ENN591-1 Project Proposal

ENN591-1 Project Proposal

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ENN591-1 Project Proposal

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ENN591-1 Project Proposal

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Course Code: ENN5911
University: Queensland University Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Question:

The current position of QUT and research associated with IFE’s Growing the Global Bioeconomy theme in particular regarding how we can move the research out of the lab and achieve impact through getting the research into a product that is commercialised and used by customers. We agreed to use our work on probiotic discovery for livestock as an example. But I hope what you will analyse will also be broadly applicable to bioeconomy technologies.
These are some notes you should fallow in order to develop the project:
1.Why is important to a start-up company or for any company work with a partnership or in a joint venture. What kind of advantages of doing it.
2.Create a SWOT analysis of working in a partnership with other company.
3.Look for Quality systems the companies are under or using.
4.Look for the regulatory bodies of the industry and if the companies have the licence from them. Regulations. write down about who they are (regulatory bodies)
5.How is the industry bench mark
6.To find the candidate indicated to be a business partner must be shown why the facilities and equipment are the best.
7.Customer has a request for proposal
8.Company create a proposal for the request
9.Capabilities and cost
10.Why are you the best
11.The benefit of doing with us is because
12.Bid defence (presentation) after thighs conclude with confidential agreement  
When you want to find a partnership to carry out a job in an industry there is a process in which the companies want to attract the attention of future clients and there are some criteria, these can be show, such as:

Site Management Team. ( how they are constituted and why I should work with them)
Talk about the service they provide focusing on that they are performing an excellent service in what they do, for example, Manufacturing & Development Services to a bioprocess Industry. ( explain in detail about the company and their services)
Mention where they are located around the world.
Talk about what is the core business.
About proprietary technologies

Answer:

