Epidemiological event or accomplishment in healthcare essay discussions
Epidemiological event or accomplishment in healthcare essay discussions
Week 1 discussion Discussion Part One Discuss one historical epidemiological event or accomplishment that has left an impact on healthcare as we know it. Clearly identify, describe, and define key points or people in the event or accomplishment. Discussion Part Two How might such an event have an impact on the goals and objectives of Healthy People 2020? Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 2 discussion Discussion Part One Shelby is a 32-year-old mother of two, who has smoked 1 pack-per-day for the last 15 years, and who comes to see you today for her yearly well-woman exam in your family practice clinic. She has a family history, in a single paternal grandmother of breast cancer at age 52. She also has a history of an abnormal cervical cancer screening three years ago requiring colposcopy. Given her history please consider the following: Choose one screening test that might be considered either now or in the next few years of Shelby’s care. Define the test, its positive predictive value, reliability and validity. Discussion Part Two Upon the course of your history you find out that Shelby has a great aunt on her mother’s side who died of ‘some woman cancer in her stomach’ and an uncle on her father’s side who died of pancreatic cancer. Her mother and older sisters are all in good health. Does this information change your recommendations for screening? Why or why not? Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 3 discussion Discussion Part One Risk and Cohort Study Design As an Advanced Practice Nurse, you will care for patients who are at risk for specific diseases. Please pick one chronic or infectious disease specific to a population in your geographic area and provide evidence of risk, relative risk, and odds ratio in relation to that disease, and specific risks in the population you identified. Discussion Part Two Now that you have identified the disease and risk, what is one evidence-based action that you could take within your local community or patient population to prevent this risk? Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 4 discussion Discussion Part One Disease Causation Steve, a 54-year-old Caucasian male, presents for a first time visit to your clinic. His history includes five sexual partners in the last 25 years, two of those within the last twelve months, lack of physical activity of any kind as he is an over-the-road truck driver, 25-year history of smoking 1 pack per day, and no immunizations of any kind that he can recall since high school. His father died of a myocardial infarction at age 62. His mother is alive and has hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Type 2 Diabetes. His BMI is 31 and his blood pressure is 142/90. Name one disease he is at risk for and provide evidence on how one of his risk factors is tied to causation of that disease. Discussion Part Two Create a plan of care based on the disease risk you chose and define whether steps of that plan of care are primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention. Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 5 discussion Discussion Part One Epidemiologic Sub-fields Pick a disease in your geographic area and identify how it is tied to either infectious, chronic, gynecological or sexually transmitted infection (STI), environmental, cultural or geographic causation. Discussion Part Two Provide the specific descriptive epidemiological aspects of this disease as it relates to your geographic area. Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 6 discussion Discussion Part One Genetics and Epidemiology Pick one friend or family member and gather their family health history. Pick one possible genetic risk for disease in that person and provide the following: Gender, age Genetic risk for a specific disease Define the disease Evidence to link risk to development Identify if genetics is confounded or linked to any other epidemiological risk factors for disease development that might be modified in this patient. Discussion Part Two Discuss screening tools that might be an option for this person and why or why you would not recommend them at this time. Remember to provide evidence to support your answer. Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week. Week 7 discussion Discussion Part One As an Advanced Practice Nurse, you will care for patients who are at risk for opioid abuse or addiction. Please research and present the incidence of opioid abuse specific to your geographic area and provide evidence of risk, relative risk, and odds ratio in relation to opioid abuse, and if specific risks have been identified for a specific population(s). Discussion Part Two Please identify one local prevention or screening program tied specifically to opioid abuse / addiction and provide a brief overview of the purpose, program, and ongoing surveillance or evaluation of success. Discussion Part Three Please provide a summary of the case or information you have discussed this week and how you will incorporate these findings in your practice as an APRN. Week 1 assignment Key Concepts Worksheet Key Concepts Worksheet Guidelines& Grading Rubric Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to identify key concepts in epidemiology that will assist the student in understanding the purpose of epidemiology as it relates to clinical practice, surveillance and prevention of disease, and healthcare research.You will work on building a foundation of definitions and an understanding of how they apply to monitoring disease in populations. Course Outcomes Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to: (CO#1) Define key terms in epidemiology, community health, and population-based research. Due Date: Sunday 11:59 p.m. (MT) at the end of Week 1 Total Points Possible:50 REQUIREMENTS: 1. Complete the Epidemiological Key Concepts Worksheet. 