CHCCSM004 Coordinate Complex Case Requirements

CHCCSM004 Coordinate Complex Case Requirements

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CHCCSM004 Coordinate Complex Case Requirements

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CHCCSM004 Coordinate Complex Case Requirements

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Course Code: CHCCSM004
University: Australian College Of Applied Psychology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Task 1: Case Study – Oscar
At age three years, Oscar was diagnosed with autism, a developmental disorder. Relatives believed that Oscar was slow to speak and had what they described as the ‘boy’ trait of being active with a short attention span. He enjoyed water play for lengthy periods, playing on the trampoline, and was observed to focus on sensory toys and objects including his father’s beard. He became less cooperative and only repeated single words. His mother Mary, who has two other children aged 5 and 1 year, was forced to admit that she and Oscar may need help. 
Mary is a teacher working 2 days a week and her doctor felt that she was overly concerned and tired and her family members had felt Oscar needed a little time to mature – ‘many children are slow to talk’. Her husband works long hours and has limited time to engage with the children, but Mary’s mother who retired recently is very supportive and cares for the baby when Mary is teaching. Awareness of the needs and strengths of Mary and her family and their informal supports will facilitate identification of appropriate support services and meaningful outcomes. 
1. What may have delayed Mary seeking assistance and assessment for services? 
2. Some parents require short-term intensive support and then coordinate their child’s services themselves.
What are some useful elements in the sites below that made them user friendly and would inform a parent wishing to coordinate their child’s services?
3. Outline at least 3 benefits of using the Autism service pathfinder tool as a way to assist Mary with planning, prioritising, decision-making and goal setting? 
4. Review the site below and identify reasons why it would not be suitable for a parent with an intellectual impairment or low literacy, to find, understand and apply the information.
5.Mary requests a formal meeting with an Autism Advisor so that she can clarify the details of Oscar’s Commonwealth Helping Children with Autism Package for early intervention treatment.
What would be some issues that Mary may discuss at the meeting? 
Suggested reading:
Autism Spectrum Australia (ASPECT). (2014). Financial Assistance. Retrieved from
6. Mary confides that her most sad experience is when Oscar throws himself on the floor and purposefully bangs his head. Mary’s husband says he is throwing a tantrum but Mary believes that Oscar is frustrated when he cannot express his needs effectively.What strategies would you suggest to Mary in relation to this behaviour of Oscar banging his head? 
Suggested Reading:
Edelson, S. M. (1999). Self Injurious behaviour. Autism Research Institute. Retrieved from Symons, F. J., Devine, D. P. & Oliver, C. (In Press). Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. Retrieved from
7. What environment/s would be most conducive to the delivery of effective therapy for Oscar and reducing barriers to accessing services?
8. Identify with Mary potential therapists from whom Oscar and his family may potentially benefit and from whom you and Mary may receive feedback related to monitoring progress.
9. In partnership with Mary you will identify services that are appropriate, cost effective and accessible to her, to Oscar and potentially to her family.
Identify potential benefits and disadvantages of therapists working with Oscar individually or as part of an early intervention team structure. (Government or non-government funded therapists may be considered)
10. If Mary chooses to coordinate Oscar’s services this should result in a cohesive, seamless and integrated response to the needs of Oscar and the family.
What issues could arise from duplication of services? 
11. In Australia there are more than 2200 disability support agencies (AIHW 2012)
(a) What strategies would you suggest to Mary to avoid duplication of services?  
(b) Discuss strategies you would employ to ensure that Mary was able to monitor outcomes assertively 
(c) Different services offer the benefits of specialisation and innovation but disability services and funding can be complex to navigate for clients. 
What is the role of disability advocacy services in assisting Mary to clarify boundaries of responsibilities and accountability related to different services? 
12. In 2009 an Agreement was made with the Commonwealth to underpin policy direction. The aim was to improve early intervention, lifelong planning and person centred approaches and aimed also to decrease overlap, duplication, gaps and lack of coordination. 
What was the name of this agreement? 
13. a) Identify two portable government benefits that you will inform Mary about to make costs of therapy, services and resources more manageable for the family. (Specify if you believe eligibility criteria may not be met by Mary or Oscar) 
b) Mary has never received benefits or government welfare before, but says there are families in her neighbourhood that have relied on this source of income for many years.