Introduction
Generally, the world population is expected to be almost more than 10 billion in 2040. Due to changes in the economic growth of the world, there has been a big demand to manufacture adequate feed needed by the livestock. This has raised a big concern, therefore, coming up with technologized mechanisms for manufacturing enough feed for the livestock regardless of the limited resources.
However, the livestock sector has been growing rapidly as compared to the other sectors of agriculture. It accounts for almost 50% of the total value within the field of agriculture. Generally, the increasing human population will increase the livestock numbers. Livestock production will be able to support millions of people by providing adequate food and other agricultural related materials (Ruiz-Moyano, et. al., 2011). Generally, livestock will be able to provide an income for instance in marginalized areas and it will also serve as the key factor which will assist in fighting the issues of poverty. Increased livestock production will also improve soil fertility because of manure and also boost fuel that is made from livestock waste used in biogas plants. Most of the livestock systems all over the world are gearing towards the improvement of supply of the number of the livestock. This has influenced the formation of the livestock welfares issues that target to manufacture adequate feed for the existence of the livestock. Because of increase demand for livestock supply, stakeholders involved with livestock production are now focusing on probiotics (Ruggles, 2009). 
An Objective of the Research
The objective of the research was to identify the best company for outsourcing the manufacture of probiotics. The probiotics (the direct fed microbes) are rapidly used nowadays as the common livestock feeds. They are the commonly used feeds supplements in the field of agriculture that have been used as the substitute of the Antibiotic Growth Promoters (Ruiz-Moyano, et. al., 2011). The main aim to use the probiotics in livestock is to increase the production level and enhance the issue of growth and development in livestock. It also assists in controlling the entry of the pathogens to the livestock thus providing a better life for the animal to survive in any environment. These food additives will enhance the efficiency of the livestock since there will be adequate food for livestock survival.
The scope of the Research
The research was only limited to the production of the probiotics and the use of specified criteria in designing the probiotics. The criteria were considered when selecting appropriate company that had a good quality for manufacturing probiotics (Kude?ka, 2010).
Significance of the research
This research project is important as it involved ensuring strategies that companies apply in the manufacture of probiotics. The best partner company to be selected is key in the development of quality probiotic products to enhance consumer satisfaction and promote the health of the animals The significance of this research is to curb the above outlined problems regarding manufacture of probiotics in order to prevent pathogenic bacteria in animals and promote their health (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2011).
Definition of Probiotic and the Classification
Different researchers have defined the term probiotic as a dietary or dairy food supplement containing live yeasts and bacteria and adds or replaces the beneficial bacterial usually found in the digestive system or gastrointestinal duct. This gives a description of the microbial which help in intestinal microbial balance within an organism. The microbial are living organisms and they improve the intestinal balance of the host animal thus enhancing growth. We have a number of microbial used in different companies that have been classified as follows:
Bacterial and the non-bacterial probiotics: they include use of micro-organisms such as the bacteria (Sanders, 2008). The companies use different species of the bacteria to manufacture the probiotics. Some of the species are categorized as the Lactobacillus and the Candida pintolopesii.
Spore-forming and the non-spore forming probiotics: although the non-spore forming probiotics predominates over the spore-forming probiotics, in most of the companies you find that the most used is the spore-forming probiotics. This is because it has good quality and therefore giving adequate feeds for the livestock survival.
Autochthonous probiotics and the Allochthonous probiotics: some of the companies uses bacteria which are absent in the gut of the animals (Sanders, 2008).  The commonly used are the allochthonous one with the example of the yeast. The other section of the microorganism used is autochthonous which includes the lactobacillus bacteria.
Multispecies and the single species probiotics used by the companies: the microbial products of the probiotics usually vary from the single production all the way to the multi-production in all the companies. Most companies use the microbial that will provide adequate products such as multispecies while the small company may prefer to use the single species (Sanders, 2008).  They can be used in small production and also in large production depending on the choice of each company.
Literature review
This involves a management approach that deals with success of a company through consumer satisfaction (Ruggles, 2009).  The probiotic company to be selected should be focused on customers as they determine the level of quality and involvement of employees for continual improvement. It basically utilizes strategies, datasets, and good communication in the integration of quality domains in the entire company. TQM model is provided in Figure 1 below
 The company should be process-centered in order to take supply inputs and change them to outputs that are deliverable to the customers. TQM gather and analyze data to improve decision making accuracy based on facts thus important in this case to select the best probiotic company.
Benchmarking
In this project, this management tool will involve a criterion for providing a continuous comparison on the project management practices of the different organization manufacturing probiotics with other rivals (Fotopoulos & Psomas, 2009).  It is aimed at improving one’s performance since information obtained through benchmarking will be used in improvement of the processes thus used by probiotic companies in becoming more competitive in the global market. Benchmarking organogram is provided in Figure 2 below
It involves better analysis and evaluation of several critical success factors in order to determine the company that will flourish. Here, benchmarking will be accomplished through surveys, personal contacts and attending company conferences. Thus this strategic planning process is important in identifying the best company that will be efficient in making changes and risk management in manufacture of probiotics (Ruggles, 2009). 
SWOT analysis
This management tool evaluates the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This tool will be important in specification of the objectives and outlining the factors favorable for achievement of the set objectives. This will save on cost, time in developing ideas in order to make the decisions on the best partner company involved in manufacture of probiotics.
The business model canvas
This involves development of new modification of the available company models. The best partner company for the manufacture of probiotics will be provide the visual chart that consist of elements of the company product value, customers, transportation means and financial resources. (Fotopoulos & Psomas, 2009).  This model will also involve how a company will generate revenue streams such as asset sale, leasing and advertising through media. The business Model canvas ought to be printed on the company board in order to identify the best partner (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2011).
Partnerships
Partnership relationship management tool involves the existing processes and strategies that a company utilize in directing the operations with partners who make product sales. This approach includes partner portal, consumer computer databases that ensure various companies and partners in management of sales metrics, prices and inventories of the manufacture product (Fotopoulos & Psomas, 2009).  Probiotic manufacturing companies should trust on partner companies to make large sales volume on their behalf instead of use of direct selling. This channel strategy includes system retailers which helps the top-level managers to propel their partner’s sales processes and lower the threat of having company duplicates (Fotopoulos & Psomas 2009).  This tool should be successfully implemented to create harmonious collaboration of manufacturers, vendors and customers thus creating a profitable partnership
The Methodology of the Work
The manufacturing of the probiotics
The research considered different criteria used during the manufacture of probiotics in different companies. Some of the companies considered were: The Bio-Cat microbial, The NutraScience Labs, The Terragens Research and the Multikraft probiotics in Australia.
Different criteria were used to measure the percentage of production of the probiotics in the companies mentioned above. The criteria used was to identify how the following measures have been employed by each company so as to come up with the suitable company for the production of the probiotics (Sanders, 2008).
Selection criteria for each company
In order to obtain a good research some of the criteria considered in selecting the suitable company for manufacturing of the probiotics were:

Checking whether the company participates in the external contracts or the toll manufacturing processes.
Screening the scale assigned to each equipment used during the fermentation process.
Down streaming the processing equipment used in each company that is the use of the centrifuges and the dryers used.
Locating the experience and the cost incurred. Also, the aspect of the experience on dealing with the probiotics was analyzed within the company selected during the research.
Determining the issue of management and the quality system outlined by each company. That is measuring the standards used by the companies in manufacturing of the probiotics.

