Discussion Reply Needed For The Following Two Discussions.

Discussion Reply Needed For The Following Two Discussions.


Discussion Post 1:


     In 2015, Volkswagen, one of the world’s largest auto manufacturer, became a case study in corporate fraud and institutional failure. The car company was caught falsifying data to give the illusion that their diesel-powered cars emitted a level of pollutants that was permissible under the US regulations. In reality, the Volkswagen engineers installed a “defeat device” in the vehicles, which falsified the results of emissions tests. When the device was turned off and the car was driving under normal conditions, the car would discharge pollutants that were significantly over the US limit. When the company was caught doing this, the results were catastrophic. Volkswagen lost billions of dollars in penalties, recalls, and personnel changes. Public trust in Volkswagen was also lost, as the stock price plummeted, and sales immediately fell (Blackwelder,2016).

     In the investigations that followed the scandal, it became clear that this plot to defraud the public was not only due to the wrongful actions of the engineers that enacted that plan. However, some of the responsibility can also be given to the legal team and top executives within Volkswagen, due to their lack of control and or visibility into the daily operations of the engineering department. Unfortunately for Volkswagen, if the people within the engineering or legal departments would have had the courage to speak up about the “defeat device” or been thorough enough to detect the wrongful doings of the engineering team, this scandal could have been completely avoided or substantially mitigated.

Preventative Measures

     Considering the expansive size of Volkswagen’s operations, it can be difficult for a company with that many employees and projects to successfully oversee the daily decisions and operations of its employees. However, if there are malicious practices by a few employees, the consequences can be detrimental for the entire company. Therefore, it is imperative that the employees that are present for the injustice must report the issues to the proper authority. Unfortunately, the term “whistleblower” may have a negative connotation within the corporate setting, as those who report the wrongdoings of their peers or colleagues risk their reputation or even their position if the right leadership is not in place. However, there are government regulations such as the Whistleblower Protection Act and Sarbanes-Oxley Act that protect whistleblowers’ identity and security. Therefore, if proper notice is not given in a timely matter, the issue typically escalates, and the consequences will become more severe as more time passes (Van Rooij, 2019).

     Ephesians 5:11 says, “Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them.” If the engineers of Volkswagen would have exposed the wrongful actions of implanting the “defeat device” in the vehicles in a timely matter, it could have saved Volkswagen millions of dollars and the reputation of the company. In this specific case, Volkswagen may not have met their corporate goals or sales target if the plan was thwarted. Additionally, some staff members may have lost their jobs due to the incapability of the company to produce the right product. However, those consequences are minimal in comparison to the damages that Volkswagen had to remedy. Therefore, it was not only the obligation for the engineers to report the wrongdoing of their colleagues to the authorities, but it was also the responsibility for them to do so.

     In addition to witnesses having responsibility report wrongdoing, the legal team of Volkswagen also has a responsibility to ensure the ethical operations of the company as a whole. A legal team cannot wait for the company to get into legal trouble to attempt to mitigate damage. The legal management must utilize preventative strategies in order to maintain the ethics of the business. Some of these strategies would include equipping a governance team to oversee the daily operations of the employees, performing regular audits of the operations and staff, and providing services that ensure the security of an employee that would like to report misconduct. According to Deuteronomy 16:20, “Follow justice and justice alone, so that you may live and possess the land the LORD your God is giving you.” Therefore, it should be the main priority of the legal management to ensure the lawful practices of the company (Lippe, 2015).

     Unfortunately, legal team of Volkswagen did not do enough to prevent the damage done by the engineers. Whether the lawyers were unaware of what the engineering team was doing, unaware that the engineers’ actions were illegal, or party and participants to the crime in its entirety; the legal team must take some responsibility for the matter. At best, the Volkswagen lawyers were negligent in preventing an unlawful vehicle from being released to the market, and their lack of foresight into the operations of their company resulted in major harm for the company publicly and financially (Bachmann, 2017).