List 3 potential impacts of generational welfare dependency.
14. Mary will require information and guidelines in relation to the funds she is allocated for service provision.
Identify four requirements that Mary may have to meet in order to demonstrate accountability for the public funds that she is to receive to support Oscar.
15. When it is time for Mary to take over the coordination of Oscar’s services she requests to see his file notes. She may request to amend or remove any incorrect or misleading information.
What legislation protects Mary’s rights to access this information? 
Task 2 : Case Study – Dianne
Dianne is intellectually impaired and her husband David has intermittent mental health issues that are accompanied by mood and behaviour changes. There has been a report from Dianne’s disability case manager that Dianne’s son Bill is 8 years old and is being called ‘stinky’ at school. His clothing is not always clean, he has body odour and he often does not have lunch with him. Homework is usually not completed and he arrives late at school a couple of times a week and says that he has missed the bus and had to walk. 
Dianne states that she sometimes is short of money before pension day. She says that when she does not have bus money for Bill she walks with him to school but he is then late he told her and the teacher is not nice to him.
Dianne recently bought Bill new sneakers for school but the teacher said they were the wrong colour. She could not return them as they were soiled. Dianne’s own grooming would not meet the social expectations of other parents: wearing rubber thongs and dirty, long toenails and sometimes forgetting to comb her own hair and Bill’s. She says she has not made friends with any parents at the school and Bill is not invited to birthday parties. Dianne states that the fortnightly housekeeping help that she gets is good but the house seems to get dirty very quickly. 
She likes to buy Bill a toy each week because he is a good boy. To help her Bill plays in the yard when his dad is upset she states. Dianne states he never gets sick and is a strong boy but looking at Bill he appears pale and has a dirty nasal discharge and a cough. Her mother lives nearby but does not visit the unit, as she did not approve of David and states that he frightens her when he is unwell. Bill sometimes stays overnight with his grandmother if David is agitated and verbally abusive. Dianne shows you the emergency mental health action plan that she uses if she needs assistance when David is unwell. Dianne states that she gets on well with the mental health nurse who visits David and the nurse always talks to her as well. David goes out most days to an activity organised by the mental health nurse states Dianne and she does get lonely during the day but watches television.
The Disability Services Case Manager has brokered some short-term, intensive Home Care services from your agency. The goal is to increase or restore Dianne’s capacity to attend to cooking, laundry and Bill’s hygiene needs and address some budgeting and shopping and grooming deficits with Dianne. The case manager has appointed a key worker to coordinate the services of this vulnerable family who has multiple service providers involved.  
1. Identify five planning reasons for Dianne’s case manager choosing this particular Home Care Organisation to provide the education and support services for Dianne. 
2. As the Home Care provider would you need to complete a full initial assessment on Dianne and her family? Justify your answer. 
There are a number of different screening tools in different states for HACC services. In Victoria for example, the tools are known as the Service Coordination Tools Templates (SCTT). In South Australia, it is called the “INI” (Initial Needs Identification). The “ONI” (Ongoing Needs Identification) is the common term used in New South Wales and Queensland. 
At the national level, these tools are known as the Australian Community Care Needs Assessment (ACCNA) and the Carer Eligibility and Needs Assessment (CENA).
3. Map out Dianne’s strengths with her including her capacity to make decisions. Refer to the example of an AOD optional form at the site below and use the headings from this form in your answer.
Department of Health (2013). Optional Module 9. Strengths. Melbourne: Government of Victoria.$FILE/Optional%20Module%209%20-%20Strengths.pdf
4. The needs of Dianne and her family are complex and on behalf of the family the planning and delivery of multiple services have been brokered from different agencies by their case manager.
What benefits would relate to a shared support plan being available to Dianne, her informal supports and service providers? 
5. Dianne and her family are at the centre of all service delivery but require a strong partnership approach between services to ensure that supports are targeted, coordinated and effective.
If you were a key worker appointed by the case manager to coordinate Dianne’s supports, what strategies would you implement to ensure that roles are clear, trust between organisations is strong and outcomes are reached? 