Results and discussion
Most of the companies deal with the large production of the probiotics. The whole process of manufacturing the probiotics is characterized by the use of advanced technology that is employed in the fermentation process and use of efficient machines for drying. Some of the companies have a large number of the laboratory that helps to do research on the probiotics.
Fermentation process used
Fermentation procedures are used to in either manufacture the microbial products in either large quantity or even in small quantity. The commonly used microbial by the companies mentioned are the enzymes, the amino acids, use of the vitamins, and also use the relevant pharmaceutical products. Different studies reveal that this company uses the research from the labs to design the probiotics. Here the concept of the quality assurance runs all through to each laboratory within the company.
Fermentation methods used by the companies
Fermentation can be done in two different ways. It can either be through the continuous fermentation or the batch fermentation.In the batch fermentation, all the components used are first sterilized and there is mixing of the inoculum in the fermenter and then is kept in optimum temperature to allow the growth of the probiotic. This is common in companies such as The Bio-Cat microbial and The NutraScience Labs. During the fermentation different nutrients are added so as to facilitate the growth of the micro-organisms used. A base medium is used also to establish PH medium needed for fermentation, therefore, helping the function of the microorganism within the fermentation chamber (Turgut & Cakmakci, 2009).  After the completion of the fermentation, process cells are recovered from the centrifugal chambers through the filtration method. The main objective in batch fermentation is the issue of coming up with the cellular concentration that will give a high percentage of the probiotics. In most cases, the concentration may tend to have a high viscosity which is compensated by adding the vegetative materials so as to recover the cells and maintaining the appropriate pH thus increased production of the probiotics (Kude?ka, 2010).
The Terragens Research and the Multikraft probiotics in Australia use the continuous fermentation whereby the fresh growing materials are incorporated with the culture and the cells of the bacteria and even other substrates which will be occasionally removed so as to facilitate the production of the probiotics. The change of genetic composure is facilitated through the mutation process. This is always through the contamination of the bacteria and the substrate contained in the fermentation chamber.
Drying
This is commonly used after the fermentation process. The yeast and the bacteria cells are dried thus enhancing the transportation process. The probiotics are dried through the use of the freeze or the spray drying mechanism. The issue of keeping the viability of cells is crucial when drying so as to ensure that there is better probiotic production within the company (Kude?ka, 2010).
In freeze-drying, there is the use of the nitrogen or the dry ice and even use of refrigerators at a temperature of 200 °C. The process is performed at a high temperature as to prevent the formation of the ice within the chambers. In spray drying, most of the companies use a heated nozzle which is sprayed to the drying chamber against the hot air passed through the chambers. The technique is commonly used since it has low cost as compared to the freeze-drying method.
Analysis of the rate of the fermentation process in the companies.

