COIT12201 Electronic Crime And Digital Forensics

COIT12201 Electronic Crime And Digital Forensics

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COIT12201 Electronic Crime And Digital Forensics

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COIT12201 Electronic Crime And Digital Forensics

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Course Code: COIT12201
University: Central Queensland University

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Country: Australia

Question:

As this article attempts to meet the stated objective, it seeks to respond to the questions stated below:
What are the appropriate digital forensic tools for addressing the M57 scenario?
What is the process involved in addressing the scenario?
Enabling objectives

Analyse a case study to identify appropriate course of action toinvestigate
Learn appropriate tools and techniques to investigate a digital forensic case.
Apply digital forensics methodologies.
Appraise the legal issues involved in a forensicinvestigation.
Prepare an outline of a professional digital forensic plan and investigation report

In this assignment, you will work in a digital forensic team to investigate a case. Each member of the group will have specific evidence to investigate individually. The group then needs to work together to discuss issues relevant to the entire case. Finally, the group needs to combine individual investigations and group discussion into one report for submitting in Moodle. Only one member from the group needs to upload it in Moodle.
Perform the following tasks to complete the assignment:

Create a group
Select a case study to investigate
Individually, select and complete investigation activities within the case study
As a group, discuss investigation issues within the case study
Submit a group report

Answer:

Introduction 
With the progress in time and advancement as well as evolution in technology, the use of computers has and will increase in our daily lives. This owes to the fact that the digitalized generation has become more dependent on computers to an extent that computers are used in nearly all facets of our daily activities including organizations, institutions, and for personal use. It is safe to calculate the rise of crime that has been facilitated by the advanced technology by evaluating the past trends of technology. Findings from various studies cite that criminals have put a strain in computer forensic examiners today (Taylor, Haggerty, Gresty, and Lamb, 2011, pp.4-10; Grispos, Storer, and Glisson, 2012, pp.28-48).  This is due to the reason that a significant number of crime, nowadays, are often facilitated by computers as well as other computing devices of some sort including smartphones among other gadgets. Moreover, the computer hardware and software, as well as the wireless technology, are getting more sophisticated and portable thus increasing the level of crime (Damshenas, Dehghantanha, Mahmoud and bin Shamsuddin, 2013, p.543).
Considering the evolution in technology as well as updates on what is to be considered evidence, a proper training, and education in computer forensics should be considered (Chung, Park, Lee, and Kang, 2012, pp.81-95; Rekhis and Boudriga, 2012, pp.635-650). It is important to find out what a crime entails where computers are involved, it is also important to examine any potential evidence of a crime on the digital media. There has been a considerable growth in crime rates, as such, computer forensics is becoming increasingly important (Agarwal, and Kothari, 2015, pp. 561-571; Liberatore, Erdely, Kerle, Levine, and Shields, 2010, pp.S95-S103). Computer forensic entails expertise as well as the methods drawn from information and communication technology domain, psychology, and criminology among other related fields (Raghavan, 2013, pp.91-114; Seo, Lim, and Lee, 2009, pp.182-190; Valjarevic, and Venter, 2013, pp. 1-9). It is essential not just for mastering the digital forensic tools but also to have and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the tools in their application in the real world situation.
One critical issue in digital forensics is that real data is always not stable because of the presence of confidential information. As such, there is need of disks for memory dumps, images, and packet dumps for use, however, the resulting data is rarely realistic (Chung et al. 2012, pp.81-95; Beebe, 2009, pp. 17-36; Grispos, Storer, and Glisson, 2012, pp.28-48). The primary objective of this report is to demonstrate the practical use of the digital forensic tools through analysis of M57 organization cyber-crime scenario.
M57 patents scenario details
As stated in the scenario, the M57 is a patent search organization that do investigations for its clients’ patent information. The scenario starts when the company has four employees including the founder and the CEO of the organization named Pat McGoo, the company’s administrator Terry Johnston and two patent researchers called Jo Smith and Charlie Brown. The organization has a plan for employing more employees as it books new clients. Since the organization needs to employ more personnel, they must be having more technology at hand that is not utilized.
The roles of the organization’s employees are checking and writing emails, staging and conducting various illegal or malicious activities surfing the internet, using document creation software including office among other responsibilities. The illegal activities associated with the organization’s employees are not limited to theft of the organization’s property, using spyware including loggers, proprietary information exfiltration and viewing illegal content using the organization’s computer. The illegal content consists of the pictures of common house cats that have no copyrights.
This episode, however, ends when an individual outside the M57 Company reports an information to a police station. The person had bought a desktop workstation from an advertisement on Craigslist. This individual found the cat’s photographs mentioned earlier in the device and investigators trace the machine then find that it belongs to the M57 organization. Upon calling the organization’s CEO, Pat confirm that the device was stolen and further provide more organization’s properties that have been stolen along with the computer. The CEO tells the investigators to search the organization and image all M57 Company’s properties including the organization’s handsets, computers, and the machine’s removable USB drives. McGoo, however, has no idea that several of the organization’s employees are involved in this illegal act including extortion, theft of the organization’s property, and data exfiltration.
M57.bizz Network 
The organization’s network layout includes four computers which are connected to one switch configured with a gateway which enabled internet connection as shown in figure 1. Jo Smith needed two machines according to the scenario, by then, he had one machine connected to the network. The organization made a replacement because of his hardware fail which was one week before the scenario commenced.
The organization workstation devices 
The company’s workstations were prepared as the clean environment. A hard drive with a pass of NULL characters got purged over each machine’s hard drive. We created one partition from this clean state and installed an operating system from an original media. We then formatted all of the images in the hard drive using NTFS. After the installation process, we updated the system.  
