BUS 4402 Organizational Behavior

BUS 4402 Organizational Behavior

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BUS 4402 Organizational Behavior

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BUS 4402 Organizational Behavior

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Course Code: BUS4402
University: University Of The People

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Country: United States


Individual Paper 1
In it, students will use the results of the self-assessment instruments to analyze themselves as a member of their employer’s organization. The first part of the student’s assignment is to assess and describe him/herself in terms of the self-assessment results (e.g., personality, learning style, locus of control, self-monitoring behavior, decision-making, self-esteem, and risk-taking behaviors). The second part of the paper should describe how the student’s internal makeup (described in part I) in combination with their employer’s organizational policies/activities impact the student’s level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Individual Paper 2

The second individual #Drawing upon his/her experience and what he/she has read in Chapter 11 (Nelson). Each student will write a paper describing and evaluating the political structure and level of empowerment in his/her job.  The paper should both describe the existing empowerment initiatives or processes and evaluate their effectiveness in light of the theories presented in the chapter readings for this week. Where deficiencies are noted in the existing process, recommendations for improvement should be noted. If a student works in a job that does not have a formal empowerment plan, one should be created by the student for this paper.


Organization Behavior

The paper is divided into two section. The first section will cover the results from assessment and how the results will impact my job satisfaction. It contains two parts. Part 1 will briefly describe the results while part 2 will describe how results will impact my job satisfaction. The second part will explore the effectiveness of empowerment initiative and propose recommendations that should be adopted to ensure that empowerment is effective.
Individual Paper 1
Part 1
I performed assessment on different aspects such as personality, learning style, self-monitoring behavior, self-esteem, decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. The findings from the assessments are briefly described below.
As fa as my personality is concerned, I found out that I have moderate preference of introversion over extraversion, moderation of feeling over thinking, slight preference of sensing than intuition and preference of judging over perceiving. On the “Big Five” personality dimensions, conscientiousness I am systemic and efficient, pay attention to details, always prepared for class, and put things back where they belong
Concerning my learning style, I found out that I learn best through visual style. In relation to the locus of control assessment, my locus control is “external locus of control”. In other words, I believe that my successes or failures result from external factors beyond my control, such as luck, fate, circumstance.
As far as my self-monitoring behavior is concerned, the assessment established that I have moderately low self-monitor behavior. In relation to self-esteem, the findings show that I have high self-esteem. On the other hand, I scored high under reformer category of decision-making personality is concerned, I scored high under reformer. This means that I focus more on perfection. Lastly, on risk-taking behaviors, I am a bold-risk taker.
Part 2
In this part, I will demonstrate how the results above (introversion, feeling, sensation, locus of control, self-monitoring, self-esteem, decision-making and risk-taking behaviors) impact my level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment during the time of change.  
In the current business world, things change and the organizations are always indebted to making adjustments so as to remain competitive. The success of change depends on the ability of employees to accept and cope with change. This in turn depends on the personalities of the employees.  As revealed in chapter 1 of the book, early research shows that individuals, groups and organizations in the midst of environmental change found that change is often experienced as a threat that leads to reliance on well-learned dominant form of behavior (Nelson and Quick 2013). Some people have behaviors that are counterproductive and are likely to develop resistance to change. Using my personality as an example, I will explore how I will behave in midst of change. First, my introvert nature may be an obstacle to me in coping with change. My introversion personality tends to limit me from group projects and events in huge halls can be a nightmare for me. However, being an introvert makes me achieve most of the assignments easily because I prefer working than talking and socializing. Like an introvert who is alien to the very idea of ??being in the office every day from nine o’clock in the morning to five o’clock in the evening, I prefer work that does not require constant contact with nervous authorities, talkative colleagues and capricious clients. All these presentations, meetings, meetings, meetings and talks can sound like real torture for introverts.