Company

% rate on use of fermentation process

Bio-Cat Microbial

47

NutraScience Lab

23

The Terragens Research

18

Multikraft Probiotics

12

The Bio-Cat Microbial Company uses the highest fermentation criteria as compared to the other companies. This illustrates that the probiotic formation in the company is at large rate.
Key selection criteria
External contracts/toll manufacturing
Toll and contract manufacturing are two relatively same kinds of a company supply chain management. These manufacturing options have different and transparent characteristics (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2011). In this case, they benefit the probiotic manufacturing companies and customers in various ways. They are able to provide target consumers with valuable strategies to save time and capital. They also save on incurred costs of the company based on the probiotic product line development.
Toll manufacturing involves the process where one company offers raw materials to another company that then continues to provide the remaining manufacturing services. Therefore, as a toll manufacturer, Bio-Cat microbial company can provide its potential consumers with a facility and manufacturing equipment to efficiently process the probiotic drug products (Turgut & Cakmakci, 2009).  Due to this approach, the prospective company has a manufacturing variable cost without having a financial investment in other available equipment’s and facilities. This significantly decreases the time required for getting the product to the market thus customers are able to supply the needed raw materials and equipment’s for production of probiotics drug to Bio-Cat Microbial. In external contract, the manufacturer has the responsibility to designing the probiotic drug product according to specifications that meet the delivery time requirement. This criterion will enable good selection of a company that creates a supply chain vendor for a branded and custom-made product.
The scale of fermentation equipment
The small fermenter that is typically utilized for the scale-up of processes as from the initial flask stage for the research study carried out on implications of key variables is one of the significant tools present in the antibiotic companies for the development of fermentation process. The equipment’s available in a particular company should be properly labeled, efficient and effective, well calibrated to offer precision and accuracy of the entire probiotic manufacturing process (Charalampopoulos & Rastall, 2009).  Through the use of this criteria, the company to be selected should meet the goals of optimum versatility and lower handling and maintenance equipment’s requirements. The equipment should provide superior performance in the fermentation process for example specifically in Bio-cat microbial company and Multikraft microbial (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2011). The company should be able to have a large scale small fermenters that primarily include a stationary type and battery jar or portable type. Both have various distinct benefits in fermentation and manufacturing probiotic process. They save the need for human labor saving on production costs incurred and increase the precision and safety of probiotic drugs.
Downstream processing equipment (centrifuges, dryers)
This process involves the purification of biosynthetic products mainly pharmaceutical drug formulation and manufactures. The equipment’s such as centrifuges make it essential to manufacture vaccines, antibodies, drugs such as probiotics at distinct scales of operation. These analytical instruments are efficient in settling and drying of probiotics components at different stages. The centrifuges are important in the application of centrifugal forces to separate drug particles from the overall solution according to the required sizes, shapes viscosity and density ratio. Denser components go away from the existence of the centrifuge. It should have micro and high-speed centrifuges. Thus the company should have proper centrifuge equipment to ensure elimination of impurities to assure the safety of the probiotic customers (Charalampopoulos & Rastall, 2009). 
The best company to be selected should have vacuum dryers that are systematically equipped with cylindrical shells with flattened plates on the edges promoting limitation of formation of wetted probiotic powders. It is evident that turbulent flow of vacuum dryers or agitators enables large particle important for coating and granulating pharmaceutical products. Companies such as Bio-cat microbial should be composed of dryer instruments involved in the down streaming process of the manufacture of probiotics. The types of equipment should be efficient and in good conditions in order for a company to be selected as the best.
Location of the Company and Cost-effectiveness of probiotics
Results of th Study
In various research activities, cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea using probiotics. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results from treatment using oral probiotics cause directed costs of the drug per each affected individual. Results indicate that those livestock treated with oral probiotics had a decreased overall cost as compared with the usual care. Use of oral probiotics result in a lower risk and cost saving is greater, in this case, the company that is offering affordable prices in proportion to quality products should be selected. It should use moderate prices for the probiotics in order for the patients to choose them over other competitors in the market (Rigby & Bilodeau 2011). This would increase its sales volume and profitability which in turn would lead to suitable implications in the production cost incurred.
Location of a company is also an important criterion in selecting the best company. A company should be located in a region that has high availability of raw materials for the manufacture of probiotic drugs. The selected company location should have enough supply of Water resources, human labor resources, secure environment, and in a wide customer base (Turgut & Cakmakci, 2009).  The area should be efficient in transporting and delivering probiotics drugs. A suitable location consisting of minimal competitors or rivals involving companies dealing with a similar product in the market should contribute to a good criterion for selecting the best company. Therefore, this should make the developed decision analytic model be simpler in selecting the best company.
Quality systems (cGMP)
Pharmaceutical quality systems usually have implications on every American and other companies in the world for example in Australia. It basically regulates the pharmaceuticals in a careful manner. Thus the vital regulatory standard that exists regarding propelling pharmaceutical quality I the current good manufacturing practice (Ruggles, 2009). Customers have a high anticipation that each batch of drugs they consume meets the desired quality standards in order for them to efficient and prevent harm. Over the years FDA made clear on the existing regulatory actions that affect all the companies including Bio-Cat, Nutra Science Lab, Murtikraft Probiotics and Terragens Research.
Camp provides for systems that enable effective analysis and monitoring of existing processes. For example, if Bio-Cat Microbial adhere to the regulations set aside, it would ensure proper quality, strength, and purity of probiotics products needing the manufacturers of probiotics to efficiently control its manufacturing activities. In order to select the best company, the t would meet all the set standards use of cGMP as the main criterion is significant. The company where the manufacturers are implementing (Ruggles, 2009). 
Other comprehensive cGMPs, modern quality systems and other risk management approaches that exceed the minimum requirements and standards of the cGMP should be considered and eventually selected.
This is because cGMP is very important in detecting if a probiotic is safe for consumption by proper testing of the batch sample usually 100 tablets. It is good that probiotics to be manufactured under conducive environment and practices as outlined by cGMP regulations (Turgut & Cakmakci, 2009). These criteria are boosted by a company having to train and employ qualified personnel to help assure the safety and efficacy of probiotic products. This will build the confidence of consumers in the companies’ reliable products, creating a brand image of good will, increase sales column and profitability and eventually contribute to the overall success of the company (Ruggles, 2009). 
