HPS111 Psychology A Fundamentals Of Human Behaviour

HPS111 Psychology A Fundamentals Of Human Behaviour

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HPS111 Psychology A Fundamentals Of Human Behaviour

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HPS111 Psychology A Fundamentals Of Human Behaviour

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Course Code: HPS111
University: Deakin University

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Country: Australia

Your task is to critically analyse empirical support for the central claims presented in an online article. You are also required to develop a literature search strategy to identify scholarly articles that support or counter the claims in the article. You are also required to present and explain the relevance of the presented evidence in relation to the primary issue in the article, and comment on the credibility of the claims made by the author. Finally, you must adhere to scientific writing conventions and clearly articulate your argument. This includes your ability to construct a logical, well-structured, and well-supported argument.
The central claims of the source article are that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can cure neurological and psychiatric conditions, boost cognitive ability, and requires specialised purification procedures. Your task is to evaluate the veracity of these claims using scholarly, empirical evidence. You can evaluate these claims using direct evidence (e.g. studies which have directly examined these conditions), or (in the case where no direct evidence exists), indirect evidence (e.g. related research areas, or studies using animal models). 

As researched by Lefaucheur et al., (2014), the procedure of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation involves the administration of magnetic fields for the purpose of stimulation of cerebral nerve cells, in order to result in the improvement of symptoms pertaining to auditory disabilities and depression. The treatment is non-invasive in nature and involves continuous administration of magnetic fields, hence, owing to its name, ‘Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.’ The following paragraphs of this report, aims to critically analyze the benefits and perceived treatment principles involved in the usage of transcranial magnetic stimulation, in response to the claims presented by an article available online (Stone, 2016).
An electronic search strategy was conducted using databases such as COCHRANE, MedLine, BioMed and PubMed and key words such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, auditory treatments, depression, tinnitus, learning, memory along with Boolean Operators. Articles with relevance to the keywords were selected, while those irrelevant to the same were excluded.
Overview and Side Effects
As stated by Opitz et al., (2016), the procedure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is non-invasive and neuro-stimulatory in nature, and requires the patient to undergo multiple sittings, usually amounting to twenty or thirty and requires the administrations of electrical impulses of very low frequency, with the usage of magnetic coils. As researched by Levkovitz et al., (2015), due to its non surgical and non invasive nature, the usage of transcranial magnetic stimulation, does not necessitate anesthesia usage and is devoid of risks such as seizures, as compared to surgical procedures like deep brain or vagus nerve stimulation. For the same reason, rTMS usage has been documented to be safe as well as significantly tolerable amongst patients. However, as researched by Le et al., (2014), certain side effects have been documented pertaining to its usage, such as headaches, lightheadedness, twitching, spasmodic or tingling feelings in facial muscles and feelings of discomfort in the stimulated area. As a response to these effects, the concerned clinician may be required to decrease the stimulation level or encourage administration of over-the-counter medications prior to the treatment. Further, as researched by Zack et al., (2016), rTMS usage has also been documented to yield detrimental side effects such as loss of hearing due to  inadequate  auditory  protection  during administration,  mania in patients  suffering  from   bipolar  disorders  and  even  seizures.
Usage in Hearing Disorders and Drug Addiction
Amidst a backdrop of rTMS being beneficial for treatment of auditory disorders and tinnitus, mixed results from researches have been obtained, which included experimental studies between patient groups receiving the above and placebo. Further information concerning intensity of stimulation, frequency of stimulation and required frequency of sessions, is required (Folmer et al., 2015). As researched by Terraneo et al., (2016), usage of rTMR has also been found to lower responses by the brain associated with drug addiction especially among individuals engaged in chronic adherence to cocaine and alcohol. However, there is still lack of sufficient information concerning rTMS usage in management of Meniere’s Disease, due to ongoing research (Viana, Bahmad Jr & Rauch, 2014).
Usage in Auditory Cortex Problems and Major Depression
According to McClintock et al., (2018), for the treatment of depression, rTMS usage has been documented to yield beneficial results, especially among patients who have displayed lack of responsiveness towards common treatments. However, as researched by Berlim et al., (2014), the sustainability of the recovery associated with rTMS still remains questionable, due to the documented relapse rates exhibited by most patients. For the purpose of auditory cortex problems such as auditory hallucinations, rTMS usage has been documented to be advantageous. The procedure may also aid in the resurfacing  of  abilities  pertaining  to  naming in Alzheimer’s patients (Rose et al., 2016).
