EDUC1055 Foundations Of Child Development

EDUC1055 Foundations Of Child Development

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EDUC1055 Foundations Of Child Development

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EDUC1055 Foundations Of Child Development

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Course Code: EDUC1055
University: The University Of Newcastle

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Country: Australia

Question:

Describe area of learning and development within the current framework which relate to school readiness. The EYFS talks about seven areas of development, which consist of three prime area and four specific areas. The development in each is considered essential for a child to acquire skills and competence, to be considered ready for school at the age of 5 years.Prime areas: Communication and Language:                                                                                                                                                                 Communication and language skills form the foundation for any kind of development in a child. Unless the child develops good language and communication skills, learning becomes delayed or even impossible. To be ready for school, a child must be able to listen with attention, understand what is being said and respond appropriately using words. The response must be legible and relevant to the topic being conversed about and must be directed towards the people who are involved in the conversation.Physical development:                                                                                                                                                                               Physical development includes moving and handling, which requires the child to be able to display good fine and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills are used for use of writing equipment like pencils or other tools such as a pair of scissors. Physical development also includes being capable of managing simple self-care routines such as being able to feed themselves, going to the toilet independently and being able to dress themselves.Personal, social and emotional development:                                                                                                                                             The child displays confidence and is willing to try new activities, can express their feelings, thoughts and ideas with people known to them. They must be able to manage their feelings and able to express their needs. As part of social skills, the child is able to understand and follow simple instructions and rules, cooperates when taking part in activities and displays an understanding of what is good behavior and what isn’t- relating to themselves and others.Along with the above skills in prime areas, the child must be willing to try and show interest in opportunities that help them learn and develop. In the absence of these basic skills, a child may feel lost and clueless as to how to react to changes or new scenarios. This can hinder their learning process and render them not ready for school. The skills needed in the prime areas of development from the foundation for all kinds of learning and development in the child’s life.Specific areas: Literacy:                                                                                                                                                                                                     Literacy includes the ability to read and write. A child to be ready for school must be able to use phonics to read a certain set of high frequency words and be able to transcribe sounds that make words.
Mathematics: School readiness requires basic mathematical skills which include being able to count from 1-20 in the right order and sequence, be able to solve basic addition and subtraction problems (+1,-1), understand and be able to apply concepts like doubling and halving in real life situations. Maths also includes understanding and using mathematical language relating to size, weight, position and capacity in everyday life. Understanding the world: Children need to be aware of the world around them, about people, communities, differences between them and others. They must be able to talk about their own family, culture and traditions and understand that others may often follow different traditions, not same as their own. The child must be able to notice and be aware of their surroundings, changes in their surroundings like weather, seasons, animals and birds etc and be able to talk about them. Apart from awareness of the world around them, children must be able to use technology in everyday life to expand their learning opportunities. Expressive arts and design: The child must be able to use imagination and creativity to make use of a variety of resources and explore the nature of the resources. Take part in role play, music and dance to express their thoughts and feelings. These specific areas of development act as tools to further enhance the children’s learning process. With these skills learning can be made more interesting and engaging. The more interactive and engaging the learning process, the more curiosity it invokes in children. This way they are motivated to try more and learn more. These skills help a child be ready for school in the sense that it helps them adapt to changes well and cope with it. In the absence of these specific skills, learning can feel monotonous and not very effective. 22: Identify assessment strategies in relation to the current framework.The EYFS specifically states certain requirements to be covered in order to promote children’s learning and development. These include:?The early learning goals that are like targets the setting and practitioners should help children achieve in order to be ready for school.?Have in place assessment strategies to measure progress.
The early learning goals are what children should be working towards through their early years at the setting, which they are expected to be able to achieve by the end of the early years foundation stage. This helps to assess if they have necessary skills in the three prime areas and four specific areas of development, to move into National curriculum (Year 1).At the end of the academic year when the child turns 5, each child’s development is compared against the Early learning goals and is assessed to identify what stage the child is at. This is called a Early Years Foundation stage Profile. Every child must be assessed at the end of the early years foundation stage and the profile must be created for each child, including children with additional needs. Through ongoing observation, the practitioner finds out what the child is able to do. Through assessment, the observation is compared to targets and expected age and stage of assessment to identify where the child should be. This helps plan he next step by identifying the child’s specific needs and interests, strengths, where they need support and how progress can be enabled. The observations from the parents or cares and outside professionals that are involved in the child’s development process are also an essential part of the assessment.The specific requirements relating to their assessment are:The assessment should be based on observing the children. The child must be observed when they are engaged in child led activities and not influenced by an adult’spresence. The assessment must be accompanied by evidence in the form of notes from observation, the child’s creation- piece of art or mark making on a paper, photographs etc. The assessment must be signed by the observer and checked by a supervisor for accuracy and objectivity. The assessment process should not involve too much paperwork that may take time away from spending time and engaging with child in order to enable progress. The results of the assessment must be passed on to the relevant professionals as well as the parents/carers. And any specific concerns about development needs must be passed on to parents/carers and other professionals involved.The Early Years Foundation Stage Profiler must be created by 30 June of the academic year and shared with the parents/carers and Year 1 teacher. The contents of the profile must state where the child stands in relation to their relevant age and stage of development. If they meet expected levels, if they are emerging or if they are exceeding.
 
