Inducement or stimulus organizes the discharge of hormones into the bloodstream. Feedback regulation defined as the reaction to an inducement changes the interior situations and leads to a new inducement and this self-regulating method by the interior system (Avraham, & Yarden, 2011).
The feedback maintenance or regulation is of two types:

Positive type of feedback regulation
Negative type of feedback regulation (Avraham, & Yarden, 2011)

Positive type of feedback regulation
Positive type of feedback is less general in the organic systems. The positive type of feedback works to speediness up the route of alteration such as Lactation. The prolactin hormone discharge associated with the infant sucking the milk (Hendry, Farley, & McLafferty, 2012).
Negative type of Feedback regulation:
Thermoregulation
Negative type of feedback is the most general feedback loop present in the human natural system. To uphold the homeostatic equilibrium the system works to opposite the route of change to manage the things persistent (Tu, Long, Svenningsen, Wingreen, & Bassler, 2010).
Example one:  When the CO2 level rises in the air, which a person breathes, the lungs receive signals to respire CO2 more which leads to rising in the respiration rate and carbon dioxide level is balanced and then the lungs work generally (Tu, Long, Svenningsen, Wingreen, & Bassler, 2010).
Example 2: When the temperature of the body rises, then spontaneously the skin receptors and hypothalamus intellects the hotness alteration and stimulate a message from the head part. This further cause’s skin to secrete sweat, the blood containers (vessels) close to the skin apparent will widen and that assist to reduce the temperature of body and this is termed thermoregulation that comes under the negative type of feedback loop (Tu, Long, Svenningsen, Wingreen, & Bassler, 2010).
Osmoregulation
Osmosis is the necessary procedure that causes in the body for the appropriate working of cells. Osmosis is the process that regulates the Aquatic movement in the human body. The balancing of both flanks of the membrane of the cell manages the Osmosis, for the appropriate working of most required biochemical procedure of the cells (Damkjær et al., 2013).
In two circumstances, which can change the biochemical, course and leads to the cell death are:

The increase in the concentration of deliberation of solutes beyond regular in the ECF (extracellular fluid) which originates in the association of ICF (intracellular surface) to the extracellular surface will happen which leads to the cell contraction (Noda, & Sakuta, 2013).
The decrease in the deliberation of solutes in ECF, which results in the movement of ECF within the cells lead to the inflammation of the cell and breaks the cell later certain degree (Noda, & Sakuta, 2013).

The management of steady concentration of the solutes is the mandatory process for the appropriate working of body cells and diffusion and osmosis retains this process. The unicellular organism that survives in the environment by the using O2 from the outside atmosphere generates the energy essential for its development and existence. It also discharges the unwanted waste and carbon dioxide straight into the atmosphere (Damkjær et al., 2013).
The Multicellular organisms such as human beings are contained trillions of body cells, the majority of the body cells are entrenched inside the body, and therefore they cannot interchange with the atmosphere openly so body cells exchange materials with the liquid present around them. The blood plasma is a portion of the ECF of the organism. The cells designs the ECF, on the outside atmosphere, is via the cells. The Cells are in constant interaction with the ECF (Danziger, & Zeidel, 2015). 
Chemical type of Regulation
Regulation of blood glucose rate is the illustration of negative type of feedback. The concentration of Blood glucose increases after eating food. The hormone called insulin is secreted by the pancreas, and it increases the transportation of body glucose from the blood to the particular tissues (Houdas, & Ring, 2013). The concentrations of Blood glucose then reduces, which then drops the original inducement. The excretion of insulin hormone into the bloodstream is then declined (Houdas & Ring, 2013).
Skin homeostasis
The integumentary system has various parts to play in homeostasis such as safety, regulation, heat control, sensory receptors, absorption, and biochemical production. The primary function of the skin is to work as the obstacle to the entry of harmful microorganisms like viruses and to stop H2O and the ECF (extracellular fluids) loss. Melanocytes are the molecules that form the second barrier to provide safety from the harmful effects of UV radiation. When the microorganisms enter the skin the inflammatory response produced. When the temperature of the body increases, the hypothalamus transfers messages to the sweat generating skin glands, which leads to the secretion of nearly 1-2 liters of H20 in every 60 minutes to cool down the body. The brain part called hypothalamus also triggers the enlargement of the blood vessels of the human skin, that permits more blood to run through these vessels and leads to the heart to be put away from the skin (Nestle, DI Meglio, Qin, & Nickoloff, 2009).
Temperature maintenance is one important homeostatic function. The mammals and birds are hot-blooded; they regulate a continuous body heat despite exterior atmosphere alterations. Human uphold their body heat of 370C; human have reactions to drop temperature when the get too warm and methods of retaining temperature when they get too cold. When the temperature of the body decreases, the sweat glands squeeze and production of sweat is reduces. If the body heat remains to drop, the body might be involved in the thermogenesis or warmth production by shivering and by aggregate the metabolic level of the human body (Seneschal, Clark, Gehad, Baecher-Allan, & Kupper, 2012).
Water loss in the skin
The loss of water occurs in the human skin in two different ways;

Evaporation
Sweating (Taylor, & Machado-Moreira, 2013).

