Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

They say that “prevention is better than cure”, and that is in everyone’s mind, especially when it comes to diseases. Genetic testing for potential breast cancer has become a necessity in the modern world due to increased cases of breast cancer. The practice is mostly with families within a history of breast cancer cases. It is very necessarily to check routinely oneself for the fatal mutated genes. The test is aimed to check for mutations in selected genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). The selected genes are known to catalyst the potentially of breast cancer risk. The test determines how severe one is close to be a victim of breast cancer. The step and courage to undertake this test is for the benefit of protecting and enhancing ones health. However, problems arise when checking for the potential cancer genes becomes more of a problem than a solution of a potential problem.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper


Prevention is a result of impact of fear that a particular disaster may happen. Person taking the test for the mutated genes are driven by the fear of getting cancer. what about the whole society, if the women fear for the risks of the cancer,? The society is less likely interested with people with terminal illness, especially the employers, insurers and majority of the co-operate world. A research study released in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed that repeated genetic screening at times is less correct for women with an evident family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Other than that study, it is quite logical of the Psychological impact to a positively tested person.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Other problems associated with the testing of mutated cancer genes includes lack of policies for privacy protection, which leads to a person being valued as a depreciating asset. The Journal of Genetic Counseling enlightens the world of the possible and evident anxiety, stigmatization and discrimination associated with potential and active breast cancer patient. To make matters worse not even love can stand the discrimination and many women lack partners when they disclose their positivity of breast cancer.

Knowing or remaining in the dark?

God (Supreme Being) grants life to every person in a special way. People are always different and have different dynamics. The best a person can do to maintain or better the body that they were granted by God, is only by taking care of that body in efficient and relevant manner. No matter how much one would like to take care of one’s body, some powers are beyond the human being, such as diagnosing oneself when something is wrong.

The availability of genetic testing provides a chance for a person to be provided with vital information about their health risks. The information is helpful especially if one exists in a family with a very high ratio of breast cancer. The information provided may help prevent the loss of life. It is worthy to go the extra mile and prevent oneself from the risk of breast cancer if it is possible.

If breast (testicular) cancer were prevalent in my family, I would close the eye that looks at the benefit of living with the uncertainty of not knowing, and open the eye that sees the benefit to find out if I have carried the mutated gene. I think, the later cost of life with the uncertainty of not knowing if one has the potentiality of breast is much more expensive than knowing oneself sooner. When one is aware of their health status, it is easier to manage what has given to them. Everyone is under obligation to take care of their bodies from god. How else can one protect and take care of something one is not aware of? Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Lesson from Karen and her family (Decoding Destiny)

When one is sentenced for a death sentence, one is more afraid of waiting for the death daily than the actual hanging or injection. The mentality that one is very close to death but unaware when is a harmful mental condition. The pressure to adjust to one living positively with the potential genetic disease genes (BRCA 1 and BRCA 2) is quite a headache. In the story decoding destiny, Karen is traumatized by the notion that almost all her family members have turned out victims of the deadly cancer. It is hard to bet on oneself life.

On a professional note the doctor who was handling Karen was aware of the fact that physical alteration of Karen body would not change her personality. Karen had lost her family and it was not worthy for Karen to die in vain. The least Karen could do to please herself and the dead ones is to undertake the surgery. Although the surgery would make Karen loose some vital organs necessary for reproduction, its more logical to prevent a death than to sustain a painful life.

As I mentioned  earlier, it  is God who grants life and takes it away. The human being vital role in life is taking care of what God has blessed them with. In the case of Karen, its more logical to undertake the surgery than to undertake the genetic testing.  Surgery is more reasonable as it minimizes the multiple challenges and negative impacts associate with routine screening. The story of Karen is quite touchy as we are taken through a journey of what hope and logical decision-making can achieve for one’s health and one associates with the complex and dynamical society in their environment.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. Supporters hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure.

Breast cancer advocacy and awareness efforts are a type of health advocacy. Breast cancer advocates raise funds and lobby for better care, more knowledge, and more patient empowerment. They may conduct educational campaigns or provide free or low-cost services. Breast cancer culture, sometimes called pink ribbon culture, is the cultural outgrowth of breast cancer advocacy, the social movement that supports it, and the larger women’s health movement.

The pink ribbon is the most prominent symbol of breast cancer awareness, and in many countries the month of October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Some national breast cancer organizations receive substantial financial support from corporate sponsorships

Breast cancer originates from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Men can get breast cancer, too, but they account for just one percent of all breast cancer incidences. Among women, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

If eight women were to live to be at least 85, one of them would be expected to develop the disease at some point during her life. Two-thirds of women with breast cancer are over 50 years.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

Gender: Breast cancer occurs more often in women than in men.
Age: Two out of three women with invasive cancer are diagnosed after age 55.
Race: Breast cancer is diagnosed more often in Caucasian women than women of other races.
Family History and Genetic Factors: If a close relative (mother, sister, father or child) has been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, one has a higher risk of developing breast cancer in the future.
Personal Health History: If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in the other breast in the future. In addition, the risk increases if abnormal breast cells have been detected before.
Menstrual and Reproductive History: Early menstruation (before age 12), late menopause (after 55), tend to increase the risk for breast cancer.