6. Under the following headings, identify service requirements that would potentially be planned and implemented with Dianne and the family to increase Dianne and Bill’s skills and meet the needs of her family.
a) Support service – Identify six
b) Potential timeframe
c) Expected outcome – Identify two for each support service delivered
7. What are some primary functions of the case notes written by the support or key worker in relation to her work with Dianne?
8. Dianne is receiving services under the Home Care Program. The collection of statistical data is required by the government to inform policy development, strategic planning, performance monitoring and accountability.
What is the name of this new data collection system? 
Task 3
1. Workers in the community service sector are bound by a number of laws including the principle that is known as “duty of care”. 
a) Define the term “duty of care” in your own words
b) Give 2 examples of how you could apply this concept within your role in the case management context on a regular basis. 
2. Outline some of the key risks and associated responsibilities of workers relating to duty of care for: 
a) Children and young people
b) Domestic violence
c) Suicide
d) Elder abuse
3. Generational abuse involves violence that is learnt by children from the older generations in their families. 
Use your answers from above to think of 5 possible effects that generational abuse could have on a child. 
4. Case workers may need to engage the services of professional interpreters that can help to support the communication needs of a client. 
a) List 3 ways to determine whether or not there is a need for an interpreter.
b) Suppose you are working with an Aboriginal client who speaks very little fluent English. 
Describe the role of a “cultural interpreter” and how they might assist you in supporting the needs of this client and others of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. 
c) Outline the key pieces of information you will need to provide when arranging interpreter services. (Hint: You can use the headings below for assistance)
i. Client/Consumer/group informationii. Service information iii. Interpreter specific requirementsiv. Requester information

Task 1
1. Mary is a working woman and needs to take care of two children apart from Oscar. Since his husband also needs to work for long hours, it is difficult for her to manage her work and her personal life. She has very little time to engage with the children, and so is the case for her husband. However, she gets support from her mother who readily takes care of the child. Provision of help at the times of needs may have delayed Mary in seeking assessment and assistance for services.
2. The websites are user-friendly and informative to a great extent for the users to get information on coordination of child services. The websites have information presented under different categories such as pregnancy, new born, babies and toddlers, that makes it easier for the users to search for the required information within a short span of time. The websites support a number of videos that are beneficial for getting deep insights into the elements of care practices. In addition, there are provisions for discussion forums and webinars where parents can put forward their views and opinions and exchange ideas and own experiences ( 2017).
3. Three benefits of using autism service pathfinder tool for Mary-
i. The pathfinder tool os an interactive tool that would help in understanding how to initiate the austism spectrum disorder (ASD) services
ii. With the help of the tool Mary would receive information about the professionals she needs to consult for decision making and goal setting
iii. Mary would be facilitated with the appropriate services required for her that would be patient-centred and as per the needs of the patient so as to meet all the patient needs ( 2017).
4. The information contained in the website has been presented in a manner that would require high literacy skills and knolwdge to understand. Terms and jargons have been used pertaining to the health issue Austism that all individuals viewing the site may not be acquinted to. The language and flow of information does not make it suitable for individuals with low literacy rate or intellectual impairment ( 2017).
5. Mary needs to discuss about the financial expenses that she needs to bear for the treatment package. Whether she is eligible for any form of rebates also needs to be understood. She also needs to discuss about the duration for which the treatment would be required for Oscar. Mary needs to be informed about the roles of the professionals who would aid in care, such as speech pathologists and occupational therapist ( 2017).
6. Mary could give Oscar Dimethylglycine (DMG) that would aid in controlling seizures that often compel autistic patients to bang head. Pain may be another cause of headbanging and therefore Mary could provide Oscar with magnesium supplements that are safe in reducing sound sensitivity (Edelson 1999). Mary needs to ensure that Oscar is not subjected to any form of stresss that can led to behaviours like head bagning (Symons, Devine and Oliver (in press)).