My feeling personality may be helpful to me during the time of change. Thinking and feeling are alternative ways of forming opinions, making decisions and developing various relationships. Thinking is connected with objective reality, with views and objective analysis. Feelings focus on value. It may include views on what is good and what is bad, what is true and what is wrong, opposed to the desire of thinking to act according to logical criteria. Feeling asks the question: “How valuable is this?”  According to Jung’s theory, those who have thinking personality really perceives the world, is rational, prone to systematization, planning (Mc Cann & Higgins 2015). Emotions give the received information value and shape the attitude towards it. Obviously, non-specific brain structures dominate the emotional processing of information If in information processing an active specific way, then a person uses objective data, logical thinking prevails and a rational type of behavior is formed. As indicated, I tend to think through emotion. Such kind of thinking is one of my strengths. The diversity in the work environment makes feeling a crucial personality. In addition, feeling personality enable me navigate well in unstable environment. Since work environments are becoming multicultural, I believe that my feeling personality is appropriate. However, when introversion and feeling are combined, it is clear that I may not lead a big organization. This is because research results show, the best leaders for managing large firms are rational logical extroverts. In an unstable situation, extroverts are the best option, but of irrational behavior. This is understandable, since irrational types are more adaptive to rapidly changing conditions. For small teams, the best leaders are rational logical introverts, and in a situation of reorganization – irrational introverts.
Since I am inclined to sensation, I tend to empathize, understand and consider many things before I make judgement. This is beneficial in such era where employees are expected to act ethically and morally. the goal must take into account the needs of all those who are somehow connected with it (both those who should embody it and those whom it will affect). Ethics want everyone to get as much as possible from this (and sometimes the best). Unlike logicians, for whom the goal must meet the latest trends of time, ethics tend to ensure that this goal corresponds to the mood in the organization – that is, that the goal was effective, it should strengthen the corporate spirit. Ethics basically set themselves not the questions of “what” and “how”, but the question of “who”: who will experience the impact of the results and how will this affect the quality of his life?
My sensing personality could be beneficial to me because it will enable me understand change before making conclusion. People with sensation takes time before making decision. People with strong intuition produce meanings so quickly that they often cannot separate their own interpretations from the raw sensory data. Intuition is not effective in modern business environment because people have different needs and it is hard to conclude things based on experience. It should be noted that sensors prefer to consistently understand the processes, and intuits randomly collect information and build from it a theoretical model. Intuits usually look for the meaning of any event and experience, and sensory sensors study its components (Klotz & Neubaum 2016). Sensors are not interested in an abstract goal – they want to get detailed, step-by-step instructions: what to do and what result should come in the end. Typically, sensing work through vital details and clarify the process of setting goals. Those with sensing personality finds out what needs to be done to accomplish the goal, then the goal itself is set, and then it is necessary to provide sensory evidence that the goal is achievable. Without these three components, the goal setting process will be completely useless for sensorics.
The fact that I have external locus of control could be beneficial to me during the time of change. I am more likely to accept the external interventions. External personalities are much more subject to social influence than internal personalities. The internals will resist outside influence, in those cases where opportunities arise, they will try to control the behavior of others (Anderson, Hildreth & Howland 2015). They are confident in their ability to solve problems, so they never depend on the opinions of others.
On the other hand, my high self-esteem tends to give me higher expectations and overconfidence, which I sometimes find it hard to maintain. There are many cases where I felt disappointed simply because of my high self-esteem. Additionally, being a reformer has often placed me in stressful situation because I tend to make decisions that are unachievable.  I also want to admit that my moderate self-monitoring behavior, in most cases, have predisposed me to the negative influence of external environment. Lastly, being bold risk taker makes me unpredictable in terms of uncertainties. This is because I can decide to accept change or reject change. This means that my position cannot be predicted easily during the time of change.
Individual Paper 2
In chapter 11 of the book, Nelson and Quick (2013) revealed that the relationship between the boss and employee or rather political structure of the organization determines how employees will work. My organization has bureaucratic organizational structure and the management tend to exercise expert power. The problem is that the management use expert power excessively making the employees feel like they are incompetent. Consequently, the political structure ought to be changed because it does not foster fruitful relationship between the boss and employees.