What are the signs & symptoms of Breast Cancer?

In its early stages, breast cancer usually has no symptoms. As the tumor develops, you may note the following signs;Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

A lump in the breast or underarm that persists after your menstrual cycle. Swelling in the armpit.
Pain or tenderness in the breast
A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast
Any change in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast. A reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer.
A change in the nipple, such as a nipple retraction, dimpling, itching, a burning sensation, or ulceration.
Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or another color
A marble-like area under the skin.



Breast cancer screening refers to testing otherwise-healthy women (and men) for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an early diagnosis. Early detection will usually improve outcomes. The following screening tests are commonly undertaken:

Self-Breast exam: From about 20 years of age every woman is advised to carry our self-breast examination monthly, and continue the practice throughout their lives — even during pregnancy and after menopause. Guidance is advised especially at the initial examination.
X-ray (mammogram): Commonly used for breast cancer screening. The risk of regular exposure to X-rays limits the use of this method. Your doctor will advise on suitability.
Breast ultrasound: This type of scan helps clinicians confirm whether a lump is a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst.
Biopsy: A sample of tissue with abnormality, such as a lump, is surgically removed and sent to the laboratory for analysis and confirmation of presence of cancers cells
Breast MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans: This type of scan helps the doctor determine the presence and the extent of cancer.

Management of Breast Cancer

Management of breast cancer depends on various factors, including the stage of the cancer. Increasingly aggressive treatments are employed in accordance with the poorer the patient’s prognosis and the higher the risk of recurrence of cancer following treatment.

This involves surgical removal of the tumor, typically along with some of the surrounding tissue.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper
Standard surgeries include:

Removal of the whole breast (Mastectomy)
Removal of one-quarter of the breast (Quadrant)
Removal of a small part of the breast (Lumpectomy)
Medication (Chemotherapy)
Drugs are used after and in addition to surgery to eliminate cancer cells as much as possible.
Radiotherapy is given after surgery to the region of the tumor, to destroy microscopic tumor cells that may have escaped surgery.

Prevention of Breast Cancer

Some lifestyle changes can help significantly reduce a person’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Alcohol consumption: Women who drink in moderation, or do not drink alcohol at all, are less likely to develop breast cancer compared to those who drink large amounts regularly. Moderation means no more than one alcoholic drink per day.
Physical exercise: Exercising five days a week has been shown to reduce a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer.
Diet: Women who follow a healthy, well-balanced diet may reduce their risk of developing breast cancer. Fish oils help reduce breast cancer risk.
Postmenopausal hormone therapy: Limiting hormone therapy may help reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. It is important for one to discuss the positives and negatives thoroughly with her doctor.
Body weight: Women who have a healthy body weight have a considerably lower chance of developing breast cancer compared to obese and overweight females.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper
Women at high risk of breast cancer: The doctor may recommend estrogen-blocking drugs or preventive surgery which is a possible option for women at very high risk.
Breast cancer screening: Patients should discuss with their doctor when to start breast cancer screening exams and tests.
Breastfeeding: Women who breastfeed run a lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to other women.

Self Breast Examination

Self Breast examination is performed to look out for the following:

Lumps swellings and skin thickening in the breast or underarm.
Changes in size or shape of the breast
Redness of discharge of the breast

Below is a brief guideline of the simple process that should be performed once monthly during the self-breast examination.

Stand upright, facing the mirror. Check for the breast color size and shape any bulge or swelling or nipple changes.
Raise arms straight up and repeat the process
Squeeze nipple gently for any discharge
With the left hand, feel the entire right breast for any lumps or swelling. With the right hand repeat the process but on the left breast.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Note: A lump once identified should not be ignored. Have a doctor check it further. Do not panic if you identify a lump. It does not automatically mean you have cancer of the breast.

You may need to consult a doctor or health care provider for guidance on self-breast examination, screening and more information on breast cancer.

Through the provision of education about the characteristics of breast cancer to the general public, supporters believe that more people can become informed about the disease, leading to improved treatment outcomes for the affected women due to earlier detection and better treatment methods.

This is a type of health advocacy that raises funds and lobbies for better care, deeper knowledge, and empowerment for women with breast cancer. The campaigns focus on increasing awareness of breast cancer detection and treatment.