2. For each question identify the correct answer and cite the source used to answer the questions 3. Submit the worksheet to the DropBox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 1 Course Information Worksheet Prior to completing this worksheet, review the Week 1 lecture and reading assignments (Chapters 1-4 of your course text). Provide a complete answer to each question. Each question is worth 5 points. Please cite the source of each answer below the answer as in the example provided below. EXAMPLE: Question: Modes of indirect common vehicle disease transmission include single exposure,multiple exposures, and continuous exposure. Source: Gordis, L. (2014). Epidemiology (5thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Chapter 2, p. 20. 1. Define Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention. 2. True or False: Prevention and treatment of a single specific disease are exclusive activities that do not occur together when providing care to a patient. 3. The ________________ Concept is important because in counting incidence and prevalence of disease it is not sufficient to count only clinically apparent cases, but those who are asymptomatic or exposed without infection. 4. Please define the following: Clinical Disease – Preclinical Disease – Subclinical Disease – Persistent (Chronic) Disease – Latent Disease – 5. Match the following terms with their definition: ____ Pandemic A. Habitual presence of a disease within a geographic area. ____ Endemic B. Occurrence of a disease in a community/geographic area in excess of normal expectancy. ____ Common-Vehicle Exposure C. Resistance of a group of people to a disease because a large portion of the population is immune. ____ Epidemic D. An excessive occurrence of disease present globally. ____ Herd Immunity E. When a group of people are exposed to a substance or organism that causes common illness. 6. What is the one medical advance that is associated with the Black Death in Europe in the late 1300’s? 7. This is a two part question: A. Define, through a fractional representation, what attack rate is. B. After a large wedding reception several people develop symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. It appeared to be tied to eating a specific seafood salad sered. Using the following 2 by 2 table, numerically represent the attack rate for wedding attendies who ate the seafood salad Ate Seafood Salad Did not eat Seafood Salad Gastroenteritis symptoms 72 15 No gastroenteritis symptoms 24 135 8. Define the following: active surveillance, passive surveillance, incidence rate,and prevalence rate. 9. There are two parts to this question: A. What are two reasons that the prevalence rate of a disease I a community could decrease? B. What are age-adjusted death rates used for? 10. Name and define at least two measures of mortality as fractional representations. Week 3 assignment Relative Risk Calculations Worksheet Guidelines& Grading Rubric Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to help you to begin to understand and apply the important counts, ratios, and statistics presented in healthcare and epidemiological research. Remember to use the list of formulas presented prior to the problems and to carefully consider the purpose of each calculation and how it is interpreted. Course Outcomes Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to: (CO #3) Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental exposures, reproductive health, and genetics. (CO #4) Apply commonly used measures of health risk. (CO #6) Identify important sources of epidemiological data. Due Date: Sunday 11:59 p.m. (MT) at the end of Week 3 Total Points Possible:50 REQUIREMENTS: 1. Complete the Risk Calculation Worksheet located in Course Resources. 2. For each question identify the correct answer. 3. Submit the worksheet to the DropBox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 3 Epidemiological Formulas and Statistics Parameter Definition Formula Incidence (exposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were exposed number (exposed with disease)/Total number of exposed Incidence (unexposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were not exposed number (unexposed with disease)/Total number of unexposed Incidence of Disease Measure of risk. Total number in a population with a disease divided by the total number of the population. Number with the disease/ Total population number Relative Risk Risk of disease in one group versus another. Risk of developing a disease after exposure. If this number is one, it means there is no risk. R(exposed)/Risk (unexposed) (# exposed with disease(divided by)/total of all exposed) (# of non-exposed with disease/(divided by)total of all non exposed) Odds Ratio A measure of exposure and disease outcome commonly used in case control studies. R(exposed) / R (unexposed) 1- R(exposed) 1-R(unexposed) Prevalence The number of cases of a disease in a given time regardless of when it began. (new and old cases) (Persons with the disease/ Total population) X 1000 Attributable Risk The difference in disease in those exposed and unexposed and is calculated from prospective data. Directly attributed to exposure (if exposure gone, disease would be gone) R(exposed) – R(unexposed) Crude Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people in the population (# of births/estimated mid-year population) X 1000 Crude Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population (# of deaths/estimated mid-year population) X 1000 Fetal Death Rate The number of fetal deaths (20 weeks or more gestation) per 1,000 live births. (# of fetal deaths/ # of live births + fetal deaths) X 1000 Annual Mortality Rate Usually an expression of a specific disease or can be all causes per 1,000 people for a year. (# of deaths of all causes (or a specific disease)/Mid-year population) X 1000 Case Fatality Rate The parentage of individuals who have a specific disease and die within a specific time after diagnosis. (# of persons dying from a disease after diagnosis or set period/ # of persons with the disease) X 100 Relative Risk Calculation Worksheet Prior to completing this worksheet, review the lessons, reading and course text up to this point. Also review the tables of calculations. Each question is worth five (5) points. There is only one right answer for each of the ten problems. 