The year 1 teacher is given a copy of the profiling along with notes on each child’s ability in relation to how children learn:If they engage in play and show curiosity to learn by giving new experiences a try.If they display perseverance and persistenceIf they are able to invent and practice creative thinking and problem-solving abilities
This gives an opportunity for the Year 1 teacher to understand the child better and be able to plan further steps to expand their learning and development. The parents are given a copy of the profile to understand and be able to discuss concerns about the child’s level of learning and development. 
 
Evaluate the current framework’s assessment process in supporting children’s preparation for school. The current framework’s assessment process is very well planned in my opinion. The process is devised to reap the best benefits for each child concerned. It is very inclusive and offers an equal opportunity and strategies to help progress children’s learning and development, based on their individual needs, interests and age and stage of development.The time scale during which the assessment is carried out is very apt and helps identify areas of concern that can be addressed immediately and suitable support can be offered to the child. Requiring the results of the assessment to be shared with every relevant person- parents, carers, teachers, settings and outside professionals (where necessary), and receiving feedback from them gives a better picture of the child. This way the information on the profile created for each child is better informed and more reliable.Considering the assessment are evidenced, the results are more objective and reliable. With the right assessment it is possible to help and support the child suitably.There are some factors though, that affect the effectiveness of the assessment process. This may be efficiency of the staff, their experience and their level of objectivity that influences assessment. Pressure on practitioners considering they have to create a profile for every child in the setting – it can be time consuming and can pose practical difficulties such as taking time away from engaging with the children to promote learning and development.The involvement of their parents and carers can differ depending on their socioeconomic status, their own personal educational background, language barriers and general awareness. At a state-funded setting, the nursery offers the parents the opportunity to visit and spend time with the children and view their learning journal. Only a few parents actually make use of the opportunity and when asked to leave comments about what they think about the child’s progress and what they think could be the next target. Many do not offer comment. In this case, the practitioner can only offer help and support to the children while they are at the setting and cannot force or enable continual learning and development outside of the setting, without the cooperation of the parent/carer.  The information they have gathered about the child is also limited to their personal interaction with the child at the setting. This does not give a very rounded picture of the child.The main drawback I would consider with regard to the current assessment process is what is done with the findings/results of the assessment. The framework requires assessment to be carried out for each child and the early years foundation stage profile created at the end of the academic year when the child is 5 years of age. The framework also states that every child is unique and develops at a different pace. Each child has a different age and stage of development and support must be offered suitably. When a profile is created and the child comes out as exceeding or meeting expected levels of development, it is usually not a matter of concern. They are deemed ready for Year 1 and progress to National curriculum. Whereas, when a child is still emerging or struggling to meet expected levels owing to their development delays, special needs or because the child is younger as compared to the children in the year group; the child though not ready still has to progress to the next level. Though practitioners pass on vital information and profiles to the year 1 teacher, so they can plan suitably for each child, the teachers and more importantly the children do face practical difficulties.  Planning for children in different age and stage levels and delivering lessons results in more concentration on paperwork. The actual time spent with the child is reduced Also, once a child starts to climb the education ladder, knowing it is going to be a struggle, the difficulties only keep on piling on. The child often gets left behind or faces pressure trying to catch up with expected levels of development. Instead, if the results of the assessment could influence when the child moves up into Year 1, and lets the child take their own time and truly be ready without being pushed, the assessment process would be a lot more effective.