As a result of these campaigns, there has been a significant increase in the number of breast cancer cases detected and women needing treatment. Overall, cases of breast cancer are now being treated earlier than previously done, at a stage when the cancer is more treatable.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Early Detection of Breast Cancer

If cases of breast cancer can be detected earlier, it is possible to initiate treatments for the disease before the cancerous growth has spread and become a serious concern. For this reason, one of the core aims of breast cancer awareness is to encourage screening for breast cancer for women.

However, there is some concern about the over-detection of breast cancer and overzealous screening leading to excessive treatment for this condition. This is a particular concern for women with early-stage breast cancer who may have never experienced symptoms related to the cancer and undergo unnecessary treatment.

Funding for Research

Another core aspect of breast cancer awareness is raising funds for breast cancer research. It is hoped that further knowledge about the pathology of breast cancer could lead to the discovery or a more reliable and permanent cure than what is currently available.

Breast Cancer Awareness Month

In many countries around the world, National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM) is held in October, sometimes referred to as Pinktober. Many breast cancer awareness advocates focus their efforts in this month each year, often with the reception of corporate sponsorships for financial support for the activities. NBCAM began in 1985 by the American Cancer Society and AstraZeneca.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

There are many different forms of events held in October each year to raise awareness for breast cancer, such as foot races, walk-a-tons, bicycle rises, conferences, or other events.

The events that are run throughout the month help supporters of the cause to come together and continue to build awareness about breast cancer as well as funding for continued research.

The Pink Ribbon

The pink ribbon is the symbol for breast cancer awareness, which is used as a concept brand. It combines the fear of cancer with the hope for successful treatment and encourages such people to buy or wear a pink ribbon to demonstrate their support and increase awareness of the brand.

The “pink ribbon brand” is strong and supported by a socially aware market of people who advocate for improved health outcomes for women and positive thinking to solve the problem of breast cancer.

It has seen considerable success because many people have experienced the effects of breast cancer directly, either themselves or through people that they know, and can identify with the cause.


Additionally, there is no counter movement to oppose breast cancer awareness and the general public agrees that breast cancer is not desirable.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

There is some feeling of imbalance with regards to awareness for breast cancer in contrast to other types of cancer, such as prostate cancer.

However, rather than decreasing awareness of breast cancer it seems logical to increase awareness of other types of cancer to match the success of that achieved by breast cancer awareness campaigns and the pink ribbon.

October is probably the most well-known of all cancer awareness months and the pink ribbon the most widely recognized symbol of the fight against cancer. The rise of breast cancer activism and the pink ribbon movement in Kenya can be credited to the late Mary Onyango, who bravely led the movement for several years until she succumbed to the very disease she spent decades fighting.

The October breast cancer month is marked with numerous activities; from wearing pink ribbons to discounted or free screening offers, as well as cancer talk shows on radio and television. Yet breast cancer cases continue to rise and survival is no better than it was 15 years ago, when I joined the cancer advocacy movement.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Clearly there is something fundamentally wrong with confining cancer to a four-week, once-a-year ritual. The greatest danger with this month-long cancer extravaganza is that it is rapidly taking the form and shape of Christmas: heavily commercialized and promptly forgotten until next year.

Though we have not reached the North American levels of commercializing everything around breast cancer, there is a very gradual but relentless effort to merchandising of this serious disease. Breast cancer is now becoming a darling of the media and major corp orates in Kenya using the pink ribbon to boost their image.


Reducing deaths from breast cancer will take more than pink ribbons and cancer talks. Creating “awareness” without accessible cancer treatment infrastructure is in itself myopic. Well-meaning community-based organizations spend an incredible amount of time and resources spreading the cancer message in schools, churches and other social places.  But without well-equipped referral channels to enable those with suspicious lumps or early-stage disease get prompt diagnosis and treatment, these efforts will not contribute to reducing deaths.

Breast Cancer is one of the most prevalent and common forms of Cancers. This condition largely effects women only, while in a very few rare cases it also affects certain men. Breast Cancer develops in the cells of the breast, wherein certain cells in the breast begin to grow rapidly and abnormally. This results in the accumulation of lumps or a mass of tissue.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

The cancer largely begins in the milk producing ducts and is likely to metastasize to other parts of the body via the lymphatic system.

Advances in medical science a large number of cases are now being accurately detected and successfully treated; with a large number of women are able to survive the rigors of the treatment process to come back to normalcy post-treatment. Breast cancer is a relatively less-aggressive forms of cancer allowing for patients to find treatment and survive this condition.

What are the causes & risk factors of breast cancer?

Most common causes of Breast Cancer have been identified as lifestyle, hereditary factors, hormonal imbalances, exposure to radiation, late pregnancies and increasing age. Currently, research indicates that about 5 to 10% of the breast cancer cases are mutations passed on hereditary.