Literature analysis 
Besides the fact that advanced criminology is generally new in the research area, it has officially gained critical ground. The advancement isn’t just from an innovation point of view, for example, instruments to gather and investigation computerized prove, yet in addition with the change of philosophy (Seo, Lim, and Lee, 2009, pp.182-190). In advanced crime scene investigation, a procedure display is an approach used to lead an examination; a system with various stages to direct an examination. For the most part, we proposed the process models on the experience past work’s experience. Because of the assortment of cases, such as digital assaults directed by information technology professionals, common cases in an organization, or illegal cases, diverse specialists have a tendency to take after various strategies in their investigative procedure, there is no standard work process in a computerized scientific examination.
A standard system in advanced crime scene investigation examination comprises of a meaning of the succession of activities vital in the examination (Valjarevic, and Venter, 2013, pp. 1-9). A structure, in the event that it is excessively shortsighted or has fewer stages, probably won’t give much direction to the examination procedure. A system with more stages and each stage with sub-ventures, with more impediment of its use situation, may demonstrate more helpful. Despite the fact that it is relatively difficult to plan an impeccable procedure demonstrate that can manage any examination, a perfect system ought to be general, which implies that it could be connected to whatever number cases as would be prudent.
Moreover, considering that methods develop so quickly, a very much characterized structure ought to likewise with the ability to embrace new strategies during the time spent examination (Rekhis and Boudriga, 2012, pp.635-650). The authors have proposed various process models. For the most part, every system endeavors to refine the standard strategy for a given case and each of the procedure models adopts an extensively comparable strategy. The most punctual research focused on characterizing the procedure of advanced measurable examination. All the more as of late, process display inquires about revolves around fathoming more particular issues – particular utilize cases or spotlight on specific advances (confirm gathering, safeguarding or examination, investigation). The triage show is successful for cases that are time touchy. Through the help of computerized criminology triage, specialists could find appropriate proof, what’s more, the police could get the whereabouts the criminal sooner rather sitting tight for the entire report which could take a while or even years.
Cloud computing has turned out to be typical in this day and age. As one precedent, cloud storage, for example, Google Drive, Dropbox, Apple’s iCloud, and so on, are broadly utilized by buyers worldwide. Advancement this innovation is a twofold edged sword from a computerized criminological point of view; the wide utilization of cloud framework and applications conveys unpredictability to directing computerized measurable examinations while utilizing this on-request, the rapid innovation could likewise make a big deal about the investigative procedure fundamentally more proficient.
Nonetheless, in view of the present writing in the territory, digital forensic is considerably more famous, for example recuperating proof from cloud administrations and applications (Beebe, 2009, pp. 17-36). Survey on DFaaS very constrained up to now in the digital scientific network. The DFaaS is particularly still considered in its outset. In the most recent decade, numerous partnerships have completed their preparing as well as information relocation from their own servers to the cloud benefit sellers, for example, Amazon or Rackspace. In like manner, during the time spent advanced scientific examination, the DFaaS could bring a few enhancements over the current procedure. There are various advantages of making utilization of cloud computing for scientific examination. Right off the bat, remotely interfacing with ground-breaking servers rather than every single gadget not just offer the agents more grounded processing power for confirming examination yet, in addition, dispose of the area impediment that the investigation could just be led in the research center.
Activity 1
According to the scenario script, there is suspicion that a certain employee spy on the M57 organization CEO by e-mail. In this case, the hypothesis is that the illegal act was done on the individual’s computer.
Because there was limited information with respect to timing to support the process of investigation, all of the Pat’s RAM snap short were examined as well as the attempts to establish all of the executables which are in the memory. During the process, we generated various file hashes, every one of Pat’s disks was mounted and hashed the majority of the individual documents which took around one and a half an hour for eighteen images of 260 GB. The memory pictures from Pat’s PC were contrasted and the hashes of the .dll and the .exe records which are on the circle pictures in his PC’s disk in order to find out the code that were run on the computer (Perumal, Norwawi, and Raman, 2015, pp. 19-23; Dykstra, and Sherman, 2013, pp.S87-S95.).
