CPY3326 Adult Development And Ageing

CPY3326 Adult Development And Ageing

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CPY3326 Adult Development And Ageing

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CPY3326 Adult Development And Ageing

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Course Code: CPY3326
University: The University Of Sheffield

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Country: United Kingdom


Theoretical frameworks explaining observable ageing issues
1.Clarity of documentation for the personal observation made (e.g., a clear description of your old neighbour’s case, who was recently widowed and spends a lot of time alone)
2.Clarity of an ageing issue emerging from the personal observation (e.g., loneliness in older age)
3.Quality of the material collected from the scientific literature in order to discuss an ageing issue using empirical evidence and theories from the aging discourse
4.Ability to synthesize empirical evidence and theories from the ageing discourse, in order to form coherent arguments
5.Competence in writing properly an essay (including syntax, grammar, spelling, wording


Effect of Ageing
Ageing is the inevitable and irreversible process of growing old. Ageing or aging cannot be defined correctly, however, it is widely accepted that it is just a part of an organism or human life cycle in which an individual born, completed his or her childhood, enter the adolescence and at the end of adolescence they grow older and finally die. Ageing is not disease or pathology but it may favor the emergence of various disorders such as poor immunity, allergies, lack of energy and increased or reduced BP, respiration issues, blurred vision, hair loss, depression, stress, and anxiety and bone problems. In this particular essay, I will discuss the case in which a woman in my neighborhood lost her husband recently and facing various issues like loneliness. Further, I will discussabout the personal observation, and about the scientific researches and theories related to ageing and associated issues.
There is a woman living near my home, she is 62 years old and lost his husband 2 months before. Since then she has been living alone on her own and managing things by herself. However, she has two daughters who are living far from her and used to visit her once in a year.  I have observed problems she has been facing after the death of her husband. Last Monday I talked to her and discuss the issues she has been dealing with and how she managing the problem at this age. She has also isolated from other neighbors and developed issues like depression and stress. As a neighbor, I have always been interactive with this lady in a polite manner, therefore, she discussed her problems with me She stated that she has facing various issues like facing difficulty to manage daily routine works like cooking, dusting, floor cleaning, walking, and blurred visions. She is an independent woman and wants to manage things on her own; therefore, she does not ask her daughters to help her.  
The most common she has developed is loneliness that occurs specifically after the death of her husband. She stated that ‘we were the ideal couple and we both used to manage daily routine works together, and I was happy. His death was unacceptable for me and I still miss him so much”. By listening to her problems and observing the issues she has been facing I can say that her main ageing issue was loneliness.  As she stated in her statement that she was really happy with her husband and feeling alone after his death, it can be said that she must be socially isolated and thinking about her husband most of the time. This might contribute to the development of the associated problems. Her growing age does not allow her to do things that were easily done when she was younger. As a neighbor and I am deeply concern about the lady, therefore observing my old neighbor, made me search various literature articles or scientific papers for the detrimental effects of loneliness and find out the how this affects older adults.
There are various studies has been conducted on the effect of loneliness, social isolation on a person’s health and wellbeing. According to a report published in Mylumin (2018), social network absence and loneliness are related to the increased risk of mortality in people aged fifty-two or and older. Meyer and Schuyler (2009) stated that loneliness is common among elderly people but it is also associated with the depression, cognitive decline, poor health status, and reduced problem-solving abilities. They further reported that it loneliness can be diminished by satisfying family relations, companionship and by implementing some purposeful activities. According to Routasalo et al. (2006), people often take loneliness as a shameful thing to discuss with others; therefore, it is that the individuals feel more reluctant to agree about that they feel loneliness. On the other hand, Cohen-Mansfield and Parpura-Gill (2007), believed that loneliness could be described as the negative feeling that contributes to the impairment of quality of life of older adults and cause issues such as depression.
Another study conducted by Routasalo et al. (2008), revealed that loneliness experience among the older adults is definitely or always leads to the impaired or unfavorable quality of life and bad living condition of old people at home. Singh & Misra (2009) conducted a study among fifty-five older adults and found that among all the respondents, 47. 43 % of men were having loneliness issue and on the other hand, nearly 45.75 percent of women had loneliness. About 19 percent males and 22. 6 percent of females developed depression. They further revealed that there is a strong and positive correlation between depression and loneliness. They also revealed that levels of depression increase with an elevation of loneliness among both old male and females.  
According to Golden et al. (2009), loneliness and the social network independently impacts mood and the wellbeing of elderly people. In their study on 200 older adults, they found that nearly 35 percent of participants were lonely and 34 percent had the non-integrated social network. They also found that loneliness was higher in women compared to men, specifically in widowed and increased with the age. Wellbeing, hopelessness and depressed mood are all particularly associated with non-integrated network of people and loneliness. The risk of developing depression in widow is higher due to loneliness.
Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted (2006), conducted two different studies among 201 people. In the first study, they found that the elevated levels of loneliness are directly associated with increased levels of depression and loneliness is the significant predictor of symptoms related to depression. The results of the second study were also replicate the first study and revealed the same outcomes and found that the symptoms of depression were higher in females than men, and lower in the adults.
There are some theories associated with loneliness in adults such as cognitive theory, interactionist theory, the psychodynamic theory of loneliness, loneliness, and quality of life, loneliness with depression and sociability, and loneliness and social isolation. Cognitive theory mainly focuses or concentrates on the response to and the experience of loneliness. According to this theory loneliness and can be elevated by using some supporting social and self-steam skills (Shiovitz-Ezra, & Ayalon, 2010). While interactionist theory proposed that people evaluate his or her own emotional and social disconnections specifically in terms of its level of quality. According to this theory loneliness caused by both, lack of attachment with people and absence of the social network, Although this theory has been criticized for the condition described for causing loneliness Singh, & Kiran, 2013). Another theory named psychodynamic theory of loneliness proposed by Leiderman’s, he stated that loneliness is the actually the psychological construct can cause various psychiatric symptoms like phobias, depression, and psychoneurosis. According to loneliness and quality of life theory, males had a higher quality of life and loneliness feeling than the women. This theory further reported that elderly females are more likely to develop loneliness in comparison to male older adults (Tzouvara, Papadopoulos, & Randhawa, 2015). Loneliness with depression and sociability is theory propped by Singh (2009), according to which male older adults are more sociable than the female older adults.it also revealed that increased level of depression occurs due to the elevated levels of loneliness in both men and women. According to Hall, Havens, & Sylvestre (2003). The interrelationship among, loneliness, isolation, and health found that increased levels of loneliness negatively impacts health. It was also found that loneliness among elderly males is influenced by the poor life satisfaction, widowhood, the feeling of disrespect, and chronic illness.
Various studies also revealed that taking part in social activities such as community gathering can enhance the mental well-being of a person by removing the social barriers. The older adults, specifically women can increase psychological health by improving contributing to their social network. Some of the researchers also revealed that technology can play a critical and important role in removing the social isolation and loneliness in women. According to The Geriatric Rehabilitation Nursing Model (Rautasalo et al., 2004), nurses should update their studies or education every day. They should educate themselves about loneliness and isolation, their measurements, signs and symptoms, its relationship with other diseases and about how to become a good nurse and a teacher for the older people. Second, encouraging and supporting the older adults and their friends and families, by teaching and helping them to include social activities such as peer support, group intervention, and techniques like drama, reminiscence, touch, and art. Third, cooperating with team members or healthcare staff for improving the psychological and physical health of the older people which may result in decreased loneliness levels  
Ageing is the irreversible and inevitable process of growing old. It is not a disorder or a pathology, however, it can increase the chances of developing the disorder such as depression, allergies, lack of energy and reduced immunity. It can be concluded that the major health issue the patient is facing is loneliness that occurs due to the death of her husband. After reviewing various article and theories it can be concluded that loneliness and social isolation are correlated and may develop depression and other psychological health problems like stress and anxiety. Some of the nursing intervention can be beneficial to the widow lady, was updating their studies, encouraging and supporting the elderly, and cooperating with the other health worker in order to provide care to the older people. 
Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and aging, 21(1), 140.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Parpura-Gill, A. (2007). Loneliness in older persons: a theoretical model and empirical findings. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(2), 279-294.
Golden, J., Conroy, R. M., Bruce, I., Denihan, A., Greene, E., Kirby, M., & Lawlor, B. A. (2009). Loneliness, social support networks, mood and wellbeing in community?dwelling elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 24(7), 694-700.
Hall, M., Havens, B., & Sylvestre, G. (2003). The experience of social isolation and loneliness among older men in Manitoba. Retrieved from:  https://www.veterans.gc.ca/pdf/about-us/research-directorate/social-isol-loneliness-vac-report.pdf
Meyer, R. P., & Schuyler, D. (2011). Old age and loneliness. The Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders, 13(2), e1.
Mylumin (2018). The effects of loneliness and isolation on the elderly. Retrieved from: https://mylumin.org/the-effects-of-loneliness-and-isolation-to-the-elderly/ 
Routasalo, P. E., Savikko, N., Tilvis, R. S., Strandberg, T. E., & Pitkälä, K. H. (2006). Social contacts and their relationship to loneliness among aged people–a population-based study. Gerontology, 52(3), 181-187.
Routasalo, P. E., Tilvis, R. S., Kautiainen, H., & Pitkala, K. H. (2009). Effects of psychosocial group rehabilitation on social functioning, loneliness, and well?being of lonely, older people: randomized controlled trial. Journal of advanced nursing, 65(2), 297-305.
Routasalo, P., Arve, S., & Lauri, S. (2004). Geriatric rehabilitation nursing: Developing a model. International journal of nursing practice, 10(5), 207-215.
Shiovitz-Ezra, S., & Ayalon, L. (2010). Situational versus chronic loneliness as risk factors for all-cause mortality. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(3), 455-462.
Singh, A., & Misra, N. (2009). Loneliness, depression, and sociability in old age. Industrial psychiatry journal, 18(1), 51.
Singh, B., & Kiran, U. V. (2013). Loneliness among elderly women. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(2), 10-14.
Tzouvara, V., Papadopoulos, C., & Randhawa, G. (2015). A narrative review of the theoretical foundations of loneliness. British journal of community nursing, 20(7), 329-334.

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