ENG1062 Fluid Mechanics And Thermodynamics

ENG1062 Fluid Mechanics And Thermodynamics

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ENG1062 Fluid Mechanics And Thermodynamics

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ENG1062 Fluid Mechanics And Thermodynamics

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Course Code: ENG1062
University: University Of Surrey

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Country: United Kingdom

Describe about the Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

Now for ideal isentropic compression , Exit temperature :-
For isentropic efficiency of compressor
Conditions at turbine inlet
4% Pressure drop in combustion chamber
Efficiency of burner is 97 %
Now for ideal isentropic expansion , Exit temperature :-
For isentropic efficiency of Turbine 1
Now for ideal isentropic expansion , Exit temperature :- 
For isentropic efficiency of Turbine 2  
Now calculate the Workdone in turbine 1 
Now calculate the Workdone in turbine 2 
Now calculate the Workdone on Compressor  
Now calculate the head input from the combustion chamber 
Now calculate the head input from the reheater  
Efficiency of gas turbine 
For rankine cycle Consider the following values given below.
T1′ = 350°C ,P1′ =80 bar
As gas turbine plant of 300 MW capacity ,  So use the rankine cycle combine with reheat and  regenerative  arrangement.
The steam is supplied at following conditions given below:-
Pressure =8000 kPa ,
Temperature = 55°C or 328 k
The steam is extraxted at following conditions given below:-
Pressure =700 kPa for feed heating purposes ,
 remaining steam is reheated to temperature = 350°C or 623 K
 and further goes to expansion in turbine at 40 kPa.
This system is considered to be regenerated and reheat.
Tsat  at 8000 kPa =623 K
As shown above Pressure P2 ‘ and P3 ‘are same and= 700 kPa  
T3 ‘ temperature = 623 K
 P4 ‘ pressure = 40 kPa  
Find the point 1 according to the condition P1 ‘ = 8000 kPa and T1 ‘ = 623 K on the h-s chart.
Find the point 2 by draw vertical line at point 1 till it cuts the 700 kPa on pressure line.  
Find the point 3 at 700 kPa and 623 K on the temperature line.  
Find the point 4 by draw vertical line at point 3 till it cuts the 40 kPa on pressure line.
From Enthalpy -entropy chart, we find :
Enthalpy h1 ‘ = 2985 kJ / kg
Enthalpy h2 ‘ = 2520 kJ / kg  
Enthalpy h3 ‘ = 3170 kJ / kg
Enthalpy h4 ‘ = 2555 kJ / kg
Also, from steam tables
H f 2 ‘at 700 kPa = 697.1 kJ / kg  
H f4 ‘ at 40 kPa = 317.7 kJ / kg
Now calculate the value of m
Consider energy balance equation  
 Heat removed from m kilogram of steam  is equal to heat gained by 1 – m kilogram of condensate steam .
So apply equation we obtain:-
m*( h2 ‘ – hf2 ‘ )  =  (1 – m)*(hf 2 ‘ –  hf 4 ‘ )
m*( 2520  –  697.1 )  =  ( 1 – m )*( 697.1  –  317.7 )
1822.9 *  m = ( 1 – m ) * 379.4
So value of m is equal to .172 kilogram
So m is steam bled / kg of steam supplied to the turbine is equal to .172 kg
 Steam generated /Steam bled = 1 /0.172
Steam generated /Steam bled =5.814
The steam generation capacity of bolier  :
If Ms is the mass of steam send to power plant / sec.
The work developed is :-
Ms ( h1 ‘ –  h2 ‘ )  +  Ms  ( 1 –  m )  ( h3 ‘ –  h4 ‘)  = 110 × 10^3
Put the values below ,we obtain
Ms* ( 2985  –  2520 ) +  ms *( 1 –  0.172 )* ( 3170 – 2555 ) = 110 × 10^3
Ms*  (465 + 509.22) = 110 × 10^3
 So Ms= 112.91 Kilogram per second
Thermal efficiency of the cycle, ηthermal
 ηthermal = Output per kg of steam/ Input per kg of steam .
ηthermal =  
Now combined cycle thermal efficiency is shown below:- 
Details about selecting this type of rankine cycle:-
It is observed in the rankine cycle that  condensate is  at low temperature have tendancy of mixing with hot  water & this mixing cause the decrease of overall efficiency of rankine cycle.
So to overcome this problem, some methods are acquire to heat the feeding water from the condenser hot well by the property of counterflow heat exchangers  by interchanging the  heat within a system and therefore the efficiency of cycle is highly increased. This method  of heating is known as regenerative heat & the cycle in whch this method is used called as regenerative cycle.
Main advantages of Regenerative cycle are given below:-

v The heating process in the steam generator become completely reversible .
v The thermal efficiency is increased due to the average temperature of heat addition in the rankine cycle is increased .
v Due to presence of moisture in turbine , the erosion is highly reduced .
v Due to usage of regenerative cycle , small size condenser is required only .
v Reduction in heat rate .
v The thermal stresses generated in the steam generator are highly reduced because of  reduce in the temperature ranges in the steam generator. 

To increase the  thermal efficiencies of rankine cycle at the initial pressure of steam were increased to  4200 kPa , it was observed that the  steam condition after expansion becomes more wetter & safe limit exceed to  12  %  condensation. So it is required to reheat the steam after part of expansion .
Under the reheating phenomena , the steam partially expand in high pressure turbine then steam passes through the reheater ,where steam is heated to initial turbine inlet conditions then it is again expanded in low pressure turbine.
 The reheating used at  high pressure and temperature steam conditions like
Pressure = 10000 kPA  to 25000 kPa  and Temperature = 500 °C to 600°C
Actual cases , reheat increase the efficiency of rankine cycle about 5%. A multiple reheat will not give a gain in efficiency but  the initial cost is increased . The total cost of reheat system consist of boiler, piping etc ehich may gain 5% to 10% more than that of the old boilers & added this system also increase in expenditure on cycle which is justified only if highly increase in thermal efficiency .
Main advantages of ‘Reheating’ :

v Workdone by the turbine increased due to multiple turbine output .
v Steam dryness fraction of is also improved .
v Tubine vanes and nozzle efficiencies also increased .
v Thermal efficiency of the turbines is highly improved .
v Steam turbine erosion eliminated/removed . 

Superheating of steam.
 To avoid the wetness at the end of expansion in the turbine the superheating is done. But excess superheating  of stream result in greater condensation in the cylinders and also cause erosion in the turbine blades  .
The 12 % is the maximum wetness of steam that is acceptable  without any harm to the blades of turbine.
Main advantages of superheated steam :

v The initial losses due to condensation in steam engines is reduces by superheating .
v In the boiler , superheating helps in reducing the stack temperatures by taking away the heat energy from the used gases, before it moved out from chimney.
v Rankine cycle using superheated steam results in increase in the efficiency by saving a fuel. The saving  percentage is 6 % to 7 % for first 38°C of superheating and then it reduces to 4 % to 5 % for next 38°C and it continues in similar way.

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