Sampling size for four filters was used to compare images (Valjarevic, and Venter, 2015, pp.1467-1483; Shields, Frieder, and Maloof, 2011, pp.3-13). It took approximately eight minutes to relate the base image executables to the 21 RAM previews and roughly ten minutes to look at the executables from that day picture circle to the accommodating RAM depictions. As indicated by the distinction and a couple of lines of light scripting a timeline of the entire process was established along with certain routine activities which can be discerned easily (Shields, Frieder, and Maloof, 2011, pp.S3-S13). The size of the difference which actually grew over time was also given for the same day, the days, as well as weekends that had no interesting results, were skipped.    
Based on the investigation, it is apparent that keylogger was installed on Pat’s computer and later removed. If the RealVNC was not installed by Pat on the same date the keylogger was installed, it could have also been used to look over his shoulder (Alazab, Venkatraman, and Watters, 2009, pp.551-558; Garfinkel, 2010, pp.S64-S73). The total triage time for queries was 30 minutes plus an additional one and a half an hour for file hashing.
Activity 2
For the purpose of this activity, Paraben email was downloaded and used as a tool for investigation (Lillis, Becker, O’Sullivan, and Scanlon, 2016, pp. 75-134). Before diving into the investigation, it is important to look at the importance of the email headers in the cases like the scenario. Due to the fact that exfiltration occurs through email, it is essential to know what is meant by the headers. The email headers keep a plentiful of data which are related to the specific message in the email (Sindhu, and Meshram, 2012, p.39; Quick, and Choo, 2014, pp.273-294). They are normally hidden, as such, only the text of the email is shown to the recipient of the email. The email headers can be easily forgotten, they are also not veracious. Following this rationale, the only part of the email which can be trusted is the part which is generated by the user’s service i.e. the received part.
The investigation commenced by replicating the M57 organization employees’ emails stated in the scenario script and then replica was mounted for analysis. The format of the image was in the proprietary EnCase format (Mumba, and Venter, 2014, pp. 1-10; Zainudin, Merabti, and Llewellyn-Jones, 2010, pp. 21-22). Various forensic software was used in mounting the images including GUI front-end for the Sleuth kit tools as shown in figure 2.
According to the scenario, this case involves the emails that were sent using M57 organization machines. It is suspected that someone has spilled data concerning M57 organization’s insider facts. We inspected the manner in which Charlie got to his messages. With the end goal of this paper, we direct our concentration toward Charlie’s machine and contrast the executable from circle pictures and the comparing RAM depiction of the day. This examination is encouraged by an example size of four where a correlation between each of the 18 RAM pictures was done in 31 minutes (Perumal, 2009, pp.38-44; Casey, 2011, pp. 39-47; Seo, Lim, and Lee, 2009, pp.182-190). During the study, we recognized the occurrence of a “Cygnus free edition” hex editor as well as a program called “invisible secretes 2.1”. The program had a doll called “bmpcarrier,” “blowfish,” and “jpgcarrier” supporting the suspicion that it is a steganography tool (Rekhis, and Boudriga, 2011, pp.376-396; Taylor, Fritsch, and Liederbach, 2014). Another program named “insecr2.exe” which can be found on the network trace for date 19th November was found on Charlie’s USB drive, this is an evident that the file was downloaded around the same time. The following stage was to recognize the information that may have been exfiltrated in the USB drive.
After examination of the USB drive, the “astronaut” and “microscope” pairs of images appeared to look the same, however, their hashes are not identical, and this supports the suspicion that they must have been used for stego as carriers. The investigation of the accompanying emails also supports the hypothesis. Investigating other possible exfiltration carriers, it is found that seven zip files are present and the files were installed on date 24th November. A password protected archive was also found in the USB drive which contains two files apparently (Casey, Back, and Barnum, 2015, 12, pp.102-110). Examination of other files from the USB drive in all RAM images of Charlie, the two files were found in memory. When the zip files were correlated with the mail traffic, it was revealed that the file was part of extortion scheme rather than exfiltration.
Activity 3
From the investigation in the activity 1, there is a satisfactory reason to suspect that one of the organization’s computers was used in for illegal practices. The suspicion arose when one of the computers the computers used by Jo got replaced and then sold online. As much as the employee might have attempted to cover his tracks when the computer was investigated by the police at the end of the scenario, however, it was already clear that one of the organization’s computers was used for the illegal practices and the computer was initially used by Jo.
To additionally demonstrate that Jo was engaged with the act, the majority of Jo’s pictures were first questioned with the kitty sets. Since a full correlation thinks about the majority of the process segments to the question records to the process parts of the objective documents which would take a lot of time as 55 minutes at least will be taken to go through the 21 circle pictures, an option quicker technique was utilized (Imran, Aljawarneh, and Sakib, 2016, pp.494-520; Omeleze, and Venter, 2013, pp. 1-8). The technique includes a significantly quicker output by viably examining as just four bits of the first records were searched for. We turned out to be more forceful and further utilized an inspecting size of two, which yield a similar outcome for this situation at the expense of 96 seconds just for the majority of the pictures in the hard plate of Jo’s PC.