7. Individuals with autism suffer from a triad of impairments- social imagination, social communication and social interaction. A suitable environment is therefore to be provided that would be conducive to the delivery of effective therapy for Oscar. The attitudinal environment would need to be positive and all forms of stress are to be eliminated for having a happy home. Social interaction are to be fostered within the homely environment. There needs to be minimal sounds for facilitating a sound free environment. The patient would do good in incandescent lighting. Moreover, colours might have an impact. The colours that the child tends to notice are to be used judiciously. Creating a playroom in the home would encourage the patient to focus on the services that are being delivered and what are being presented to him. The environment needs to be non-distracting so that the functional areas are adequately looked after. It is very important to create a well structurd and supportive environment to help Oscar in coping with the challenges that he might experience (Karlsson 2014).
8. The potential therapists from whom Oscar and his family may benefit are Speech and Language Therapist and Occupational therapist. The language therapist would help through teaching of social skills to Oscar through visual techniques. Occupational therapists would help by delivering cognitive behaviour therapy that is different from regular behaviour therapy. Feedback related to monitoring progress could be received from a paediatrician (Evans 2014).
9. The services that would be appropriate, cost effective and accessible for Mary and Oscar include patient education programs, Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA), Behaviour Therapy, Communication Therapy, Occupational Therapy. Along with benefits of therapists working with Oscar there might be some potential disadvantages while providing interventions. The benefits of the therapies provided would include reversing negative pattern of reasoning and thinking. This would address the bad habits of the patient. In addition, the patient as well as the family would be helped to deal with  frustration and stress. However, the disadvantages of therapists working with Oscar may be time constraints and less parental involvement as both Mary and her husband is not able to devote much time for caring for Oscar (Orlin et al., 2014).
10. A number of issues may be arising from duplication of services provided to Oscar. The impact of the services may not be beneficial to the optimal level when there is duplication of services. The manner in which different services work may be inteferring with each other, leading to an undesirable effect. The patient may also not show adequate response to the therapies if there is duplication of services.
11. a. Mary needs to screen all the available services for the areas that each address. It is also desirable that Mary has a proper understanding of the process by each each service acts. She needs to enlist the issues that Oscar has been facing and then deciding on the minimal services that would be required for addressing the needs.
b. Mary needs to be provided with the list of goals that are to be achieved through the services provided. A structured plan is to be provided to her that she can follow for successfully monitoring the progress. This would encompass definite goals set for definite time period and the tools that can be utilised for completing them (Katherine 2015).
c. The disability advocacy services is to assist Mary in understanding the rights of the patient while accessing the different services. Mary is to be assisted with negotiating complaints or taking any legal actions related to human rights. Assisstacne is also to be provided regarding raising issues ans seeking solutions pertaining to any form of services (Salsgiver 2015).
12. National Partnership Agreement, 2009, is the name of the agreement.
13. a. The National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS), and Medicare Safety Net (MSN) are the two government benefits (Hall 2015).
b. Potential impacts of generational welfare dependency are access to detailed information, gaining adequate knowledge of appropriate services targeted to meet individual needs and knowledge of potential risks and disadvantages of schemes and services.
14. The four requirements that are to be met for demonstrating accountability for the public funds are-

Oscar needs to have significant disability affecting his ability to contribute in everyday activities
The age needs to be less than 65 years old when first accessing the funds
There has to be citizenship of Asutralia
Needs to live in an area falling within the scehemes ( 2013).

15. The Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights, 2008, developed by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care protects Mary’s rights to access the information.
Task 2
1. The five planning reasons for Dianne’s case manager choosing this particular Home Care Organisation are as follows-
i. Dianne can be helped to share the family’s strength and skills that can bring improvement in her condition when implemented in conjunction with each other
ii. Dianne can be supported with adequate training and resources that are required for bringing the desired changes in an individual
iii. Within the care home she can be provided with friendly companionship that would foster feelings of belonging and acceptance
iv. A structured program can be provided to Dianne so that all her needs are addressed
v. A strong relation can be established between Dianne and her family members that help in eliminating the potential barriers in service delivery (Page et al. 2015).
2. It is crucial to have a complete initial assessment on Dianne and her family. The reason for this is multifaceted. A full initial assessment would help in highlighting the exact physical and intellectual state of Dianne. Individuals with intellectual disability have a wide spectrum of conditions and these vary greatly, especially pertaining to understanding of their needs, concerns and discomforts. It is therefore a rational approach to assess the degree of functioning of the patient at all levels. This can only be possible through a full initial assessment.  It is to be found out whether a proactive crisis plan would be required for the patient. This would help in developing the patient-specific action plan (Pogge et al. 2014).
