Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology

Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology

Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology

Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology
Disorders of the Veins and Arteries
Part of the roles of a nurse practitioner is to diagnose and treat illnesses that creates imbalances in the body. Blood clots and altered circulation are factors that can affect the venous system. The biological and physical manifestation of the arteries and veins will be expounded. will be expounded. Arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis will be discussed at length and their dissimilarities will be outlined. Two mind maps will be attached to this assignment at the end of this paper per the instructor on CVI and DVT.
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
According to Douketis (2017), DVT occurs when there is a formation of clot in the deep vein of the body’s extremity and it is dislodges from the wall of the blood vessel. The triad of Virchow is made up of factors that are responsible for DVT. These three factors are responsible or advances DVT and they are hypercoagulability, endothelial injury and abnormal blood flow (Laureate Education, 2012). According to Heuther and McCance (2017), DVT can develop from trauma, pregnancy or spinal injury. Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology. DVTs are known to develop near the venous valve and also from the buildup of clotting materials in the blood such as thrombin, fibrin and platelets (Douketis, 2017). Homan’s sign can be a sign of DVT and this is when there is pain behind the knee when there is a forced dorsiflexion. To prevent DVT after surgery ambulation (early) is encouraged; anticoagulants are used and compression devices are applied on patients legs to keep blood flowing (Heuther & McCance, 2017). According to  Heuther and McCance (2017), diagnostic instrument like Doppler ultrasonography and lab test such as d-Dimer are used to detect and confirm DVTs after the clinician suspects one.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVT)
The main cause of CVT is the disruption in the competence of superficial venous system but can also develop due to the incompetence of the valves, and sometimes both case can lead to CVI (Weiss, & Izaguirre-Anaribe, 2017). The absence of valves (Congenital) could lead to CVI. The risk for developing CVI is high for an individual who regularly stands for long period of time, wears tight clotting or crosses their legs constantly (Heuther & McCance, 2017). An individual with CVI will present symptoms such as swelling of leg, pain that worsens with standing and improves when leg is raised, varicose veins and restless legs (Weiss, & Izaguirre-Anaribe, 2017). Duplex sonography and d-dimer are used to diagnose and confirm CVI after physical examination.
Dissimilarities between Arterial Thrombosis and Venous Thrombosis
In the case of arterial thrombosis the obstruction of blood flow leads to the side effects and arterial thrombosis can affect various areas of the body while venous thrombosis occurs in the lower extremity. When there is restriction in the flow of blood from the coronary artery to the muscles of the heart it will result to a heart attack and this is linked to arterial thrombosis (NHS Choices, 2017). According to Weinberg (2017) crossed embolism which is known as paradoxical embolism occurs when a clot carried by the venous circulation crosses over or travels to the arterial side and vice-versa. Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology.
The Role of Gender in DVT and CVI
Research has not proven any direct link to DVT and gender but the use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy in women is known to cause hypercoagulability which is part of the triad (Huether & McCance, 2017). CVI occurs in women more than men and varicose is the main culprit of CVI in women and women tend to put on tight clothings also (Huether & McCance, 2017).
The pathophysiology of DVT and CVI has been discussed in the paper and the characteristics of venous and arterial thrombosis. The role of gender in CVI and DVT with regards to females being more susceptible to CVI than males was explained. Diagnosis and treatment of DVT and CVI were also presented in this paper. The next step will be to attach the mind maps of both DVT and CVI.
DVT and CVI Mind Maps
Arterial thrombosis – NHS Choices. (2017).  Retrieved 26 March 2017, from
Douketis, MD, J. (2017). Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) – Cardiovascular Disorders – MSD
Manual Professional Edition. MSD Manual Professional Edition. Retrieved 26 March
2017, from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology, 6e (Huether,
 understanding Pathophysiology) (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA, United States: Elsevier Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology
Health Sciences.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Alterations of cardiovascular functions
PPT lecture. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Weinberg, I. (2017). Arterial and Venous Thrombosis | Angiologist. Angiologist.com. Retrieved
25 March 2017, from http://www.angiologist.com/thrombosis-section/arterial-and-
venous-thrombosis/ Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Essay Assignment Paper – NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology

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