The results showing the number of record matches for every one of the dates of the scenario were obtained and this provided the basics of initial hypothesis. From the results, it was apparent that 124 kitty set files were copied into the computer on date 18th of the month and another five files were added on date 24th when 130 files also got copied onto the new computer. Questioning the majority of the 78 disk pictures contraband traces (comprehensive of Jo’s) utilizing an example measure, it accepts seven minutes as a similar inquiry with an example of four takes eleven minutes, the complete query would take around five hours, and this is the most appropriate for this analysis (Kebande, and Ray, 2016, pp. 356-362; Damshenas, Dehghantanha, Mahmoud, and bin Shamsuddin, 2012, pp. 190-194).
The outcome does not, however, show any new matches on the remaining machine. Moreover, a query of the system follows does not demonstrate any hits. It is obvious from the situation that the kitty records were not set on some other PCs and they were never exchanged through the system. At the point when Jo’s USB picture is looked into, the source kitty pictures are found in a second.
On basis of this investigation, various preliminary conclusions that address the following questions can be deduced as follows: It is evident that Jo is the owner of the files since the queries of all the disk images of contraband traces in all machines in the organization finds that no machine showed any match, the query network traces from the investigation did not also show any matches except for Jo’s machine.
Discussion 
Based on the findings from the investigation above, defaulters in the M57 company can be now put to light. In the activity one, it is proven that employees spy on Pat as the evidence suggests. Case two, on the other hand, bring to the fore the exfiltration activities that take place in the organization and Charlie is found to be responsible for this as investigations on his USB drive suggest. Investigations in case two, however, put to light the illegal files in the M57 organization’s machines which are proven to belong to Jo, the organization’s employee. Despite the fact that, distributed computing has turned out to be predominant crosswise over numerous enterprises, there is restricted writing on its utilization and focal points from a Digital forensic analysis service DFaaS viewpoint.
In this area, the ebb and flow inquire about on DFaaS will be examined. The primary usage is the registering power given by conveyed figuring, which can all the more likely handle the expanding greatness of information. Examination of writing demonstrates the effectiveness of the cloud framework taking a shot at recorded pursuit. Different research layout an execution of cloud-based framework to battle the greatness of information experienced by computerized legal sciences by utilizing parallel registering. This work features the materialness of distributed computing in computerized crime scene investigation and the change that DFaaS could make. One utilizes an instance of DFaaS is to offer recorded pursuit as an administration. Concerning the substantial volume of information, waiting be broke down, circulated registering frameworks could do a similar work in parallel. Such cloud server can offer the profoundly serious registering procedure and a substantial amount of capacity to manage the moderate handling on huge information volume.
Conclusion 
In conclusion, this study has presented an investigation report concerning the M57 patents. From the analysis, it can be concluded that human beings are often the weakest link when it comes to the security chain. A thorough strategy and an institutionalized methodology of the examination process are indispensable for leading forensic analysis like in the case of M57.biz. The quest for an ideal model for advanced measurable science will presumably never stop. In this paper, the advancement of the computerized measurable examination was discussed and these the investigation were gathered into three exercises. The principal kind describes a general methodology for the entire examination process. The second kind refines and overhauls the past models by improving comparability with more conditions. The third kind makes use of new techniques, frameworks and additionally instruments in the investigative system to oversee new issues experienced in present-day examinations. Generally speaking, future refinements of the progressed measurable process will most likely focus on usage circumstances, upgrading the capability of the investigative strategy, and melding new advances and frameworks into the models for the motivations behind guaranteeing a constantly versatile strategy.
Reference list
Agarwal, R. and Kothari, S., 2015, Review of digital forensic investigation frameworks. In Information Science and Applications pp. 561-571, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Alazab, M., Venkatraman, S., and Watters, P., 2009, Effective digital forensic analysis of the NTFS disk image. Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal, 4(3), pp.551-558.
Beebe, N., 2009, January, Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics pp. 17-36. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Casey, E., 2011, Digital evidence and computer crime: Forensic science, computers, and the internet. Academic press, pp. 39-47.
Casey, E., Back, G. and Barnum, S., 2015, Leveraging CybOX™ to standardize representation and exchange of digital forensic information. Digital Investigation, 12, pp.S102-S110.