3. Social relationships- Dianne has a strong bonding and relationship with her son Bill, and she is aware of the needs Bill have. She takes care of emotional and other needs of Bill as an 8-year-old boy and therefore likes to buy him a toy every week. Bill is responsive to this approach and reciprocates by affection provided by not expressing his health issues and other concerns.
Health and physical- Dianne is aware of the importance of an emergency mental heath action plan that is required in times of emergency. She uses this plan whenever required.
Problem solving- Dianne is not competent in problem solving skills.
Values and beliefs- Dianne have the expected set of values and beliefs.
Work/skills- Dianne has been successful in establishing a coordinate relationship with the mental health nurse, implying that she has no major challenges in communicating with other individuals.
Emotions/ temperament- Dianne shows patience and positive temperament while communicating with others.
4. Shared support plan bring about a wide range of benefit for the patient, informal supports and the different service providers. It is an excellent opportunity for the patient to reduce of services. Sharing of patient information between the service providers aid in adequate exchange of views and ideas that help in delivering optimal quality care. Improvement in care quality is the most striking benefit. Greater collaboration is fostered between the professionals. This reduces the risks of any potential harm in due course of receiving treatment (Mariani et al. 2016).
5. It would be made sure that the flow of information between all levels is adequate, in order to avoid miscommunication. Training for exercising leadership would be provided to the concerned professionals. Regular monitoring of the outcomes would help in understanding the areas that need further attention. All issues would be addressed adequately in order to resolve conflicts between the individuasl.
6. a. Respite care services
Family therapy
Advocacy and legal supports
Medicinal care
Social skill training
Physical therapy
b. The potential time frame is two months.
c. Respite care services- patient able to take a break from daily care responsibilities, provision for refreshments
Family therapy- Coping with emotional issues, promoted ability to adjust to contradicting concerns
Advocacy and legal supports- Adequate information provided to patient about basic rights, proper communication with service users
Medicinal care- Controlled cognitive behaviour, provision for adequate rest periods
Social skill training- Patient able to understand the standards of dressing and maintaining the right decorum, patient has acceptable forms of social interactions
Physical therapy- Patient able to maintain better body functioning, patient able to maintain health (van Loon et al. 2013).
7. Keeping case notes provides accurate records of the details of the patient and aids in the permanence of case management between two professionals. In addition, case notes can lend credibility to any challenge faced during patient management. The care worker can be protected later on from claims of patient negligence (Gagnier 2014).
8. The name of the new data collection system is Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC).
Task 3
1. a. The duty of care is the legal obligation of an individual to adhere to the standards of reasonable care at the time of performing any action that needs special attention in order to avoid any potential harm to other. It is the important element that is to be considered for proceeding with any relevant action in case of negligence. The claimant needs to demonstrate a duty of care imposed by the law that the defendant is thought to have breached. The duty of care could be regarded as the formalisation of the implicit responsibilities that an individual holds towards the one being served or the society as a whole, depending on the particular situation.
b. All interventions provided to the patient need to be as per the best interests of the patient in order to provide a patient-centered care. The ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice are to be maintained while delivery care services (Pollock and Price 2013).
2. a. The key risks associated with the care of children and young people include the age of the patient, gender and background differences. The workers must work with the children irrespective of the background differences in order to eliminate the chances of interference of the experiences of the child in to the process of care delivery.
b. The key risks associated with domestic violence are depression, mental illness, aggressive  behaviour and the refusal of the patient to adhere to care delivery. The workers need to maintain patient confidentiality and ensure that patient information is not leaked to any potential individual or groups. The care delivered needs to ensure that the practice has a strict protocol followed for handling domestic abuse.
c. The key risks associated with patients having a tendency of suicide or previous attempts of suicide are complex patient responses, chances of self-harm, potential risks of undesirable behaviour. The duty of care to such patient is to act affirmatively for protecting the patient from violent acts and casing harm to self.
d. The key risks associated with elder patient abuse are withdrawal from care, aggressive behaviour, non-adherence to medication regime and chances of isolation. The duty of care of the workers is to report any cases of patient abuse and take strict actions for a reported cases. A safe and secured environment is to be created that promotes patient safety (Graban 2016).