Importance and advantages partnerships and joint ventures
Many companies, including startup companies and established companies, form partnerships or joint ventures often because of perceived benefits. Partnerships and joint ventures are business structures where parties agree and commit to work together towards a common goal by delivering a specific project within a certain period of time.There are several benefits that come with companies working together.
Shared investment and expenses: every party in a partnership or joint venture usually contributes a certain sum of initial capital based on agreement made between parties. The parties also share the expenses of executing the project. This alleviates the financial burden that a single company may have carried.
Leveraging each other’s connections and networks: through partnerships or joint ventures, companies agree to leverage each other’s business and professional connections and networks (Cross, 2016). This has numerous benefits, including making it easier to reach a wider target market and increasing donations as the companies will be working together to sell a common idea to their communities (Ahmed & Ahmed, 2013).
Pooling resources: resources are always limited and when companies form a partnership or joint venture, they pool resources together thus stretching their limited resources. Production of a new product and taking it to the market requires significant resources that are used during research, actual manufacturing and in the supply chain. Forming a partnership or joint venture is advantageous because it reduces the burden of one company having to provide all the necessary resources, including financial, technical (such as technology) and human resources (such as specialized staff) (NIBusinessInfo.co.uk, (n.d.)).
Sharing of risks: one of the common principles in business partnerships and joint ventures is that the companies involved share all risks and benefits (Value Network, 2018). This reduces the burden of one company having to bear all risks associated with production of a product and taking it to the market.
Flexibility: a partnership or joint venture is usually a temporary business contract between partners and it gets dissolved once the project is completed. A new business entity does not necessarily have to be created to complete the project and participating companies do not have to give up any stake of their businesses to other partners or stop their ongoing operations. The business structure of a partnership or joint venture allows partners to maintain their own identify and continue with their normal business operations concurrently (Hall, 2018).
Improve value of the product: when companies work together either through partnership or joint venture, each one contributes their unique ideas and expertise in the project thus helping in improving the value of the project.  
Supporting each other’s weaknesses: very company has a weakness and partners in a joint venture or partnership come together so as to complement each other. This is done by each company exercising their strengths so as to counterbalance their partners’ weaknesses.
Build credibility: partnerships and joint ventures are most suitable for startup companies that do not yet have a strong market base and adequate market credibility. Startups can build credibility by partnering or forming joint ventures with well-established companies that have good reputation and credibility in the market. This makes it easier for the startup companies to build market credibility within a shorter period of time.
Synergy benefits: joint ventures and partnerships offer a wide range of synergy benefits, which are usually similar to the ones attained in business acquisitions and mergers. The synergy benefits include financial synergy that reduce capital costs or operational and technical synergy that enhances operational efficiency.
SWOT analysis of working in a partnership with other company
Partnerships and joint ventures have strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Some of these are as follows:
Strengths
Some of the strengths of partnerships and joint ventures include:
Strong management: when parties collaborate, they bring together their unique management styles and capabilities that mostly make the management of the project being undertaken to be more effective and efficient (Merve & Glaister, 2010).
Innovative culture: parties in a partnership or joint venture use the lessons learnt from their independent businesses to create an innovative culture for the project they are working on.
Considerations: joint ventures and partnerships work on the basis of cooperation and collaboration. This means that a decision can only be made by considering opinions of all partners. Cooperation and collaboration also ensures that partners share workload and financial responsibilities.
Pricing power: joint ventures or partnerships give parties involved strong pricing power using techniques such as lowering the cost of production, easy and quick access to the market, wider customer base, etc.
Cost advantages: one of the strong points of partnerships and joint ventures is that they help parties minimize the cost of production. This can be achieved by pooling resources, applying lessons learn previously, capitalizing on each other’s reputation, etc.
More resources: partners in a partnership or joint venture pool resources for a common course. Availability of adequate resources improves project delivery.
Sharing risks and losses: there is no party that is liable for all risks but they share them equally, which reduces the burden each party carries.
Weaknesses
Weaknesses of joint ventures or partnerships include:
Different expertise level: it is likely that partners forming the joint venture or partnership will have varied levels of expertise (Calhoun & Harnowo, 2015). If this is the case, there will be one partner that will feel less advantaged than the other. The partner offering more expertise can have some demands that may not be accepted by the other partner(s) thus creating problems.
Different investment: when one partner is investing more capital or assets into a project being undertaken by a partnership or joint venture, there is high likelihood of varied treatments and demands. This may create different levels of preference as the partner that contributes more assets or capital will want heropinions considered more than the others.
Tarnished reputation: when one partner makes a mistake or engages in activities that tarnish their name, the reputation of other partners with whom they have created a partnership or joint venture will also be tarnished.
Different commitment: t is also possible for partners to have varied levels of commitment into the partnership or joint venture (Larimo & Nguyen, 2015). In such case, the more committed partner will feel disadvantaged (Wilson & Brennan, 2009).
Opportunities
Some of the opportunities of partnerships and joint ventures include:
Technical knowledge and expertise: each party in a partnership or joint venture brings forward specialized know-how and expertise. This is very useful in making the joint venture or partnership to be stronger and more competent in moving their business operations towards a particular direction.
Penetration into new markets: a joint venture or partnership helps companies, especially startup companies, to enter new markets faster and more easily (Belu & Caragin, 2008). This is because more established partners take care of the relevant logistics and regulations. As a result, new companies can quickly expand their market size and portfolio (CFI Education Inc., (n.d.)).
Taxation: partnerships and joint ventures are not needed to file taxes but instead they are required to pass their percentage of company losses and profits straight to their personal income tax returns. As a result, partners in a joint venture or partnership pays taxes on business proceeds based on their personal income taxes (Carter, (n.d.)).
Giving and taking: one of the opportunities in a partnership or joint venture is that partners usually learn how to give what they are best at and take what they lack (Ta & Dhanuwardoyo, 2016). This boosts each partner’s knowledge, competence and efficiency in their business operations. Also, it makes the work of each partner easier because they usually work on their weaknesses and get help on their weaknesses.
