ENGT5220 Low Impact Manufacturing

ENGT5220 Low Impact Manufacturing

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ENGT5220 Low Impact Manufacturing

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ENGT5220 Low Impact Manufacturing

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Course Code: ENGT5220
University: De Montfort University

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Country: United Kingdom


An industrial system can be analysed at different levels of detail by considering the energy inputs to the system, the efficiency of its energy conversions and the energy outputs, for example waste heat. Energy is carried around the system in different forms such as hot water, compressed air, gas, electricity and steam. Industrial energy flows can be complex, for example, an energy conversion device such as a boiler (chemical energy to heat energy) might supply industrial process as well as energy used in the building. Similarly, waste heat from a process might be re-used, converted into electricity or exported into a district heating system. Finally, greenhouse gas emissions depend upon the nature of the energy inputs to the industrial system as well as the amount used.
Consider the example of a small (150 employees) manufacturer in the food and drink sector. You may choose the type of product (such as ready meals, beer or another product with which you may be familiar). The owner wishes to audit the energy performance of the organisation because she is considering investments to improve its energy efficiency. Additional benefits of the audit are that it will identify opportunities for cost and emissions reduction. The factory was built in the 1970s and has not been significantly modified since then. The processes that use heat and the building heating system are fed by steam and hot water from oil fired boilers that are as old as the factory but all other machinery including chillers, compressors, pumps, conveyors, etc. are electrically powered.

Identify the most significant energy using processes within the factory and explain briefly how you would estimate or measure the energy they use.
Illustrate the main flows of energy into, within and out of the factory, showing the main energy conversions that take place with typical efficiencies. Where are the main losses?

Comment on the suitability of renewable energy technologies for this factory and suggest two other ways in which you might reduce the cost of the organisation’s energy use.

This assignment will require careful reading of the lessons used in this module as well as library research. You may find it helpful to focus your reading on case studies from the food industry. Consider all the major energy-using activities in the factory.


Energy is a necessity in the creation of wealth and improvement in the living standards of people in a nation, thus the need for reliable, enough and cheap energy for better development.
The efficiency in an industrial energy system is a matter of a global concern. Most countries have come up with strategic plans which provide measures aimed at achieving sustainable energy efficiency in the coming years (Xia & Zhang 2016). Most companies aim at cost cutting measures of their finished industrial products hence the unanimous call for improved industrial energy efficiency. Subsequently, there will be improved productive capacity and more economic research on product’s branding for better competition. It will also lead to minimization of environmental costs being incurred (Abu-Rub, Malinowski & Al-Haddad 2014).
Most companies have ensured these strategic plans which aim at improved industrial energy efficiencies are implemented to derive more benefits. Benchmarking has been carried out to enable most companies compared their actual production against the best practice undertaken.
The company’s usage and efficiency depend largely on energy power. Energy power is therefore, defined as a leading indicator of a country’s energy effectiveness. It is worked out as quantity of energy per each total amount of products generated in a country. A company can be energy power driven or not power driven depending on its consumption and efficiency. Industries that are power driven have large productive capacity and high cost of production as compared to industries that are not power driven (Lund., et al 2014). High usage of energy has led to increased production costs hence the call for a considerable improvement in the energy power-driven industries and increased efficiency. This has led to considerable growth in energy effectiveness in small-scale businesses which are not energy power-driven, more so in the sector of food and beverages (Gerber, Fazlollahi, & Maréchal, 2013).
Energy used in these small-scale businesses is very low since they are many in number hence forms a good percentage of energy used in a country. For instance, non-power-driven energy industry in Sweden is estimated to be ? of the total usage of energy while in Italy it is estimated to be sixty percent (Quaschning 2016).
Latvian economy is over 90% comprising of small-scale businesses. It is the fourth leading producer company in Latvia and ranked third in food and beverages sector. Brewing of beer in done in minor scale with very few large companies constituting of over 80% of the market share. Good planning and management of energy efficiency measures may lead to reduced cost of production, better research and design work, improved level of competition and increased productive capacity.
Effectiveness of energy in brewery industry
The processing of fast moving goods is categorized as non-power-driven industries; however, research has indicated that brewing of beer is power-driven. Brewing of beer has led to more research with the help of more advanced technology that are suitable for increase in effective energy. This has promoted better design processes and control of heat loss that were witnessed in the past. Most breweries use effective thermal energy whereas others prefer effective electric energy. These energy effective measures are proper insulation of brewery tanks to control heat loss, controlling rate of evaporation and better heat recovery by using thermal storage systems. Implementation of energy strategic plans and policies which aid better decisions is another important factor. Benchmarking with other companies in the same brewery industry is also key in the improvement of energy effectively (Cagno et al., 2013).
Case study: Latvia
Latvia is a sovereign state on the Baltic Sea in the Northern Europe between Lithuania and Estonia. The republic of Latvia was established on 18/11/1918 when it broke away and declared independence from Russia after the World War I. Its current population is approximated to be 1.93Million people. Its capital and largest city is Riga. The official language used is Latvian. It is the fastest developing economy in Europe (Mathiesen et al., 2015). It has a rapid GDP growth of more than 10%. It is a producer in food and beverages sector.
Latvia has many small-scale businesses. Taking a case study of small brewery with yearly production of 16,000 – 18,000hl beer which has been in operation for fifteen years, the country had relied on old forms of technology. There five brands of beer that are produced by brewery firms in Latvia. Malt, hops, water and energy are some of the materials needed in the production of beer. Energy generated is both thermal and electricity with thermal energy consumption contributing to 73% while electricity taking the remaining percentage (Cagno et al., 2013).
During the production process of beer, malt is brought and kept shortly in storage tanks. It is then milled in a roller mill to produce each brand of beer (see diagram 1). Once malt has been milled, it’s put in a crushing tank adding hot water to generate brew which is then subjected to high temperature of steam at constant heat. The five brands of beer are crushed for about one hour with increased temperature to produce different tastes of beer. The completed brew is then transferred to storage tank awaiting filtration (Strasser et al., 2015).
The filtrate, unfermented beer is obtained and added to hop-flower as per the required taste and then boiled for about one and half an hour to obtain solid residues. These residues are separated using hydro cyclone to settle and unfermented beer is cooled to 14oC using cold water in stage one and propyl glycol in stage two. Unfermented beer is then combined with gases and brewer’s yeast and stored in storage tank to be fermented. This beer is chilled to 5oC for five to eight days (Gomez-Exposito, Conejo & Canizares, 2018). The brewer’s yeast is then taken out and beer is subjected to 3oC for fourteen days ready for packaging. The filtrate is transferred through keiselguhr and hard cabinet separators. The clean filtrate which is beer is properly stored to avoid contamination waiting to be packaged.