Executive Response

     When the employees of a company are caught operating illegally on behalf of the firm, it becomes the responsibility of the CEO, executive staff, and board of directors to manage the subsequent fallout. They must make very costly decisions to quickly remedy the situation and mitigate the potential damage to the company’s public image and financial loss.  The decisions would have to include launching or cooperating with an investigation, and then firing and replacing often valuable employees that are integral to operations. These actions can include a corporate restructure and the employment of much stricter preventative measures. The executives will also have to work to repair damages done by the employees and pay fines or penalties, either on their own or by order of the court (Caine, 2017).

     In the case of Volkswagen, repairing damages included issuing a full recall of the affected vehicles and even a refund of purchase to some of the owners. The company also had to pay fines as restitution for the damages done to the environment. The final, monumental task of the executive board is reparation of the broken public image of the company to regulate sales, stock price, and the firm’s financial stability. In doing so, the company will have to provide public statements of responsibility and remorse, possibly aligning with a cause financially to remedy their impact on the environment, and even rebranding the entire company to communicate a fresh start. Proverbs 28: 13 says, “Whoever conceals his transgressions will not prosper, but he who confesses and forsakes them will obtain mercy.” This must be the response from the executive team, as any effort to further conceal the issue would only result in harsher consequences (Bachmann, 2017).


     In conclusion, the Volkswagen emissions scandal was an organizational failure of the employees to protect the company and prevent criminal activity. The large scale of the damages is representative of the lack responsibility of the engineers to report the issue and legal team to detect the issue. This malicious act to mislead the public not only resulted in harmful effects for the environment and the Volkswagen customers, but it severely impacted the stability of the company. As the consequences brutally effected Volkswagen’s sales, public image, and corporate structure, the automotive and trade industries witnessed the importance of ensuring ethical practice.


Bachmann, R., Ehrlich, G., & Ruzic, D. (2017). Firms and collective reputation: The Volkswagen emission scandal as a case study (No. 6805). CESifo Working Paper.

Caine, C. A. (2017). “Dieselgate” and Consumer Law: Repercussions of the Volkswagen scandal in the United Kingdom. Journal of European Consumer and Market Law, 6(2).

Van Rooij, B., & Fine, A. D. (2019). Preventing corporate crime from within: Compliance management, whistleblowing, and internal monitoring. The Handbook of White‐Collar Crime, 229-245.

Blackwelder, B., Coleman, K., Colunga-Santoyo, S., Harrison, J. S., & Wozniak, D. (2016). The Volkswagen Scandal.

Lippe, P. (2015, October 13). Volkswagen: Where were the lawyers? ABA Journal. http://www.abajournal.com/legalrebels/article/volkswagen_where_were_the_lawyers/

Discussion Post 2

Discussion Board Week 2 – Business Ethics

As an employee or a manager in either the legal office or the engineering department, how would you have prevented this incident?

As an employee in the engineering department, asked to implement a cheat device in the diesel engines, I would question my supervisors on the legality of such actions.  As a manager in the engineering department, I would ask my superiors about the lawfulness and repercussions of such an implementation.  I would also recommend that we try and find a way to produce a cleaner running engine instead of cheating the system and lying to the consumers.  Leviticus 19:11 states: “You shall not steal; you shall not deal falsely; you shall not lie to one another” (OpenBible, EVS, 2001).  According to Crete, a driving factor in Volkswagen’s deception was their ambitious target of the U.S. car market, along with the budget and time constraints necessary for reaching such a target (2016).  Within Volkswagen, top executives ignored their social responsibility and instead focused on profits.  Prosecutors in the scandal stated that executives at VW tried to hide the imminent scandal so that stock prices would not be affected (Boston, 2019). 

Volkswagen committed a crime when they decided to implement the cheat device.  According to Kippenhan et al., the essential elements of a crime are actus reus and mens rea, or a guilty act and knowing it’s a wrongful act (2019).  As an employee within the engineering department, I would document all correspondence with superiors regarding the concerns of wrongdoings.  Currently, there are 47 states with whistleblower protection laws, so some research would be necessary to follow proper procedures of reporting if I decided to take that route. 