1. The population in the city of Springfield, Missouri in March, 2014 was 200,000. The number of new cases of HIV was 28 between January 1 and June 30th 2014. The number of current HIV cases was 130 between January 1 and June 30th 2014. The incidence rate of HIV cases for this 6 month period was: A. 7 per 100,000 population B. 14 per 100,000 population C. 28 per 100,000 population D. 85 per 100,000 population 2. The prevalence rate of HIV cases in Springfield, Missouri as of June 30, 2014 was: A. 14 per 100,000 population B. 28 per 100,000 population C. 79 per 100,000 population D. 130 per 100,000 population 3. In a North African country with a population of 5 million people, 50,000 deaths occurred during 2014. These deaths included 5,000 people from malaria out of 10,000 persons who had Malaria. What was the total Annual Mortality Rate for 2014 for this country? (please show your work) 4. What was the cause-specific mortality rate from malaria? (please show your work) 5. What was the case-fatality percent from malaria? 6. Fill in and total the 4 X 4 table for the following disease parameters: Total number of people with lung cancer in a given population = 120 Total number of people with lung cancer who smoked = 90 Total number of people with lung cancer who did not smoke = 30 Total number of people who smoked = 150 Total number of people in the population = 350 Fill in the missing parameters based on the above. YES LUNG CANCER NO LUNG CANCER TOTALS YES SMOKING NO SMOKING TOTALS 7. From Question 6, what is the total number of people with no lung cancer? 8. From question 6, what is the total number of people who smoked, but did not have lung cancer? 9. Set up the problem for relative risk based on the table in #6. 10. Calculate the relative risk. Week 6 assignment Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem Guidelines& Grading Rubric PURPOSE The purpose of this assignment is to • Provide learners with the opportunity to integrate knowledge and skills learned throughout this course • Directly apply principles and knowledge learned in the course to problem solving of population health problems in their own geographic areas. COURSE OUTCOMES This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes: 1. Define key terms in epidemiology, community health, and population-based research. 2. Compare study designs used for obtaining population health information from surveillance, observation, community, and control trial based research. 3. Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental exposures, reproductive health, and genetics. 4. Apply commonly used measures of health risk. 5. Examine current ethical/legal issues in epidemiology. 6. Identify important sources of epidemiological data. 7. Evaluate a public health problem in terms of magnitude, person, time, and place. DUE DATE Submit to Dropbox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 6 TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE: 200 REQUIREMENTS This paper should clearly and comprehensively identify the disease or population health problem chosen. The problem must be an issue in your geographic area and a concern for the population you will serve upon graduation with your degree. The paper should be organized into the following sections: 1. Introduction with a clear presentation of the problem as well as significance and a scholarly overview of the paper. 2. Background of the disease including definition, description, signs and symptoms, and current incidence and/or prevalence statistics current state, local, and national statistics pertaining to the disease. (Include a table of incidence or prevalence rates by your geographic county, state, and national statistics.) 3. A review of current surveillance methods and any mandated reporting or methods for reporting the disease for providers. 4. Conduct descriptive epidemiology analysis of the disease including who is more frequently affected and characteristics of the population that might help in creating a prevention plan. Include costs (both financial and social) associated with the disease or problem. 5. Review how the disease is diagnosed, current national standards for screening or prevention, and pick one screening test and review its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, cost and any current national guidelines for conducting which patients to conduct this test on. 6. Provide a brief plan of how you will address this epidemiological disease in your practice once you are finished with school. Provide three actions you will take along with how you will measure outcomes of your actions. 7. Conclude in a clear manner with a brief overview of key points of the entire disease, PREPARING THE PAPER • Page length: 7-10 pages, excluding title/cover page • APA format 6th edition • Include references when necessary. • Include at least one table to present information somewhere in the paper.
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