Enhancement of Memory and Learning 
As researched by Orlov et al., (2017), the administration of magnetic pulses by rTMS may also result in the enhancement of memory and learning especially in patients suffering from neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s, resulting in increased understanding of visual information, remembrance of lists or unusual words and arithmetic problem-solving skills. However, as observed by Gersner et al., (2011), concerning neuroplasticity, rTMS has been projected to exhibit immediate improvements, while insufficient evidence is available regarding prolonged consequences.
Need for Detoxification 
The given online article claimed the requirement of heavy metal detoxification for patients preparing to undergo treatment by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (Stone, 2016). However, a literature search yielded no forms of scientific evidence suggesting the veracity of these claims. However, a research review by Gorelick et al., (2014), focusing on implications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in substance abuse uncovered mixed results in patients with alcohol craving, who had undergone high frequency rTMS, exhibiting evidence that treatment focusing on the right side of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seemed to decrease cravings, while no such effects were perceived in the left side undergoing similar treatment.
Sufficient scientific evidence was uncovered directing at the potentially beneficial effects resulting from rTMS usage in the treatment of hearing and neurological disorders, along with enhancement of memory and learning. While the information concerning side effects presented by the article could be backed by scientific evidence, there was however, no mentioned of detrimental long term side effects as presented by credible research. Further, the claims by the online article concerning requirement of detoxification, had very little scientific evidence for its justification. Hence, from the above critical analysis with the help of scientific evidence, it can be observed that certain claims by the given online article may be backed by relevant information, while certain sections are devoid of the same.
Berlim, M. T., Van den Eynde, F., Tovar-Perdomo, S., & Daskalakis, Z. J. (2014). Response, remission and drop-out rates following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials. Psychological medicine, 44(2), 225-239.
Folmer, R. L., Theodoroff, S. M., Casiana, L., Shi, Y., Griest, S., & Vachhani, J. (2015). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for chronic tinnitus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA otolaryngology–head & neck surgery, 141(8), 716-722.
Gersner, R., Kravetz, E., Feil, J., Pell, G., & Zangen, A. (2011). Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on markers for neuroplasticity: differential outcomes in anesthetized and awake animals. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(20), 7521-7526.
Gorelick, D. A., Zangen, A., & George, M. S. (2014). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of substance addiction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1327(1), 79-93.
Le, Q., Qu, Y., Tao, Y., & Zhu, S. (2014). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on hand function recovery and excitability of the motor cortex after stroke: a meta-analysis. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 93(5), 422-430.
Lefaucheur, J. P., André-Obadia, N., Antal, A., Ayache, S. S., Baeken, C., Benninger, D. H., … & Devanne, H. (2014). Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(11), 2150-2206.
Levkovitz, Y., Isserles, M., Padberg, F., Lisanby, S. H., Bystritsky, A., Xia, G., … & Hafez, H. M. (2015). Efficacy and safety of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. World Psychiatry, 14(1), 64-73.
McClintock, S. M., Reti, I. M., Carpenter, L. L., McDonald, W. M., Dubin, M., Taylor, S. F., … & Krystal, A. D. (2018). Consensus recommendations for the clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(1).
Opitz, A., Fox, M. D., Craddock, R. C., Colcombe, S., & Milham, M. P. (2016). An integrated framework for targeting functional networks via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroimage, 127, 86-96.
Orlov, N. D., Tracy, D. K., Joyce, D., Patel, S., Rodzinka-Pasko, J., Dolan, H., … & Shergill, S. S. (2017). Stimulating cognition in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study of the effects of prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation upon memory and learning. Brain stimulation, 10(3), 560-566.
Rose, N. S., LaRocque, J. J., Riggall, A. C., Gosseries, O., Starrett, M. J., Meyering, E. E., & Postle, B. R. (2016). Reactivation of latent working memories with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Science, 354(6316), 1136-1139.
Stone, R. (2016). Can Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Increase IQ?. [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/@SpeedyReads/can-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-increase-iq-d1d39cd7853a [Accessed 11 Dec. 2018].
Terraneo, A., Leggio, L., Saladini, M., Ermani, M., Bonci, A., & Gallimberti, L. (2016). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cocaine use: a pilot study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(1), 37-44.
Viana, L. M., Bahmad Jr, F., & Rauch, S. D. (2014). Intratympanic gentamicin as a treatment for drop attacks in patients with Meniere’s disease. The Laryngoscope, 124(9), 2151-2154.
Zack, M., Cho, S. S., Parlee, J., Jacobs, M., Li, C., Boileau, I., & Strafella, A. (2016). Effects of high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation on gambling reinforcement, delay discounting, and stroop interference in men with pathological gambling. Brain stimulation, 9(6), 867-875.

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