As the CEO of the diesel division of Volkswagen, how would you have responded when the situation became public? How would this response prevent future incidents?

As the CEO of the diesel division, I would admit the wrongdoings of Volkswagen.  In September of 2015, when the news broke of the utilization of emissions cheat technology in diesel cars, there was published proof that VW implemented such technologies, and it is absurd to deny it any longer (Painter & Martins, 2017).  “Speak the truth to one another; render in your gates judgments that are true and make for peace” (OpenBible, EVS, 2001, Zechariah 8:16).

Organizational communication management is critical, especially when dealing with a crisis.  Studies show that about 29% of organizations wait until a situation arises to devise a response plan. At that time, the focus should be on crisis management and limiting damages. 

In order to prevent another situation like “emissiongate,” the corporate climate needs to change at VW.  A corporate culture of honesty and integrity is essential.  A process of checks and balances amongst departments and executives is a must so that a decision, such as the use of cheat technology, cannot slip by unchallenged.  The legitimacy of Volkswagen was damaged due to the lack of adherence to social system norms, values, and beliefs. (Florio & Sproviero, 2021),


Boston, W. (2019). Volkswagen CEO Faces Charges From Scandal. Wall Street Journal http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fnewspapers%2Fvolkswagen-ceo-faces-charges-scandal%2Fdocview%2F2296520342%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D12085

Crête, R. (2016). The Volkswagen Scandal from the Viewpoint of Corporate Governance. European Journal of Risk Regulation : EJRR, 7(1), 25-31. http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Fvolkswagen-scandal-viewpoint-corporate-governance%2Fdocview%2F1781761944%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D12085

Florio, C., & Sproviero, A. F.(2021). Repairing legitimacy through discourses: insights from the Volkswagen’s 2015 diesel scandal. Meditari Accountancy Research, 29(3), 524-542. https://10.1108/MEDAR-08-2019-0547

Kippenhan, N, Kubasek, N., Brawne, M. N., Herron, D., Dhooge, L. & Barkacs L. (2019). Biblical Worldview Edition of Dynamic Business Lawhttps://prod.reader-ui.prod.mheducation.com/epub/sn_f466/data-uuid-4dbad573132c487da20e87cfe89a80d9. McGraw-Hill Education LLC.

Open Bible. (2001). English Standard Versionhttps://www.openbible.info/topics/

Painter, C., & Martins, J. T. (2017). Organisational communication management during the Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal: A hermeneutic study in attribution, crisis management, and information orientation. Knowledge and Process Management, 24(3), 204-218. https://10.1002/kpm.1544

Get An Oder Like The One Below From Our Nursing Writers


Leadership consists of
various qualities, skills and aspects relating to the action of leading an
organization or a group of individuals (Ennis et al, 2013). The focal point of
the NHS is to enable cultures that provide safe, compassionate and high-quality
care (West et al, 2015). Furthermore, leadership has an impact on a number of
different aspects such as mortality levels, patient satisfaction, staff
well-being, financial performance and generally, the quality of care (West et
al, 2015). The Francis report discussed the importance of distributed
leadership, whereby all healthcare professionals are enabled to think freely,
make decisions and take control themselves. It leads to the provision of
high-quality care (Francis, 2013). This piece of work will assess effective
leadership and why it is a necessity within nursing practice.


Ennis et al (2013) implemented
a study in order to assess the communication characteristics needed for good
leadership within nursing. Interviews were carried out, outlining how effective
communication is key in order to provide high quality care, develop as a
professional and to harbor working relationships (Ennis et al, 2013). The study
produced the following themes: choice of language, listening skills, relevance,
non-verbal communication and relationships. Participants outlined that good
leaders have the knowledge to choose the type of language used and can adapt it
to any scenario that they are faced with. In addition, they suggest that an
effective leader considers the outcome and consequence of each conversation
(for example, whether further support was needed) (Ennis et al, 2013). When
leadership is successful, it enables excellence and ethical and
patient-centered care (Ennis et al, 2013).