In the warm climate, nearly four liters/hour can be lost by both evaporation and sweating. The skin injured by burning is less operative at avoiding the fluid loss, frequently leads to a life threatening issue if not cured (Lee, 2010).  The sensory receptors present in the skin comprise those for pain or ache, force (touch), and heat. Deeper inside the body skin are Meissner’s corpuscles that are particularly mutual in the edges of the fingers and lips, and are too sensitive to the touch (Vega, García?Suárez, Montaño, Pardo, & Cobo, 2009). Pacinian corpuscles generally retort to pressure. Heat receptors: respond when it is cold or hot (Vega, García?Suárez, Montaño, Pardo, & Cobo, 2009).
Conclusion
The human body is composed of numerous cells that overall assists for upholding the whole body. Keeping the inside environment stable is essential for the common activity of the body. Homeostasis known for serves to maintain the constancy, steadiness, or balance inside the cell or the organism’s body. Homeostasis is the most important process of the body and controlled by different mechanisms; thermoregulation, osmoregulation, and chemical regulation. Thermoregulation consists of two different reactions such as positive feedback regulation and negative feedback regulation. Osmoregulation is required to maintain the liquid balance inside the cells.  The chemical regulation involves the regulation of blood glucose with the help of the insulin hormone. Skin homeostasis is the example of Homeostasis which regulates the skin temperature and work as the barrier by using water loss by two different ways like evaporation and sweating. The receptor is known as Meissner’s corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles help in the sensation of touch and temperature.
References
Avraham, R., & Yarden, Y. (2011). Feedback regulation of EGFR signaling: decision making by early and delayed loops. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 12(2), 104.
Damkjær, M., Isaksson, G. L., Stubbe, J., Jensen, B. L., Assersen, K., & Bie, P. (2013). Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis. Pflügers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology, 465(1), 153-165.
Danziger, J., & Zeidel, M. L. (2015). Osmotic homeostasis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 10(5), 852-862.
Hendry, C., Farley, A., & McLafferty, E. (2012). Introduction to the life sciences series and homeostasis. Nursing Standard, 26(44).
Houdas, Y., & Ring, E. F. J. (2013). Human body temperature: its measurement and regulation (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Humphrey, J. D., Dufresne, E. R., & Schwartz, M. A. (2014). Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 15(12), 802.
Lee, J. W. (2010). Fluid and electrolyte disturbances in critically ill patients. Electrolytes & Blood Pressure, 8(2), 72-81.
McEwen, B. S., & Wingfield, J. C. (2010). What’s in a name? Integrating homeostasis, allostasis, and stress. Hormones and behavior, 57(2), 105.
Nestle, F. O., Di Meglio, P., Qin, J. Z., & Nickoloff, B. J. (2009). Skin immune sentinels in health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 9(10), 679.
Noda, M., & Sakuta, H. (2013). Central regulation of body fluid homeostasis. Trends in Neurosciences, 36(11), 661-673.
Seneschal, J., Clark, R. A., Gehad, A., Baecher-Allan, C. M., & Kupper, T. S. (2012). Human epidermal Langerhans cells maintain immune homeostasis in skin by activating skin resident regulatory T cells. Immunity, 36(5), 873-884.
Sherwood, L. (2015). Human physiology: from cells to systems (9th ed.). USA: Cengage Learning.
Standring, S. (Ed.). (2015). Gray’s anatomy e-book: the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.).  London, UK: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tabarean, I., Morrison, B., Marcondes, M. C., Bartfai, T., & Conti, B. (2010). Hypothalamic and dietary control of temperature-mediated longevity. Ageing research reviews, 9(1), 41-50.
Taylor, N. A., & Machado-Moreira, C. A. (2013). Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans. Extreme Physiology & Medicine, 2(1), 4.
Tu, K. C., Long, T., Svenningsen, S. L., Wingreen, N. S., & Bassler, B. L. (2010). Negative feedback loops involving small regulatory RNAs precisely control the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing response. Molecular Cell, 37(4), 567-579.
Vega, J. A., García?Suárez, O., Montaño, J. A., Pardo, B., & Cobo, J. M. (2009). The Meissner and Pacinian sensory corpuscles revisited new data from the last decade. Microscopy research and technique, 72(4), 299-309.

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