Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
We have been discussing and studying IV therapy, fluid and electrolyte imbalances and diabetic emergencies. Choose ONE of the following to answer for your initial post, then respond to at least one of your classmates. For your response post try and respond to a post that no one else has given a response. Feel free to respond to more than one, but you are required to respond to at least one of your peers.Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
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1. Compare and contrast diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS).
2. Discuss the risk factors for hypovolemia and fluid overload and the treatment for each.
3. Discuss the risk factors, s/s and treatment for hypo and hyperkalemia.
4. Discuss risk factors, s/s and treatment for hypo and hypernatremia
Advanced Pathophysiology & Health Assessment NUR5703 2011 Pre-course Learning Objectives: Fluids and Electrolytes: 1. Identify and describe the composition of the fluid compartments within the body Either Intracellular fluid (ICF- 2/3 of the body’s water) or extracellular fluid (ECF -one third of the body’s water). The two main extracellular fluid compartments are the interstitial fluid and the intravascular fluid, which is the blood plasma. Other ECF compartments include the lymph and the transcellular fluids such as the synovial , intestinal, bilary, hepatic, pancreatic, CSF, sweat, urine, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial and intraocular fluids. 2. Discuss the function of the following electrolytes within the body and…show more content…
magnesium is a major intracellular cation. About 40-60% is stored in muscle and bone with 30% in the cells. A small amount 1% is in the serum. Magnesium is a cofactor in intracellular enzymatic reactions, protein synthesis, nucleic acid stability, and neuromuscular excitability. * Calcium: Ca++ 2.25-2.75 mmol/L. Most calcium (99%) is located in the bone and the remainder is in the plasma and body cells. Calcium is a necessary ion for many fundamental metabolic processes: * It is the major cation for the structure of bones and teeth * It serves as an enzymatic cofactor for blood clotting * Is required for hormone secretion and the function of cell receptors * Plasma membrane stability and permeability are directly related to calcium ions, as is the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscles * ICF calcium is primarily located in the mitochondria * Chloride: Cl- 95-105 mmol/L. Chloride is the major anion in the ECF. It provides electroneutrality, particularly in relation to sodium * Phosphate: HPO4- 0.5- 1.25 mmol/L Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
Extracellular fluid and Intracellular fluid
Water represents 60% of body weight in males and 50% in females. However, this water contains a lot of soluble substances. The total body water in the body is divided into intracellular and extracellular.
Intracellular fluid is the liquid contained inside the cell membrane. It comprises of approximately 25-40 litres of fluid.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) includes all the fluid present outside the cells. The total amount of ECF is approximately 14 litres in a 70 kg person. Depending upon the location in the body, ECF is divided into the interstitial fluid, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, intraocular fluid, lymph, gastrointestinal fluid and fluid in potential space. The fluid present in the space between the cells is known as the interstitial fluid. Plasma is a colourless, protein-rich liquid with mature red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The interstitial fluid that enters and circulates throughout the lymphatic system is called lymph. It is rich in white blood cells and helps in fighting against infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is found in the brain and the subarachnoid spaces surrounding the brain. It is also found in the spinal cord. The intraocular fluid or the aqueous humor is the transparent fluid present in the front part of the eye. Potential spaces are the spaces between the two adjacent structures. They contain a large amount of fluid. For example, the space between the visceral and the parietal pleura, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity, joint cavities and bursae. The fluid in the gastrointestinal tract is the gastrointestinal fluid. Milk, secreted by the milk-producing glands located in the breasts of female mammals is another example of extracellular fluid.Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
Characteristic ions of ECF and ICF
The intracellular fluid mainly contains K+ and P- with the protein anions. The ICF contains small amount of sodium and chloride ions and almost no calcium ions. Na+ is the main cation and Cl- is the main anion of the ECF. ECF also contains large quantities of bicarbonate ions and small quantities of potassium, magnesium, sulfate, phosphate and organic acid ions. The amount of proteins in the ECF is less as compared to the ICF (Sapakova & Maasova, n.d.).
Maintaining electrolyte balance
Sodium and potassium play a major role in maintaining electrolyte balance in the body. This is done by maintaining the exchange of fluids and the electrolytes.Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
Role of sodium to maintain electrolyte balance
Sodium functions mainly in controlling and regulating water balance. A decrease in ECF results in reduced vascular volume, blood pressure, and cardiac output. This is known as volume contraction. Conversely, volume expansion is the increase in vascular volume, blood pressure and cardiac output that occur when the ECF in the body is increased. If the Na+ balance in the body is decreased, ECF volume decreases. This results in the decrease in the renal NaCl excretion. On the other hand, when the Na+ balance is positive, ECF volume increases. This enhances the renal NaCl excretion and is known as natriuresis (Koeppen & Stanton, 2013).Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
Role of potassium to maintain electrolyte balance
According to the American certification agency for healthcare professionals (2011), potassium is an important electrolyte to maintain skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle activity. The sodium-potassium pump regulates extracellular potassium levels by pumping sodium out of the cells and allowing potassium flow back into the cells. Acting on the distal tubules in the kidneys, aldosterone triggers excretion of potassium and reabsorption of sodium. Thus, maintaining the electrolyte balance in the body.
Homeostasis is the body’s attempt to maintain a constant internal environment. This requires constant monitoring and adjustments as the conditions change. All the cells in the body are sensitive to changes in the H+ ion concentration. If the pH of the body is not maintained, the cells may become denatured and get destroyed. This disrupts the homeostasis of the body. If the electrolyte level in the body is not maintained, it may lead to dehydration or hyperhydration. Dehydration is the decreased body fluid volume while, hyperhydration is the increase in the body fluid volume.Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
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The kidneys regulate the acid base balance in the body along with blood, proteins and acids which act as buffers. When there is a rise in the pH, the excess H+ ions are released to neutralize the base. If there is a drop in the pH (acidosis), H+ ions bind to raise pH to normal. The ECF contains the phosphate buffer system in low concentration to maintain the pH. The human body also has carbonate buffer system. The lungs take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. This regulates pH in the blood. The glucose level in the blood is regulated and maintained by the liver. The hormones insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas also play an important role in regulating the blood glucose level in the body. To maintain homeostasis, the kidneys remove urea. This adjusts the concentration of the urea and different ions (Blay, 2002).
Maintaining proper levels of anything in your body is important for your body to function appropriately. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals, negative or positive, and run throughout the body’s fluids, blood, and urine. The major electrolytes of the body are Na+ (sodium), K+ (potassium), Cl– (chloride), Ca2+ (calcium), H+ (hydrogen), HCO3– (bicarbonate), and phosphates; these electrolytes can be found in the food and drinks we consume everyday. They are responsible for many body processes such as the transport of water and other fluids within the body, muscle activity, and even metabolism to name a few. If one were to fail to balance their electrolyte levels whether the amount is too high or too low, with any of the electrolytes that the body uses, it can create problems for any individual’s functionality. With that being said electrolyte levels inside the body are amongst one of the many things in ones body that are important to keep balanced on a day-to-day basis.Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
Electrolytes affect the osmolarity of the body’s fluids, which is the amount of mineral content present in the fluid itself. Directly related to water balance, electrolytes work with the water in the body to carry out its processes and aid in transportation and distribution across membranes due to the positive or negative charges that have resulted from the solutions. This makes the two, water and electrolytes, dependent on each other meaning that if water levels are insufficient or there is excess it would affect the osmolarity that would throw off the balance causing solutions around the body to be more dilute or concentrated. Similar complications would occur if the electrolyte levels were too low or high. Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Essay
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