Furthermore, it was
noted that good leaders needed to be able to listen, be affable and have
patience (Ennis et al, 2013). One participant outlined that listening should be
first and foremost, valuing its importance and showing great interest in what
the patient has to say (Ennis et al, 2013). Respondents noted the need for
effective communication across all aspects of nursing; with junior staff,
between healthcare professions and when directly caring (Ennis et al, 2013).
Good clinical leaders need to be able to communicate to a high level, adapting
to enable all patients to understand, noting body language, non-verbal cues and
avoiding medically complex terms as much as possible (Ennis et al, 2013). The
study notes the link between effective communication and the amount of
influence that leader has, the team’s performance and their development of
staff member relations (Ennis et al, 2013). Guidelines by NICE also emphasize
the importance of effective communication to enable high quality care (NICE,
2016). Non-verbal communication is also key; effective leaders need to note
their body language and level of eye contact, assessing not only their own
non-verbal cues, but also those of the patient or fellow professional (Ennis et
al, 2013). This will enable them to judge the scenario and to foresee any
issues that may arise (Ennis et al, 2013). Within the study by Ennis et al,
(2013) respondents outlined that good leaders had excellent people skills,
building a good rapport with everyone. To do so, respect and treating each
person as an individual is key (Ennis et al, 2013). It is also vital to ensure
that no judgements are made and that support is offered when needed (Ennis et
al, 2013). Effective leaderships can only be implemented when these areas are
adhered to, building work relationships and providing high quality,
patient-centered care (Ennis et al, 2013).

Emotional intellect

Emotional intellect is
a key aspect to adhere to when managing situations and caring for patients
(Powell et al, 2015). Controlling emotions and self-awareness are both vital
components of emotional intellect (Powell et al, 2015). Doing so decreases the
risk of burnout and ensures that patients are receiving high quality care
(Powell et al, 2015). In addition, being aware of one’s emotions enables a
collaboration that is needed to meet the needs of individuals within the
complex and increasingly technical NHS system (Powell et al, 2015).

The qualities of a leader

The main traits of a
good leader were assessed by Yukl (2013). They consist of a high level of
energy, stress coping mechanisms, confidence, control, maturity, integrity, as
well as being a high achiever, with low needs for affiliation. Nursing leaders
need to be empowering, promote independence, encourage a critical and effective
work environment and remain positive (Jukes, 2013). They should enable fellow
healthcare professionals to build resilience, enabling them to make their own
decisions yet providing protection when needed (Jukes, 2013). In order to
achieve structural change for the provision of high-quality care, the following
should be adhered to: promoting inclusive team work, maintaining trust, seeking
contribution, using personal authenticity, valuing relationships, enabling
learning and challenging any issues that arise (Cleary et al, 2011). Patients
need support and care which cannot be carried out without effective leadership
(Cleary et al, 2011). If a nurse does not show effective leadership skills,
they often retreat towards more traditional methods of behavior (more
documentation and relying on medicine), instead of promoting patient-centered
care (Jukes, 2013). Furthermore, leaders need to support any professionals that
they are responsible for in following the nursing and midwifery code at all
times (Nursing and Midwifery Code, 2015: 18).