Obstacles to competition: many companies enter into partnerships or joint ventures so as to avoid pricing pressure and competition. The partners usually erect obstacles that make it difficult for competitors to get a share of the market.
New technology: when companies come together to create a partnership or joint venture, they will compare their independent technologies and probably develop a common technology that is more advanced, effective and efficient for meeting the goals of the project they are working on.
International expansion: this is a great opportunity for companies operating in different countries or continents coming together to form a partnership or joint venture. In such a case, each country will get into the market space it was not accessing before. Besides generating more sales, this also helps in boosting credibility and reputation of the involved partners.
Threats
Some of the threats of joint ventures or partnerships include:
Liability: the liability of partners in a joint venture or partnership is unlimited for the company’s obligations and debts. This means that the partners’ personal assets can be pursued by business creditors.
Disputes and conflicts: the likelihood of disputes and conflicts arising in a partnership or joint venture is very high. As the project progresses, there is a possibility of partners disagreeing on a number of issues such as how to manage the business affairs of the company, future or direction of the business, etc. However, this kind of disputes and conflicts can be avoided by having a written agreement on how to handle these issues.
Different objectives: there is the threat of partners involved in a joint venture or partnership having different objectives (Buainess Business Link UK, 2009). This means that their priorities may vary thus affecting completion of the project being undertaken.
Different management styles and cultures: every company has its unique management style, core values and culture. When several companies come together to work on the same project, there is the possibility of poor cooperation and integration due to different management styles, core values and culture. This may affect operational efficiency of the partnership or joint venture.
International competition: when a joint venture or partnership is created, news always spread globally. This may drive other companies to make agreements to counter the possible effect of the previous partnerships or joint ventures.
Government regulation: some regulation policies and may limit operations of partnerships or joint ventures especially those involving companies from different countries (i.e. cross-border partnerships or joint ventures) (Georgieva, Jandik, & Lee, 2012).
Political risks: this cannot be ruled out as it is always a possibility threatening existence and operation of any business. Politicians can either spearhead campaigns that are against or supporting the business.
Factors to Consider when Looking for Partnership or Joint Venture or Partners
The choice of partnership or joint venture partners has a significant impact on the success of project delivery (Eli, 2013). Selecting the right partner(s) helps in minimizing the risk of project failure (Ekanayake, 2011). Some of the key factors to consider when looking for a partnership or joint venture partner include the following:
Tangible resources: companies create partnerships or joint ventures so that they can fill their internal resource gap by using resources owned or provided by their partners. The tangible resources include research labs, production equipment or facilities, vehicles, etc. Availability of these resources reduce the cost of completing the project and also enable quick completion of the project. Therefore selected partners should provide key resources for the project (Beamish & Lupton, 2009).
Product knowledge: t is important to partner with a company that has sufficient knowledge about the product that is to be developed. This basically means that the partner should be in the same field or have been involved in developing similar products before. This reduces the time and difficulty of explaining to the partner about the product, how it has to be developed, what it takes to develop it and their expected commitment (Property Resource Shop, (n.d.)).
Experience: the potential partner should have unique and adequate experience in the field where the project is being executed. The company team should also be diverse and have strong academic qualifications and broad industry experience. Experience is useful in minimizing potential difficulties and barriers and also enhances the effectiveness of project management (Denis, 2015). Companies that have also been in partnerships or joint ventures before are more preferred because they understand the challenges of this kind of business structures and how to overcome them.
Location: this is another very important factor to consider when looking for a partner to create a partnership or joint venture. The partner’s location should not be an obstacle to smooth operations or running of the business. The location should not hinder activities such as meetings and consultations. This means that the partners’ geographical locations should enable quick and easy meetings or other consultation techniques.
Compatibility: partners in a joint venture or partnership should have business compatibility in terms of shared mission, vision, objectives, goals, motivations and strategies (Nisar, 2012); (Silva & Oliveira, 2017). This helps in creating good working relationship. The partnering companies should also be compatible in terms of their size, management styles, structure, financial capabilities, ethics, values, etc. (Kale & Singh, 2009). To avoid problems, there should be no partner that should appear to be lesser than the others.
Culture: cultural differences and similarities of partners in a joint venture or partnership are also critical. For instance, the partners should have a culture of transparency, information sharing, accountability, open communication, collaboration, trust, honesty, etc. In case of cultural differences such as behaviours and languages, the partners must find a way of creating a common basis (Ali & Khalid, 2017); (Cuypers & Martin, 2010); (Linhart & Knoll, 2014). They should also agree on issues such as sustainability, social responsibility, donations, etc.
Reputation and track record: no company would wish to work with a partner that has bad reputation or poor track record in the industry. Reputation builds credibility and therefore companies should select partners that have good reputation based on their past and present activities. Some of the reputation red tapes include credit problems and court lawsuits. Good reputation helps in penetrating new markets and facilitates selling new ideas or products to the market.
Target market knowledge: it is also more advantageous to form a partnership or joint venture with companies that have adequate knowledge about the target market for the new product. Having prior market knowledge is useful in making the right decisions in relation to the quality and quantity of the new product. For instance, a company with adequate knowledge about the target market understand the kind of formulation for probiotic and enzyme supplements for improved livestock feed that customers want. This means that the partners in the joint venture or partnership will focus on developing products that meet customer needs.
Government networks: bringing a new product into the market requires a series of government approvals. It is recommended that companies choose partners that understand how the government operates, legal and regulatory frameworks and have adequate connections with relevant government agencies (Li & Ferreira, 2008); (Roy & Oliver, 2009). This will make it easier to get the necessary permits and approvals at different stages of the project. It may also help to get incentives, if any, for this kind of projects.
Business networks: it is also good to partner with companies that have sufficient business networks in the industry. This makes it easier to access the necessary raw materials, make consultations, reach the target market, etc. (Johanson & Vahlne, 2009).
Equal sacrifices: it is good to partner with companies that are willing and ready to give equal sacrifice into the project. They should be willing to sacrifice the needed time, finances, etc. If other parts are too busy and committed on other projects then failure may be imminent (Njeru, 2018).
