EHR205 Organisational Behaviour

EHR205 Organisational Behaviour

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EHR205 Organisational Behaviour

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EHR205 Organisational Behaviour

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Course Code: EHR205
University: University Of Canberra is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

You are to write an analytical report relating to managing employees in an organisational behaviour (OB) context. The task includes:i. Choosing a topic (choose one of the topics below).ii. Searching the literature for relevant theories, concepts, and empirical findings.iii. Constructing a report that provides an in-depth analysis of an organisational behaviour issue using relevant literature iv. Providing clear recommendations that need to be implemented by the Manager to address the organisational behaviour issue. These recommendations need to be based on the research literature.

This report is based on the intrinsic and extrinsic approaches of motivation which is used by the managers in recognizing the reward system for the employees. These are the approaches that are used by the managers in an organization, so as to motivate the employees. Also, when some of the extra work has been provided by some of the employees, it is necessary to motivate them in regard of the extra work done by them. Without getting motivated, in terms of both morality as well compensation is required to be paid when something extra is done. Jackson has stopped doing extra work.
This will become the persisting behavior by other employees of an organization too. Employee motivation is highly required in the organization to see positive changes in the productivity. A motivated workforce is referred to the highly productive employees, of which could help the organization to accomplish the goals. However, the organizations implement different strategies of motivation. Consequently, some of them prove to be effective but some may not. Thus, the current report highlights the approaches used by the organizations to motivate the workforce. The report also focuses on the challenges faced by the firms while implementing the motivational strategies.
There arises the need so that the employees in an organization are motivated to do extra work. Therefore, intrinsic and extrinsic approaches are important factor in motivating the employees. This shall derive the factors which differentiates and hence helps in deciding the failure and success extent of an employee in an organization. Moreover, motivation can be further defined as a methodology, which is important for both an organization, and for the employees as well that leads them to a win-win situation.
Issues employees face at the workplace
When the employees are dissatisfied working with the organizations, their performance might be affected. If employees do not get what they worth they will not be motivated. This will reflect on their performance.  Employees face many issues at the workplace like poor wages, limited growth opportunities, lack of interests, poor management and others. When the employees do not receive the minimum wages, they lack of interest of continuing the work positively. As the issue of being underpaid could be the challenging one to work as it can be driven by interpretation. For example, in order to reduce the cost of operation, the employees are paid below the minimum wages at Sport Direct. This management practice of the company led to employee outrages (BBC News 2017).
Motivation is the important factor that helps in directing the behavior. This consists of two factors which are intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. The intrinsic motivation means such motivation with in the individual that generated within one self. For instance let us say the desire to perform a task. On the other hand, the extrinsic motivation means the motivational thoughts or the stimuli which come from outside. For example, when the desire to accomplish a task is in control of outside sources is said to be as the extrinsic sources.
It is identified that raises can be a significant motivator for the organizational workforce. The mangers could inspire their employees in a variety of ways. Traditional ways of motivation may not be effective for the organization as in the modern days, the needs and demands of employees are changed.
Recognition- The leaders or the managers should appreciate the achievement of the employees. The managers should measure and evaluate the performance of the employees and based on the performance, they should be rewarded with both tangible and intangible benefits. For example, the management could introduce the app called “Valuebot- an app” that helps to measure how many times each employees was praised (Pinder, 2014). Thus, the evaluation would help the managers to reward employees.
Support new ideas- When employees come with a new idea or solution to a particular issue they believe is for the betterment of the organization. This approach of the employees indicates that they care for the company.  Thus, supporting new ideas and giving an employee the chance to “run with it” is the practice of motivation.
Providing necessary benefits- Apart from the rewards and recognitions, the employees should be provided with several monetary benefits, such as pay hike on experience, fringe benefits, annual bonus and others (Gupta & Shaw, 2014). In addition to these tangible benefits, the organizations should provide the internal growth opportunities for the employees.
Intrinsic motivation is identifying the potentiality of the employee and rewarding them as per their performance quality. On the other hand, the extrinsic motivation takes place when the employees are motivated to perform better and earn rewards. Evaluating and measuring the performance parameter is a type of intrinsic motivation. In many of the cases, it has been noticed that the extrinsic motivations can reduce the interests in a subject where the employees do not find any interests or benefits. On the other hand, the intrinsic motivation is based on the capability of the employees, which remains constant in every situation.
Therefore, it depicts that the intrinsic motivations is best for ensuring the profitability in an organisation. When the organisation is providing the opportunities to the employees for future growth, the employees would perform accordingly. Hence, it is cleared that the organisation has selected the extrinsic motivation process for engaging the employees by providing several benefits. If the company had selected the intrinsic motivation, it would have been beneficial for the long run as well. Therefore, it is notable that the intrinsic motivation is superior to the extrinsic motivation.
For running an organization successfully, managers use these internal and external motivators (Yperen, Van, & Hagedoorn, 2003). The intrinsic motivators are the motivational instruments which are important to be applied at the work place for being successful, to set challenging goals, and so as to maintain a positive attitude (Bénabou & Tirole, 2003). Example of intrinsic motivators is progression which is defined as making the path clear so that the employees are more motivated. These are the motivators which shall motivate the employees from inside, however these are the factors which are responsible for happiness or guilt at times.