The qualities of a manager

Managers oversee a
certain area, supervising fellow staff and ensuring that patient care is
upheld, in addition to administrative aspects (Jukes, 2013). Concerns are
addressed through their specialized nursing experience, good communication and
the ability to take the lead (Jukes, 2013). Good communication is key when
assessing any risks, managing plans, delegating work and ensuring the effective
and safe provision of resources (Jukes, 2013). Delegating work is an integral
part of effectively leading, encouraging active learning, whilst freeing up
more time for aspects that cannot be delegated (Weir-Hughes, 2011). Delegation
is a necessity, especially when staff numbers reduce and pressures rise
(Griffin, 2016). Managers also demonstrate excellent leadership skills by
improving nurse confidence and upholding morale (Timmins, 2011). They need to
ensure that staff are communicating effectively, in order to provide high
quality, safe care (Timmins, 2011). This can be carried out by implementing an
open leadership style, listening to the nurses and involving the team when
making decision (Timmins, 2011). Gilmartin and D’Aunno (2007) outline how nurses prefer managers who are
emotionally intelligent, facilitate change and who actively participate.
Further stating that this leads to cohesion, a sense of empowerment and reduces
stress and burnout (Gilmartin and D’Aunno,
2007). Management and leadership can only be improved by adhering to the
following: ensuring a good set of qualities and knowledge, a supportive environment,
an adequate number of managers and ensuring rewards or acknowledgement for good
practice (World Health Organization, 2007).

Ineffective leadership

Ineffective leadership
can lead to the unsafe provision of care (Nicolson et al, 2011). This was portrayed
during the 1990s, in which nurse Beverly Allitt
murdered children by injecting them with insulin. She was not supervised and
the deaths were not challenged by management (Nicolson et al, 2011). More
recently, the investigation into the Airedale NHS trust found nurse Anne
Grigg-Booth to be providing dangerous care. Many patients died under her care,
which was noted as an abundance of failures in which dangerous actions were not
acknowledged by management (Nicolson et al, 2011). Within the Mid Staffordshire
Foundation Trust, a lack of leadership and supervision detrimentally impacted
upon the lives of many, with high mortality rates (Nicolson et al, 2011). The
Francis Report identified various issues such as, call bells not being
answered, patients lying in their own urine and left without water or food
(Francis, 2013). Saving money was a priority and management preferred to meet
targets than deal with individual needs and thus leadership was poor (Nicolson
et al, 2011). Ineffective management has not only led to unsafe care but cost
more than £16m in legal fees and implementation costs (Calkin, 2013).

Transformational leadership

leadership encourages nurses to provide a high level of care by making
influential changes (Cleary et al, 2011). It involves the following actions:
building trust with fellow healthcare professionals, showing integrity,
inspiring team members, offering intellectual inspiration, adhering to the
needs of each individual and providing support (Malloy and Penprase,
2010). With this leadership style, professionals provide clear aims and a
pathway for their work, prioritising mutual respect,
working together, gaining nurse autonomy and upholding staff morale (Cleary et
al, 2011). Doing so prevents burnout, improves job satisfaction and a sense of
commitment (Cleary et al, 2011). Transformational leadership can be contrasted
with the transactional style in which leaders focus upon meeting targets (it is
not creative, reflective and prevents emotional connection) (Cleary et al,

Support for the transformational leadership

A study was
implemented by Malloy and Penprase (2010) on 122
nurses in order to assess their supervisor’s leadership style. The following
leadership styles were analysed: transactional,
transformational, exceptional-active, exceptional-passive and laissez-faire
(Molloy and Penprase, 2010). The study concluded that
aspects of transformational leadership were connected with 17 out of 37 areas
within the working environment, as calculated by the Copenhagen Psychosocial
questionnaire (Molly and Penprase, 2010). Leaders
implementing the transactional style also made positive contributions, but
fewer than that of a transformational style (Molly and Penprase,
2010). In addition, the laissez-faire, exceptional-passive and
exceptional-active styles all negatively impacted the nursing environment
(Molly and Penprase, 2010). Corrigan et al (2002)
carried out a mental health study, consisting of 236 leaders who had
responsibility for 620 staff members. Leaders who noted themselves as high on
the transactional style, had staff outlining low transformational scores. In
comparison, leaders who noted high levels of inspirational and stimulatory
aspects were likely to have staff who felt that their style was transformative
(Corrigan et al, 2002). Lastly, staff members who stated that their leader has
a transformational style experienced less burnout, a better working environment
and support, adhering to conclusions by Malloy and Penprase
(2010). In a time of uncertainty, healthcare budget cuts, policy changes and
financial strain, transformational leadership is key (Cleary et al, 2011). It
encourages staff to treat patients with respect and dignity, promoting patient-centred care and upholding values (Cleary et al, 2011).
Many argue however, that there needs to be more evidence into whether
transformational leaderships enable better care, improved quality of life and
patient satisfaction (Holm and Severinsson, 2010).