Regulatory bodies
Production and supply of livestock feed supplements in Australia is regulated by several Australian government statutory bodies. These bodies are responsible for ensuring that the products manufactured meet the minimum health and safety requirements and standards (Feed Ingredients and Additives Association of Australia, 2016); (Meat & Livestock Australia, 2012). Some of these bodies include the following:
Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA): this is the Australian government statutory body responsible for registration and regulation of all veterinary and agricultural chemical products that are sold within Australian territory.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ): this s the Australian government statutory body responsible for developing food standards for New Zealand and Australia (Food Standards Australia New Zealand, (n.d.)).
Animal Health Australia: this is a non-profit Australian government agency responsible for facilitating innovative partnerships between major livestock organizations and governments (federal, state and territory) (Australian Government, (n.d.)).
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources: this is the Australian government body mandated to develop and implement programmes and policies that strengthen and contribute to primary industries in Australia by delivering better farm returns, protect Australian against plant and animal pests and diseases and improve the country’s freshwater and river ecosystems.
Safe Food Queensland: this is the state government statutory body responsible for regulating, monitoring, facilitating and make recommendations related to the production and safety of primary produce for animal and human consumption in Queensland (Safe Food Producton Queensland, 2018).
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Queensland: this is the Queensland state government agency responsible for protecting the environment and managing climate change.
Department of Health Queensland: this is the Queensland state government agency responsible for operating and administering public health systems in the state (Queensland Government, 2018).
Other Partner Selection Criteria
There are several other factors that we will consider when selecting a company to partner with in this project. Some of the criteria include the following:
Pilot plant
The company should have a well-resourcedpilot plant equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for prototyping, testing and manufacturing of biocommodities. They should allow us full access to the plant to test some of our ideas.
Experienced staff
The company should have a team of knowledgeable, experienced and dedicated professionals who are ready to commit their time to ensure successful project delivery. The team should include professors, scientists, researchers, engineers, technicians and even students/interns. Where necessary, they should also be willing to provide training and learning opportunities for interested parties.
Network
The company should have been in the bioeconomy industry for several years now and have established worldwide network. They should also have partners, suppliers/distributors and representatives in different parts of the world. This will make it easily for us to reach our customers, collect feedback and also address any issues raised.
Track record
The company’s credibility and reputation in bioeconomy should not be in doubt. All the projects that they have completed before should have been done within stipulated time and all their clients fully satisfied with the end products.  
Accredited
Production of livestock feed supplements has to be done by qualified and certified manufacturers because the products have significant effects on the health and safety of livestock. Therefore the company we will be working with on this project should have been approved and certified by relevant federal, state and local government regulatory bodies. The company’s activities should also be supported by the Queensland government. This will make it easy to getting the necessary approvals and permits.
Partners
The company should have a broad range of customers worldwide and allow us access to all their partners. We will also allow them access all our partners, including: Sugar Research Australia, Forest & Wood Products Australia, Southern Oil, Australian Government Cotton Research and Development Corporation, Australian Pork Limited, Sunshine Sugar, Utilitas, Mackay Sugar, Bioproton, Ridley, Sugar Research Institute, Advance Queensland, Kennedy Creek Lime, Asahi Group, Australian Forest Operations Research Alliance (AFORA), Private Forests Tasmania, Arcadis, Bioenergy Australia, Forest Industries Research Centre, Mercurius Australia, MercuriusBiorefining, MSF Sugar, University of Sunshine Coast, Griffin University, The University of Queensland, Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, and various federal, state and local government agencies.
Proposed Companies for Partnership or Joint Venture
We have come up with a list of 21 companies that are potential partners in this project. These companies are located in different parts of the world, have varied capabilities in production of bio-products and have different strengths, opportunities and weaknesses. We have analyzed the suitability of these companies based on different factors. Some of these factors are as follows
Location
The location of the company should not hamper normal operations of the partnering companies. The companies should be able to visit each other’s premises or facilities easily. Their locations should also enable easy and quick meetings and consultations. If the companies are geographically located far from each other then there is need to discuss and agree on methods of communication, meeting and consultations. Therefore given the available modern technological tools, we can partner with a company from any part of the world.
Core business
The core business of the company should be to develop facilities, systems, products, processes related to biotechnology or which promotes bioeconomy.
Facilities and equipment
The company should have a broad range of state-of-the-art facilities and equipment that facilitate efficient conceptualization, testing and production of animal feed supplements and enzymes, or other related probiotics. The facilities should have the capacity to accommodate lab-scale and scale-up production.
Skills and experience
We are also looking to partner with a company that have adequate technical employees. The employees should have vast knowledge about production, supply chain and marketing of probiotics and several years of experience in the industry. They should also provide education and training services to their staff for continuous professional development aimed at equipping them with the latest knowledge, skills and technologies in the industry.
Previous partnerships
We will also prefer working with companies that have created partnerships or joint ventures with other firms in the past. Such companies understand the benefits and challenges of this kind of business structures and therefore are in a better place to develop ways of maximizing the benefits and overcoming challenges for the good of both partners.
Quality systems
The company should have adequate systems to ensure that the products develop meet the required international quality standards. Since we are targeting the global market, potential partners should have integrated and versatile quality systems that meet the quality requirements in different parts of the world. In other words, we want to develop livestock feed supplements that can be sold and used in any part of the world.
Licensing status
It has taken us many years to build credibility and reputation in the biotechnology industry. Therefore we are looking for companies that have been accredited by all relevant regulatory bodies. The partners must possess all necessary approvals and permits to conduct their business. The permits must be genuine and updated.
Other reasons why they are the best partners
We are also looking for other factors in our potential partners, such as core values, incentives (if any), goals, mission and vision, future plans, dedication, number of projects they are currently working on, sustainability goals, and social and corporate responsibility, among others.
Proposed Companies
The proposed companies for partnership are as follows:

Bio Base Europe Pilot Plant

It is located in Ghent, Belgium. Its core business is to provide process development, custom manufacturing and scale-up of bio-based processes and products.

Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Process Development Unit

It was founded in 2012 and is located in Emeryville, CA. Its core business is production of bioproducts.

Zeton

It is located in Zeton, Oakville, ON. Its core business is to design and build innovative pilot plants, demonstration plants lab scale systems and modular production plants.

Shanghai Bailun Biological Technology Co., LTD

It was founded in 2009. Its core business is to manufacture a wide range of bioreactors and fermenters.

Multikraft Probiotics Australia

It is located in Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia. Its core business is to provide innovative and sustainable biotechnologies for producing probiotic micro-organisms.

BIO-CAT

It is located in Troy, VA. Its core business is to offer the most advanced custom formulations and enzyme production technologies. They also provide research and development services for bioproducts.

BiO-WISH Technologies

It is located in Cincinnati, Ohio. Its core business is to improve agricultural practices using natural biotechnology.

Terragen Biotech

It is located in Sippy Downs, Queesland, Australia. Its core business is to provide agricultural biotech products by growing micro-organisms naturally.

SCD Probiotics

It is located in Kansas City, MO, USA. Its core business is to provide full microbial solutions to the global market using proprietary technology. This includes production of natural probiotic products.

Solaris Biotech Solutions

It was founded in 2002. It is located in Mantova, Italy and has repreentatives in over 40 countries across the world. Its core business is to help their clients defne and manufacture their products quickly, cheaply and efficiently.

Agritechnology PTY Ltd

It was established in 1985 and is located in Borenore, NSW, Australia. Its core business is to develop new processes and products for clients and partners using science .

Biochemtex

It is located in Tortona, Italy. Its core business is to manufacture cellulosic ethanol plants using a technology called PROESA. They also supply complete solutions needed for production of biochemicals and biofuels on a large scale.

Deerland Probiotics & Enzymes

It was founded in 1990 and located in Kennesaw, GA. Its core business is developing dietary supplement formulations that are supported by science.

Bioproton

It was founded in 1984 and is located in Kaarina, Finland. Its core business is the development and manufacturing of high quality animal feed supplements, including feed enzymes.

AsureQuality

It was formed in 2007 and is located in Auckland, New Zealand. Its core business is to provide expert food assurance services.

BIO-CAT Microbials

It was formed in 2004 and is located in Shakope, MN. Its core business is blending and customizing enzyme formulation using emerging microbial technologies.

Ceva Animal Health

It is located in Glenorie, NSW. Its core business is to provide high quality, safe, cost effective and environmentally friendly animal products.

NutraScience Labs

It is located in Farmingdale, NY, USA. Its core business is manufacturing, packaging and supply of dietary vitamins and supplements.

Apex Laboratories

It is located in Somersby, NSW, Australia. It was established in 1962. Its core business is manufacturing and marketing of high quality and affordable proprietary and generic veterinary pharmaceuticals.

Ynsect

It was established in 2011 and is located in Evry, France. Its core business is production of animal nutrition products.
Other details of these companies have been provided in the attached Excel spreadsheet.
Conclusion
The company that meets most of the best standards as compared to the rival company should be selected as the best one. In this case Bio-Cat Microbial Company should be proposed and selected as the best as it meets most of the criteria process and strategies. The selected company should be able to meet customer requirements and improving their strategic satisfaction. This is important as it serves to offer maximum benefits to the entire management of the company, shareholders, employees, customers and improves the health of animals   and economy of the people of different countries including Australian citizens.
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