Answer:

Describe the area of learning and development within the current framework which relate to school readiness.
The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) consists of about the seven areas of development, which consist of three prime areas and four specific areas. Each of the areas is considered essential for a child to develop skills and competence, to be considered ready for school at the age of 5 years.
Prime areas:
Communication and Language:
Communication and language skills are the foundation of any development in a child, and without the communication and language skills, learning becomes delayed or even impossible. A child must listen, understand and respond with attention to be considered ready for school. The response should be appropriate and relevant to the topic with proper words directed to the person involved in the conversation.
Physical Development:
Physical development includes moving and handling with good and fine motor skills. These skills are used for writing with pencils or using scissors; it also involves managing of self-care routines and feeding themselves, going to the toilet alone and even dresses individually.
Personal, social and emotional development:                
The child displaying confidence and willing to try new activities can express feelings to the known people. Being able to manage their feelings, emotions and also express their views and needs. They should be able to follow instructions and rules while cooperating and also exhibit good behaviour when taking part in activities as a part of having social skills. Being able to display good behaviours and knowing what is required and what is not. Along with those skills, a child must be willing and show interest in new opportunities that can help in learning. Lack of necessary skills in a child may result in feeling clueless and lost in changes and prevent them from being ready for school. The prime areas of development are needed for all kinds of learning in the child’s life.
Specific areas:
Literacy:                                                                                                                                                                                                          
A child is considered literate when he/she can read and write effectively. A child is considered ready for school when they can read certain sets of high-frequency words and also being able to translate them or pronounce them into meaningful and accurate word. Being able to write meaning full words is also necessary for being school ready.
Mathematics:
Simple mathematical skills like counting numbers from 1-20, addition of two simple numbers, and subtraction of two simple numbers are required to be considered as school ready. It also includes an understanding of the concept of double or half in daily life. The child should even know the use of weight, height, size and be able to apply in real life.
Understanding the world:
Children need to be aware and understand their surrounding and the differences in the communities they are living. They should understand their family traditions, cultures and also be aware of others about following other religion, tradition and culture. The child should even know about the changes in surroundings like season, weather changes, animals, birds and be able to discuss about them. They should also be keen on learning new technology for learning opportunities.
Expressive arts and design:
The child can be able to use imagination and creativity to be able to use various resources available around the child. Taking part in role play, music and dance can help in using of imagination and creativity of skills and express thoughts and feelings. Learning can be more exciting and be engaging with these skills enhancing the children’s learning process by creating curiosity and also gives motivation to the children. These skills help in adapting to changes and cope with it that indicates a child ready for school. The absence of these skills can affect the learning and development of the child.
Identify assessment strategies in relation to the current framework.
The EYFS specifically states specific requirements to be covered in order to promote children’s learning and development. These include:

The early learning goals that are like targets the setting and practitioners should help children achieve in order to be ready for school.
Have in place assessment strategies to measure progress.

The early learning goals should be achieved in the early years of the foundation stage to be able to acquire the necessary skills in all the areas of development to move into the National Curriculum. This assessment helps in understanding the importance of the three prime areas and four specific areas of development to move into the National Curriculum (Year 1).
At the end of the academic year when the child turns 5, each child’s development is compared with the Early learning goals to assess and identify the stage the child is at. This is called the Early Years Foundation stage Profile which helps in creating a profile for each child including additional needs required for the child to be able to get the necessary skills and knowledge for further development.
Through this observation, the child’s ability and capability is monitored by practitioners by comparing with a base of standards for expected age and targets. This helps in understanding the current position and ability of the child and then to set objectives and goals for the child to be able to move forward and monitor the stages of progress of the child. The professionals and the parents involved in the assessment are an essential part of the journey.
The specific requirements relating to their assessment are:
The evaluation should be based on observing the children when they are involved in activities independently without any external influence from their parents. These assessments should be stored in the form of notes, paper and photographs and it should be checked by a supervisor for accuracy and objectivity. The result of the assessment should be assessed by the professionals of observers and supervisors for accuracy and then forward it to the parents. The assessment should include most of the time in engaging with the child and less time in doing paper works and assessment based on information in papers. The assessment should be passed on to other professionals and the parents/carers relevant or involved to the child so that the development can be continued with effective strategies and planning. Special needs of the child should be mentioned in the assessment and should be forwarded to the relevant professionals.    
 The EYFS profile should be created by 30 June of the academic year and shred with the relevant related people of the child and the year 1 teacher as well. The contents of the profile must state where the child stands in relation to their relevant age and stage of development and also inform about the expected level, whether the child is emerging or exceeding the standards.
Considering the assessment and the result, the year 1 results are given to the teacher hired for more learning and to monitor:

If they engage in play and show curiosity to learn by providing new experiences a try.
If they display perseverance and persistence
If they are able to invent and practice creative thinking and problem-solving abilities

This gives an opportunity for the Year 1 teacher and the parents to understand the child better and be able to plan further steps to expand their learning and development.
Evaluate the current framework’s assessment process in supporting children’s preparation for school.
This process is well planned, and it offers excellent opportunities and strategies for every child involved in the betterment of learning and development. The process provides equal and comprehensive opportunities for every child to help in the progress of every child associated in it with different strategies to promote growth in the learning and development of children. The time period required to carry out this assessment helps in addressing immediate support or planned support for the child at an appropriate time. The results are to be shared with every relevant person to the child who can help him learning and development, for example, teachers, parents, associates and friends to make the profile of the child better than before by receiving feedback about the child. This sharing of information gives a better perspective and reliable information about the child,
Factors affecting the assessment may be the experience of the staff, efficiency of the staff and their level of objectivity. Excessive pressure on the practitioners due to less time and excess profile to be made for a huge number of children can cause ineffective report as it is very time consuming and also it has some practical difficulties to make in short period of time as it requires thorough study and analysis and also gathering of information from different sources like parents, teachers and friends as well.
The involvement of the parents also depends on the social, economic status, education and general awareness of this study on children. For instance, at a state-funded setting, the nursery offers the parents to assess their children’s learning and development and to comment on the progress of their child, but most of the parents do not visit the nursery nor leave any comments. Only a few parents attend the nursery to avail this opportunity to visit the nursery to monitor their children and also leave valuable comments on their children’s progress and recommendation to improve their child’s learning. Those parents who do not bother to visit the nursery or leave their valuable comments are solely dependent on the practitioner and their ways of learning. They create a barrier for their children to learn and develop outside the setting as the practitioner is the sole source and help for efficient learning and development of the child. This creates a gap between the practitioner and the parents which results in less attention towards the child and development as the information collected gets insufficient as the information gathered is limited to only personal interaction without any social information of the child.
According to me, the main drawback of this assessment is the process of assessment and also that it needs to carry out the assessment and to prepare the Early years foundation stage profile for an individual child at the age of 5 years when the academic year comes to an end. This process is very much time consuming and requires a lot of attention.
 It also states that every child is unique and grows at a different phase which requires different strategies for the different stage of development of the child. Depending on the pace of the learning, support for every child should be provided efficiently for effective learning and development of the child. After a successful preparation of the early years foundation stage profile of a child with satisfactory results and expectation, it is not a matter of concern for anyone involved with the child as everyone expects that to be normal. But,
When a child is still emerging or struggling to meet expected levels because of their developmental delays, age gap or leaning gap, still the child has to progress to the next level.
The children with an unsatisfactory assessment of early years foundation stage profile, special needs and care should be taken comparing the assessment report of the child.  Although the child has to progress to the next level, vital information and recommendation need to be passed on to the teachers of year 1 teachers to be able to guide the children properly and individually. The difficulties faced by a child in climbing the education ladder gets increasing, knowing it is going to be a struggle, the difficulties only keep piling on. The child often gets left behind or faces extreme pressure in trying to catch up with expected levels of development and also competing with others. The teachers often getting busy in delivering lessons and in paper works reduces the time of interaction with the students resulting in low communication with them. The assessment should give freedom to the children to choose their timing of the promotion to the second level without being pushed or forced can prove a lot more effective and productive for the children.

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