NHS leadership review

The government
published findings in order to analyze leadership within the NHS (Department of
Health, 2015). It noted three main areas of concern: a lack of vision, poor
management and leadership and the need for clear pathways in regards to NHS
management careers (Department of Health, 2015). The key recommendations
include: refreshing the NHS graduate scheme, the transfer of NHS leadership
Academy to Health Education England as those responsible for training and
introducing a minimum term on some senior management contracts. In addition,
managers should be supported and have their knowledge updated regularly in
order to prevent ‘skill fade’ (Department of Health, 2015: 53). The report
concluded that, ‘the NHS as a whole, lacks a clear, consistent, view of what
‘good’ or ‘best’ leadership looks like’ (Department of Health, 2015: 20). The
recommendations focus upon training, management, support, performance
management and bureaucracy (Department of Health, 2015).


To conclude, effective
leadership is necessary in order to provide a high level of safe care. It leads
to patient-centered care, excellent communication skills and high quality care.
Leaders need to communication well, have emotional intelligence, distribute
work and implement a transformational style. Whereas poor leadership can lead
to death or severe harm, as took place in the independent investigation into
the Airedale NHS trust. Ineffective leadership was also a main aspect of why
the detrimental acts of Anne Grigg-Booth went undetected by managers (Nicolson
et al, 2011). To emphasise, leadership is a key area
of the NHS and so it is vitally important to ensure that behaviours,
communication skills, qualities, skills, leadership styles and strategies are
focused upon to improve (West et al, 2015). Without doing so, the lives of many
will be affected.






Our Essay Writing Service Features

Qualified Writers
Looming deadline? Get your paper done in 6 hours or less. Message via chat and we'll get onto it.
We care about the privacy of our clients and will never share your personal information with any third parties or persons.
Free Turnitin Report
A plagiarism report from Turnitin can be attached to your order to ensure your paper's originality.
Safe Payments
The further the deadline or the more pages you order, the lower the price! Affordability is in our DNA.
No Hidden Charges
We offer the lowest prices per page in the industry, with an average of $7 per page
24/7/365 Support
You can contact us any time of day and night with any questions; we'll always be happy to help you out.
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$15.99 Plagiarism report
$3.99 Outline
$21.99 Unlimited Revisions
Get all these features for $65.77 FREE
Do My Paper

Frequently Asked Questions About Our Essay Writing Service

Academic Paper Writing Service

Our essay writers will gladly help you with:

Business Plan
Presentation or Speech
Admission Essay
Case Study
Reflective Writing
Annotated Bibliography
Creative Writing
Term Paper
Article Review
Critical Thinking / Review
Research Paper
Thesis / Dissertation
Book / Movie Review
Book Reviews
Literature Review
Research Proposal
Editing and proofreading
Find Your Writer

Latest Feedback From Our Customers

Customer ID:  # 678224
Research Paper
Highly knowledgeable expert, reasonable price. Great at explaining hard concerts!
Writer: Raymond B.
Customer ID: # 619634
Essay (any type)
Helped me with bear and bull markets right before my exam! Fast teacher. Would work with Grace again.
Writer: Lilian G.
Customer ID: # 519731
Research Paper
If you are scanning reviews trying to find a great tutoring service, then scan no more. This service elite!
Writer: Grace P.
Customer ID: #499222
Essay (any type)
This writer is great, finished very fast and the essay was perfect. Writer goes out of her way to meet your assignment needs!
Writer: Amanda B.
Place an Order

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Powered by essayworldwide.com

× WhatsApp Us