In addition to it, the extrinsic factors are defined as such motivator which helps in enhancing from the external environment (Judge & Piccolo, 2004). This can be both tangible and intangible. Basically the tangibility is for the monetary rewards such as compensation, salary and bonus. However, the intangible motivators are such as empowerment of additional authority and recognition given to employees (Barbuto, 2005). These are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors; by accomplishing them the employees are even more motivated towards work. Hence, this shall be responsible for the success in an organization.
Role of intrinsic motivators at work place
The intrinsic motivator consists of motivating factors which enhances self-esteem, progression, ambition, commitment, integrity and responsibilities towards job. Self-esteem for an employee at the work place is an important factor as it helps in having the positive mind set towards the job (Goleman, 2000). Another intrinsic factor is progression which is helpful in clearly defining the career path for the employees and hence the employee is more motivated. Ambition; is an important motivator which motivates for accomplishing more achievements that are helpful in enhancing the personality of employees (Jean, n.d.).
Moreover, commitment is a vital factor and no one can make the employees learn about it; however by fulfilling the commitments employees are more inspired towards work. for example: when in an organization the work done more than the total assigned work shall be paid with some extra compensation in monetary terms or it can be in terms of rewarding and giving recognition to the employee. These are the factors that motivate the employee towards working more for the organization that makes it more successful.
The extrinsic approach consists of the motivating factors which are important to be inculcated at the work place so that the employees are more motivated (Reiss, 2004). The factors which are responsible for the extrinsic approach are as: organizational policies, technical supervision, salary, working nature, administration, recognition, interpersonal relations towards job (Jung & Avolio, 2000). The organizational policies of an organization should be made in such a manner so that the rules and regulations that have been formed shall strengthen employee’s satisfaction. For example, the organization Unilever provides the medical coverage of entire family of the employees. The employees at Unilever are provided with the opportunities of internal promotion, annual bonus and other tangible benefits (Clay 2005).
 Unilever takes care of employees’ needs and demands to influence employee performance. Hence, helps in motivating the employees towards defined job. In addition, the working environment should be healthy enough which makes the work culture more attractive (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman & Gupta, 2004). Maintenance of the proper interpersonal relationships and effective communication is essential for making the employees comfortable at the workplace. When they can communicate well with the supervisors, they gain the sense of satisfaction at their workplace. It is much helpful for the employees in Unilever since it helps them to stay focused on their responsibilities. When the employees receive enough supports and monetary benefits from the company, it would motivate them to concentrate on accomplishing the organisational goals.
Relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic influences
The relationship between the intrinsic and extrinsic depends upon the mechanisms. For developing the understanding on the mechanisms the relation between the intrinsic and extrinsic influences can be identified (Schaffer, 2008). At times the intrinsic motivation is reduced by the extrinsic influence at the work place.
The reward system which is an extrinsic motivator shall reduce the intrinsic motivation (Houkes, Jansse, Jonge & Nijhuis, 2001). When there shall be no intrinsic motivation it will result into rewards which will motivate the employees in accomplishing the set target. Also, the need to achieve the by the way of intrinsic motivator at times leads to extrinsic motivator too. For instance let us say that for a person fishing gives him pleasure, but at the same selling those fishes and getting some compensation in return will bring about content. In this way intrinsic influences leads to extrinsic influences at the work place also.
Reflection of intrinsic and extrinsic approach at workplace
When the employee is put to place his / her efforts at the workplace, then they are either be an asset or liability to the, with regard to the costs and benefits by them (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). This depends upon the inputs by the employee that consists of the factors such as time, loyalty towards hard work, efforts, commitment, tolerance and flexibility.
However, the output at the workplace is defined by the positive and negative consequences of an individual. The ratio of input put by an employee with respect to its output should be fair enough (Covey, 2004). This is very crucial for an individual to consider the fair perception of input to output ration equal to other colleagues at the workplace. This is how intrinsic and extrinsic motivators reflect on the employees at the workplace.
Importance of rewards and punishments at workplace
For the motivating the employees it is necessary to give them with rewards according to the extrinsic approach. This also creates an excellence at various levels in an organization which is eventually helpful in building an organizational environment. It depends upon an individual employee that by which method one is motivate (Kalar & Wright, 2007). This depends upon the factors such as desires, values and dreams. When the team members and employees are motivated, then an organization is said to be running successfully. Also, the key factors such as the ways in which the employees shall be motivated are learned (Ryan & Deci, 2000-b). This method is helpful eventually in getting the goals achieved. This proves to be a win-win situation.  It has been found that when the rewards are paid in compensation of extra efforts put by an employee in an organization; this creates positive relation between extrinsic motivator and transfer knowledge.
The negative reinforcements can also strengthen behavioral changes in an employee by the way of punishment (Kamery, 2004). This is done by removing of unpleasant circumstances. For instance, if the employees are found to be using mobile phone at the meeting in front of the senior authorities, he/she should be warned. The team leader should guide him/her; thus, they avoid such behavior.
However, motivation in an organization can be there by the techniques which are implemented to motivate the employees are: by satisfaction, appreciation, recognition, inspiration and compensation. However, rewards are helpful in creating the utmost motivation for the team members and employees. This creates a win-win situation for both the organization and the employees as well.
The rules of motivation are recommended to follow. Basically there are seven rule of motivation which for needs to followed for running a successful organization. These are as follows:

Set a bigger goal, but follow a path: hereby it is recommended that the small goal in order to be on a path have to be followed according to its directions. So that by accomplishing small targets, employees are motivated to achieve bigger ones.
Never quit: reaching a half way towards the goal does not make any sense. For being successful it is recommended to develop a habit of self-motivation.
Get motivation from people with similar interest groups: it is also recommended that there shall be mutual support system required for getting motivated. This is helpful in developing positive attitude towards an organization. This is an important factor for keeping oneself motivated.
Learn the way of learning: depending upon from the knowledge and support from others, develops a habit of procrastination. It is the ability of a man that he / she can learn without any instructions. It is recommended to practice this at the workplace so that this behavior can be one of the important factors in motivating the employees. This also, does value addition for the employees as well by giving them opportunity to fulfill their dream and hence succeed.
Harmonization of in built talent with self-interest so that it becomes a motivation for the employees to be persistent towards achieving a goal. In addition to it the employees are more motivated towards getting their job done in an excellent way with efficiency.
It also suggested that it is necessary to know more and more about the particular subject so that within the employee a self-propelled chain is developed. This becomes an inspiration for the employee and hence he / she is motivated toward putting in extra efforts in an organization.
It is recommended that taking risk in an organization shall be practiced. As taking up the risk is the important factor which is helpful in deciding the success and failure of an event. Motivation is recommended as a powerful tool which is used at the workplace so that the employee reaches up to their most efficient variant of production.

These are the recommendation which shall be practiced at the workplace by the employees. These are the motivating factors which helps the employees in reaching to the most efficient levels of production.
Hereby at the end of the report it is concluded that it is important at the workplace to motivate the employees. Hence, the manager should link such efforts with the rewards and punishments so as to be fair enough for the additional work done and efforts put by the employees. Also, by the motivators chosen accordingly among punishment and rewards, it is vital to have a reward system in an organization so that this is the tool that shall build up the satisfaction and enhance the motivation at the workplace of the employees. As mentioned in the report earlier, not each individual is motivated by the same motivators. There can be different perception of every employee towards each of the motivator used. There can be efficient management practiced by knowing and being sensible in making the employees motivated by the placing the motivators and using the tools in an efficient way so the goals and objectives of motivation are achieved in an organization.  
Organizational behavior at the workplace eventually improves by practicing the motivation tools at the workplace. The skills of motivating the employees make them work and put extra additional efforts for the work. This is the advantage of applying motivation at the workplace. In addition, it is to be concluded that the employees result in being satisfied by the monetary tools at the workplace.
Barbuto, J.E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: A test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. no. 11, No. 4, 26-40.
BBC News. (2017). Sports Direct to pay above minimum wage – BBC News. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Mar. 2017].
  Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The review of economic studies, Vol. 70, No. 3, 489-520.
Clay, J. (2005). Exploring the links between international business and poverty reduction: A case study of Unilever in Indonesia. Oxfam Policy and Practice: Private Sector, 2(1), 1-67.
Covey, S.R. (2004). The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New York: Free Press.
Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard business review: the magazine of thoughtful businessmen, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1-15.
Gupta, N., & Shaw, J. D. (2014). Employee compensation: The neglected area of HRM research. Human Resource Management Review, 24(1), 1-4
Houkes, I., Janssen, P.P.M., Jonge, J. de, & Nijhuis, F.J.N. (2001). Specific relationships between work characteristics and intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intention: A multi-sample analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1-23.
 House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
 Jean, B. (n.d.). Inspirational quotes – Leadership quotations. Retrieved on: 10/03/2017. Available at:
Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 5, 755-768.
Jung, D.I. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups. Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, 185-195.
 Jung, D.I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 21, No. 8, 949-964.
 Kalar, T., & Wright, D.L. (2007). Leadership theory and motivation of medical imaging employees. Radiology Management, Vol. 29, No. 6, 20-28.
Kamery, R.H. (2004). Motivation techniques for positive reinforcement: A review. Proceedings of the Academy of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, Vol. 8, No. 2, 91-96.
Osterloh, M., & Frey, B.S. (2000). Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization Science, Vol. 11, No. 5, 538-550.
Pinder, C. C. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.
Reiss, S. (2004). Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires. Review of general psychology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 179-193.
Rowold, J., & Heinitz, K. (2007). Transformational and charismatic leadership: Assessing the convergent, divergent and criterion validity of the MLQ and the CKS. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 18, 121-133.
 Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000-a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 25, 54-67.
 Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000-b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, Vol. 55, No. 1, 68-78.
 Schaffer, B. (2008). Leadership and motivation. Super Vision, Vol. 69, No. 2, 6-9. Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yperen, N.W., van, & Hagedoorn, M. (2003). Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, 339-348.

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