As far as empowerment is concerned, Nelson and Quick (2013) revealed four key dimensions to consider. These dimensions include meaning, competence, self-determination and impact. The organization is effective in achieving some of these elements. For example, during recruitment, the organization ensures that employees recruited are passionate about the job. The organization attempts to ensure that employee’s heart are for the job. The organization also have training program designed to foster competence. However, the organization is ineffective in ensuring self-determination and impact. For example, the management often have dominant say and employees often feel that they are over-controlled. Additionally, the management does not have best motivational strategies. This hinders the impact dimension of the empowerment.
A number of recommendations can be made. Firstly, the management ought express confidence in employees. As revealed above, one of the key dimensions of empowerment is self-determination. If management express confidence in employees, the employees will be self-determined to work harder.
Another recommendation is that management should create opportunities for employees to participate in decision making. This will help in achieving the four dimensions of empowerment.
The other recommendation is that management should remove bureaucratic hurdles that may hinder autonomy of the employees. To move from dependence on the manager to interdependence (which corresponds to the model of autonomy we want for employees) it is necessary to go through intermediate phases of counter-dependence and independence! To avoid the frustrations and misunderstandings of the manager when the employees are in these intermediate phases, it is essential to know these natural phenomena well and to know how to move the employees from one mode to another so that they can quickly become interdependent. The concept of the “circle of autonomy” is one of the keys that will allow managers to ensure a smooth transition without generating stress or ill-being! (Barrick, Mount & Li 2013).
In order to address the ineffective political structure, managers should act like coaches rather than all-knowing experts. This means that there is need to accompany the transition of the role of managers and prepare them to become coach. This step cannot be done without support or training. This is a complicated phase for the manager who loses his bearings and must change his frame of reference. Where he had the role of controlling and directing his staff, he becomes a coach who helps them grow! A real challenge, valuing for everyone.
There is also a need for horizontal communication. Employees can not be held responsible for imprecise tasks. Each employee must be fully informed of what is expected of him for each of the tasks assigned to him. Managers must therefore communicate clearly defined objectives to their teams. Of course, the higher the employee occupies a high position in the organizational structure, the more involved he will be in defining objectives and evaluation processes.
Ensuring that employees have the knowledge necessary to perform the tasks assigned to them is essential. If this is not the case, managers simply lead their employees to failure, which will affect their motivation and therefore their productivity.
The company should also allow employees to evolve. Employees need to be free to make their own decisions. It is therefore important that managers leave them a certain amount of freedom and allow them to make mistakes. By the way, you may be surprised by some and come out of this experience with new ideas. Enabling employees to learn for themselves will help them grow professionally and personally, improving both their commitment and their sense of responsibility.
Transparency is also important recommendation for the company. Measuring results is a great way to see how your company is changing. Nevertheless, it can also generate tensions among employees. Hence the importance of transparency. It is important to explain to employees why each measure is important and how it will be measured. Such an approach will help you get the approval of employees. Evaluations must be regular. Developing a culture of periodic evaluation, not in order to detect failures but rather to highlight successes, is key to implementing an accountability approach.
The last recommendation is that the management need to evoke the consequences from beginning. People need to know and understand the consequences of their actions. It is therefore important to share the potential consequences of a lack of accountability. If the conditions have been met to allow employees to deliver quality results on time and they are not on the go, the consequences will have to follow.
Anderson C., Hildreth J.A. & Howland L. (2015). Is the desire for status a fundamental human motive? A review of the empirical literature. Psycholo Bull 141(3): 574-601
Barrick M.R., Mount M.K. & Li N. (2013). The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of management review 38(1): 132-153
Klotz A.C. & Neubaum D.O. (2016). Research on the dark side of personality traits in entrepreneurship: observations from an organizational behavior perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 40(1):7-17
Mc Cann C.D. & Higgins E.T. (2015). Motivation and affect in interpersonal relations: The role of personal orientations and discrepancies. Communication, Social Cognition, and Affect, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, USA 9(2): 53-79.
Nelson, D. and Quick, J. (2013). Organizational behavior: Science, the real world, and you (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Southwestern College Publishing. ISBN: 1-111-82586-6

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