Chung, H., Park, J., Lee, S., and Kang, C., 2012, Digital forensic investigation of cloud storage services, Digital investigation, 9(2), pp.81-95.
Damshenas, M., Dehghantanha, A., Mahmoud, R., and bin Shamsuddin, S., 2012, June, Forensics investigation challenges in cloud computing environments. In Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare and Digital Forensic (CyberSec), 2012 International Conference on (pp. 190-194). IEEE.
Damshenas, M., Dehghantanha, A., Mahmoud, R. and bin Shamsuddin, S., 2013. Cloud computing and conflicts with digital forensic investigation, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, 7(9), p.543.
Dykstra, J. and Sherman, A.T., 2013, Design and implementation of FROST: Digital forensic tools for the OpenStack cloud computing platform. Digital Investigation, 10, pp.S87-S95.
Garfinkel, S.L., 2010, Digital forensics research: The next 10 years. digital investigation, 7, pp.S64-S73.
Grispos, G., Storer, T., and Glisson, W.B., 2012, Calm before the storm: The challenges of cloud computing in digital forensics. International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics (IJDCF), 4(2), pp.28-48.
Imran, A., Aljawarneh, S. and Sakib, K., 2016. Web Data Amalgamation for Security Engineering: Digital Forensic Investigation of Open Source Cloud. J. UCS, 22(4), pp.494-520.
Kebande, V.R. and Ray, I., 2016, August, A generic digital forensic investigation framework for internet of things (iot). In Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), 2016 IEEE 4th International Conference on (pp. 356-362). IEEE.
Liberatore, M., Erdely, R., Kerle, T., Levine, B.N. and Shields, C., 2010. Forensic investigation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks. digital investigation, 7, pp.S95-S103.
Lillis, D., Becker, B., O’Sullivan, T. and Scanlon, M., 2016. Current challenges and future research areas for digital forensic investigation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1604.03850, pp. 75-134.
Mumba, E.R. and Venter, H.S., 2014, August. Mobile forensics using the harmonised digital forensic investigation process. In Information Security for South Africa (ISSA), 2014 (pp. 1-10). IEEE.
Omeleze, S. and Venter, H.S., 2013, August. Testing the harmonised digital forensic investigation process model-using an Android mobile phone. In Information Security for South Africa, 2013 (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
Perumal, S., 2009. Digital forensic model based on Malaysian investigation process. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 9(8), pp.38-44.
Perumal, S., Norwawi, N.M. and Raman, V., 2015, October. Internet of Things (IoT) digital forensic investigation model: Top-down forensic approach methodology. In Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC), 2015 Fifth International Conference on (pp. 19-23). IEEE.
Quick, D. and Choo, K.K.R., 2014. Impacts of increasing volume of digital forensic data: A survey and future research challenges. Digital Investigation, 11(4), pp.273-294.
Raghavan, S., 2013. Digital forensic research: current state of the art. CSI Transactions on ICT, 1(1), pp.91-114.
Rekhis, S. and Boudriga, N., 2011. Logic-based approach for digital forensic investigation in communication networks. Computers & Security, 30(6-7), pp.376-396.
Rekhis, S. and Boudriga, N., 2012. A system for formal digital forensic investigation aware of anti-forensic attacks. IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, 7(2), pp.635-650.
Seo, K., Lim, K. and Lee, S., 2009. Detecting similar files for digital forensic investigation. The Journal of Korean Institute of Information Technology, 7(2), pp.182-190.
Shields, C., Frieder, O. and Maloof, M., 2011. A system for the proactive, continuous, and efficient collection of digital forensic evidence. Digital investigation, 8, pp.S3-S13.
Sindhu, K.K. and Meshram, B.B., 2012. Digital Forensic Investigation Tools and Procedures. International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, 4(4), p.39.
Taylor, M., Haggerty, J., Gresty, D. and Lamb, D., 2011. Forensic investigation of cloud computing systems. Network Security, 2011(3), pp.4-10.
Taylor, R.W., Fritsch, E.J. and Liederbach, J., 2014. Digital crime and digital terrorism. Prentice Hall Press.
Valjarevic, A. and Venter, H.S., 2013, August. Implementation guidelines for a harmonised digital forensic investigation readiness process model. In Information Security for South Africa, 2013 (pp. 1-9). IEEE.
Valjarevic, A. and Venter, H.S., 2015. A comprehensive and harmonized digital forensic investigation process model. Journal of forensic sciences, 60(6), pp.1467-1483.
Zainudin, N.M., Merabti, M. and Llewellyn-Jones, D., 2010. A digital forensic investigation model for online social networking. In Proceedings of the 11th annual conference on the convergence of telecommunications, Networking & Broadcasting, Liverpool (pp. 21-22).

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Course Code: MN506
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Answer:
Introduction
An operating system (OS) is defined as a system software that is installed in the systems for the management of the hardware along with the other software resources. Every computer system and mobile device requires an operating system for functioning and execution of operations. There is a great use of mobile devices such as tablets and Smartphones that has increased. One of the widely used and implemented operating syste…
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Australia Cheltenham Computer Science Litigation and Dispute Management University of New South Wales Information Technology 

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