3. Five possible effects of generational abuse on a child-
The child may be experiencing a range of psychological and emotional problems
The child may be developing an aggressive behaviour and emotional instability
The child may abuse individuals living in the immediate surrounding
Thre are chances that the child would fail to establish effective relationship with family or friends that would lead to social isolation
The child may have issues with concentration and may suffer from depression
4. a. The languages that the patient speaks need to be noted
The readiness of the patient to corporate and speak a different language is to be understood
An interpreter may be appointed when there are chances of communicating with the patient in an informal manner
b. The role of a cultural interpreter is to communicate information to the patient in a manner that is culturally sensitive and respects that ethnic and social background of the patient. The key task is to understand the meaning and gradation of one language and express them in a language that the patient understands.  The means of communication is fostered through an informal mode of exchange of information where the verbal and non-verbal cues of the patient are considered.
c. i. The languages spoken and understood by the patient
ii. The range of services to be provided and detailed information of each
iii.The languages spoken and understood by the interpreter
iv. Name of the requestor, email ID, contact information, physical and mental health status (Betancourt et al. 2016).
Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights | Safety and Quality. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Autism Services Pathfinder for children with ASD | Raising Children Network. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E. and Owusu Ananeh-Firempong, I.I., 2016. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public health reports. (2013) (1st ed.). Retrieved from
Edelson, S. M. 1999. Self Injurious behaviour. Autism Research Institute. Retrieved from
Evans, F., 2014. Non-aversive care of people on the autism spectrum: Francis Evans provides a case study to illustrate how a reduction in restrictive physical interventions improved the quality of life of a man in a community setting. Learning Disability Practice, 17(5), pp.23-28.
Financial assistance 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Financial Assistance. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Gagnier, J.J., Kienle, G., Altman, D.G., Moher, D., Sox, H., Riley, D. and CARE Group, 2014. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(1), pp.46-51.
Graban, M., 2016. Lean hospitals: Improving quality, patient safety, and employee engagement. CRC press.
Hall, J., 2015. Australian health care—the challenge of reform in a fragmented system. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(6), pp.493-497.
Karlsson, C., 2014. Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., 2015. Autism spectrum disorder. Autism.
Mariani, E., Engels, Y., Koopmans, R., Chattat, R. and Vernooij?Dassen, M., 2016. Shared decision?making on a ‘life?and?care plan’in long?term care facilities: research protocol. Nursing Open.
More Than Words: autism therapy | Raising Children Network. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Orlin, M.N., Cicirello, N.A., O’Donnell, A.E. and Doty, A.K., 2014. The continuum of care for individuals with lifelong disabilities: role of the physical therapist. Physical therapy, 94(7), p.1043.
Page, T.F., Amofah, S.A., McCann, S., Rivo, J., Varghese, A., James, T., Rivo, M. and Williams, M.L., 2015. Care management medical home center model: preliminary results of a patient-centered approach to improving care quality for diabetic patients. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.609-616.
Path overview | Raising Children Network. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017, from
Pogge, D.L., Stokes, J., Buccolo, M.L., Pappalardo, S. and Harvey, P.D., 2014. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: A study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Research in developmental disabilities, 35(7), pp.1705-1710.
Pollock, A. and Price, D., 2013. Duty to care: in defence of universal health care.
Salsgiver, R., 2015. Disability: A diversity model approach in human service practice. Oxford University Press.
Symons, F. J., Devine, D. P. and Oliver, C. (In Press). Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. Retrieved from
van Loon, J.H., Bonham, G.S., Peterson, D.D., Schalock, R.L., Claes, C. and Decramer, A.E., 2013. The use of evidence-based outcomes in systems and organizations providing services and supports to persons with intellectual disability. Evaluation and Program Planning, 36(1), pp.80-87.

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Course Code: MN506
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

An operating system (OS) is defined as a system software that is installed in the systems for the management of the hardware along with the other software resources. Every computer system and mobile device requires an operating system for functioning and execution of operations. There is a great use of mobile devices such as tablets and Smartphones that has increased. One of the widely used and implemented operating syste…
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