Figure 1: Diagrammatic representation of brewing beer
Stages of effective energy
This can be done in two stages. Stage one, shows how thermal heat and electricity is applied and used to give the general trend of energy consumption. Stage two deals identification of energy efficiency by use of arithmetic determination (Ilic, Galiana & Fink 2013).
Stage I
This study gives the historical background by carrying out analysis on the production data for a period of three years.

The table above gives the yearly average of thermal and energy usage for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.
Monthly usage data on the number of beers generated is used to work out the specific thermal and electrical energy. The thermal energy consumption is arrived at by working out the records of natural gas based on-site heat production whereas meter reading is carried out to capture data on total electricity consumption. This is evaluated against the benchmarks to see the recent trend in energy consumption and if there exists any improvement. Once the results are evaluated, they are compared to benchmarks data obtained during benchmarking (Xia & Zhang 2016).

Figure 2: The production overheads associated with brewery firm
Heat that is lost during brewing is worked out by physical measurement of temperature balance, process tanks and process mass. Constant reading of electrical consumption must be taken every time at the bottling department to help check the trend of actual electricity consumption and work it out at different times of operations. The transmission of losses of heat is determined at every process stage with the constant evaluation of evaporation of steam which eventually evaporates to the atmosphere (Mancarella., 2014). This is done with the close supervision of electrical consumption in the bottling department. Most companies have been persuaded to give efficiency in industrial energy systems to lower cost of production hence better potential financial saving (Varcoe et al., 2014).
Brewing industries is classified as energy power driven industry and therefore there is need for improvement in energy effectiveness, particularly for small-scale businesses. As per analysis above, it is evidently clear the actual energy usage is greater than the benchmarks targets. In small-scale breweries, production in cluster and inconsistent production plays a key role in the usage of energy. To determine high energy uptake, analysis of the industry’s data is determined and evaluated. This will necessitate the research work that will ensure that several hurdles in industrial energy consumption are eliminated hence improved energy management and better operation planning. This will lead to reduced cost of operation and improved energy efficiency.
Abu-Rub, H., Malinowski, M. and Al-Haddad, K., 2014. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications. John Wiley & Sons.
Cagno, E., Worrell, E., Trianni, A. and Pugliese, G., 2013. A novel approach for barriers to industrial energy efficiency. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, pp.290-308.
Gerber, L., Fazlollahi, S. and Maréchal, F., 2013. A systematic methodology for the environomental design and synthesis of energy systems combining process integration, Life Cycle Assessment and industrial ecology. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 59, pp.2-16.
Gomez-Exposito, A., Conejo, A.J. and Canizares, C., 2018. Electric energy systems: analysis and operation. CRC press.
Ilic, M., Galiana, F. and Fink, L. eds., 2013. Power systems restructuring: engineering and economics. Springer Science & Business Media
Lund, H., Werner, S., Wiltshire, R., Svendsen, S., Thorsen, J.E., Hvelplund, F. and Mathiesen, B.V., 2014 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH): Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems. Energy, 68, pp.1-11
Mancarella, P., 2014. MES (multi-energy systems): An overview of concepts and evaluation models. Energy, 65, pp.1-17
Mathiesen, B.V., Lund, H., Connolly, D., Wenzel, H., Østergaard, P.A., Möller, B., Nielsen, S., Ridjan, I., Karnøe, P., Sperling, K. and Hvelplund, F.K., 2015. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions. Applied Energy, 145, pp.139-154.
Quaschning, V., 2016. Understanding renewable energy systems. Routledge
Strasser, T., Andrén, F., Kathan, J., Cecati, C., Buccella, C., Siano, P., Leitao, P., Zhabelova, G., Vyatkin, V., Vrba, P. and Ma?ík, V., 2015. A review of architectures and concepts for intelligence in future electric energy systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 62(4), pp.2424-2438
Varcoe, J.R., Atanassov, P., Dekel, D.R., Herring, A.M., Hickner, M.A., Kohl, P.A., Kucernak, A.R., Mustain, W.E., Nijmeijer, K., Scott, K. and Xu, T., 2014. Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems. Energy & environmental science, 7(10), pp.3135-3191
Xia, X. and Zhang, L., 2016. Industrial energy systems in view of energy efficiency and operation control. Annual Reviews in Control, 42, pp.299-308

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