HSE208 Integrated Human Physiology

HSE208 Integrated Human Physiology

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HSE208 Integrated Human Physiology

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HSE208 Integrated Human Physiology

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Course Code: HSE208
University: Deakin University

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Country: Australia

Describe about the Integrated Human Physiology For Physiological Response .

Cardiovascular system functions as a network pathway for transportation of substrate and oxygen to the peripheral organs and excretion of waste products such as heat and carbon dioxide. This report is mapped to investigate the functioning, to express and elaborate the cardiovascular reactions due to stress. In order to determine the holistic and the most appropriate stressors that affect the blood pressure and the heart rate, several practical measures have to be performed. The measures include; systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and also determine the mean arterial pressure (MAP).
The main aim of the practical was to determine the actual regulation of blood pressure at the time when a person is experiencing some physiological challenges. The practical aimed elaborating the understanding of the heart regulation through practical experimentations of diastolic and systolic blood pressures and the heart rate using the sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. All the practical test was carried out including the handgrip, change in posture and cold pressor test with an overall objective in human physiology to acquire the integrated result of how blood pressure in human circulation system behaves due to stressors and how it is regulated. 
Orthostatic hypotension is the decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 20 mm Hg or in the other hand the decrease of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 10 mm Hg after standing for around three minutes in comparison to the blood pressure while in a supine or sitting position. According to the experimental result, orthostatic hypotension did not occur because the difference between the SBP while at the supine position and after standing is less than 20 mmHg and also the difference of the blood pressure in DBP while at supine and after standing is less than 10 mmHg [2]. 
Extreme cold environment leads to the activation of the neuron that results to the sympathetic stimulation and thus the release of noradrenaline. The sensory afferent nerves stimulate the activation of the sympathetic system which results to vasoconstriction. The pulse pressure is elevated due to the release of the catecholamine release. The ventricles are filled by the high pressure to a greater level, but the increase in the afterload reduces the stroke volume. Immersion in cold water leads to changes in the physiological processes as the regulatory system detects and responds to maintain a stable environment for the body homeostasis. The capacity to respond depends on the integrity of the cardiovascular system to control the heart rate and blood pressure through the mechanism that regulates water levels in the blood. The nervous system responds to the changes in the blood pressure due to immersion while the renal and hormonal responses function to mitigate the changes for a long period [4]. 
Some of the physiological systems that have worked together during the practical investigation to evaluate the effect of stress in the body include; the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system and the limbic system [1].
Nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is the one associated and response to fight and stress. Various neural synapses release substances specifically norepinephrine and adrenaline in many body organs and tissues which prepares the body for the immediate physical movement and rapid metabolic change. Sympathetic branch of the central nervous system triggers the catabolic functioning when an element of threat within the body [3].
The Endocrine system
The endocrine system consists of four glands that are located in the whole body which are responsible for regulating the metabolic functions due to endurance such stress. These glands include; melatonin, hypothalamus, serotonin and pituitary glands. Serotonin; is a neurotransmitter associated with moods- when in low levels is related to depression and it is affected by food consumed and stress hormones. Melatonin is related to moods, sleep, and consciousness. Pituitary glands, through the hypothalamus commands it releases ACTH which then triggers the adrenal glands to secrete stress hormones. Hypothalamus is associated with emotional status and releases substances to pituitary glands that activate the flight-or-fight response [3].   

Ellis BJ, Del Giudice M. Beyond allostatic load: Rethinking the role of stress in regulating human development. Development and Psychopathology. 2014 Feb;26(1):1-20.
Oscar CG, de Figueirêdo Müller-Ribeiro FC, de Castro LG, Lima AM, Campagnole-Santos MJ, Santos RA, Xavier CH, Fontes MA. Angiotensin-(1–7) in the basolateral amygdala attenuates the cardiovascular response evoked by acute emotional stress. Brain research. 2015 Jan 12;1594:183-9.
Levi L, editor. Stress and distress in response to psychosocial stimuli: laboratory and real-life studies on sympatho-adrenomedullary and related reactions. Elsevier; 2016 Jan 26.
Lovallo WR. Stress and health: Biological and psychological interactions. Sage publications; 2015 Feb 10.

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