Some of the other risk factors for increased propensity to breast cancer includes:

Early onset of puberty or archenemy
Post-menopausal hormonal therapy
Excessive alcohol consumption
Not breast-feeding the children
Previous breast-related conditions
What are the signs & symptoms of breast cancer?
How can we prevent breast cancer?
What are the treatment options for breast cancer?
Why choose us for Oncology Consultation or Cancer Treatment?
It is crucial to seek the finest medical care for the treatment of cancer. We have a team of best oncologists, top cancer surgeons and other experts who are highly skilled and trained in evaluating and treating the most complex and challenging forms of cancer, through a personalized treatment plan based on the cancer type, stages of cancer and the disease progression.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper
The multifaceted cancer care program also includes Pain and Palliative Treatment, Reconstruction, Comorbidity Management, Diet, Nutrition and Rehabilitation.
We have a tumor board where all our specialists come together to discuss difficult and challenging cases in order to determine the best surgical resections, the best imagining strategies and the best medical oncology care. This type of multidisciplinary tumor board approach is associated with the most effective outcomes worldwide as it helps to establish the best treatment plan for each individual patient. Once the case is discussed in depth in the Tumor Board, the hospital offers a range of treatments required for overall cancer care.
We put together an personalized plan taking into consideration not only your specific diagnosis but also your family history, lifestyle and general health.
Our medical expertise combined with the availability of advanced medical technology for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and the excellent team of allied support staff and nursing team that we have, ensure that you get the best possible outcomes.
Our doctors are specialized in treating a wide range of cancers including Breast Cancer, Oral Cancer, Thyroid tumor, Lung Cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Colo rectal Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Uterine Cancer, Peritoneal Malignancy, Lymphoma, Leukemia, Malignant Tumor and Metastatic Tumor.
We also have special UN-wait zones where we ensure that a shorter wait time and a better atmosphere is provided to not just the patients but to also the care givers in the waiting areas.
The main objective of our team of surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, oncology nurses, and cancer support staff is to collaborate with each other to effectively and efficiently meet the needs of cancer patients and their families. We are there with you throughout your journey in fighting cancer and successfully come out of it and thereby empower you to take control of your health again. We strive our best to achieve this.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

As a disease that will affect one in eight women during the course of her lifetime, breast cancer is a high health care priority in the U.S. year-round. October is a particularly opportune time for nurses across the country to educate their patients about the disease, as it is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM).

To best help their patients, it is important for nursing professionals to understand the purpose of NBCAM and to educate themselves about the measures that can be taken to identify the disease as early as possible.

The history of Breast Cancer Awareness Month

Every year, the National Breast Cancer Foundation, American Cancer Society and other organizations use the month of October to spread awareness about breast cancer. NBCAM was founded in 1985 and has been making significant progress in combating the disease in the U.S. and abroad ever since.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

For many, the month of October is closely associated with the small pink ribbon that can be found on everything from water bottles to airplanes. According to The New York Times, the ribbon was first used in association with breast cancer 25 years ago in California by a 68-year-old woman named Charlotte Haley. To honor her sister, daughter and granddaughter, who all had breast cancer, Haley made peach-colored ribbons to raise awareness for the limited research funding that existed in relation to the disease.

The idea caught on with groups such as the Susan G. Komen foundation, though the organization decided to use pink ribbons rather than peach. Komen was started by U.S. Ambassador Brinker, Komen’s sister who with her sister Susan, was a Peoria, Ill., native. Brinker was the commencement speaker for Bradley University’s May 2010 ceremony.

In addition to spreading awareness, NBCAM is particularly effective in encouraging people to raise money to fight the disease. October now is commonly recognized as breast cancer awareness month which is celebrated through fundraising efforts on both local and national levels, such as community runs, car washes, bake sales and more. However, it is important to read the fine print. Just because something is associated with NBCAM does not mean that it is making a difference for the cause, especially when large companies create special products with the pink ribbon or run special sales. According to the education and activism group Breast Cancer Action, most breast cancer promotions benefit the company more than they benefit the women living with the disease. Some corporations cap donations without telling consumers when the target number has been reached, while others use the pink ribbon logo without actually donating any money to the cause that the ribbon represents. If you want to financially contribute to the fight against breast cancer, make sure that your money is going to an organization that is using its funds responsibly.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Breast cancer in the U.S.

The fight against breast cancer has made significant progress over the last several decades. Incidence rates began to decline in 2000 after rising the previous two decades, according to the nonprofit organization Breast This sign is promising for health care professionals and cancer patients alike. However, the disease is still a major concern for women in the U.S., despite the falling rates. The American Cancer Society estimated that 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 2016 and approximately 40,450 women will die from the disease within the year. Yet, the organization did report that deaths from breast cancer have been decreasing since 1989.

While treatment options and patient outcomes have improved, there is currently no ultimate cure for the disease. Because breast cancer continually morphs and can present differently in patients, it is unclear if there ever will be a single one-size-fits-all cure, either for breast cancer in general or even a specific strain of the disease. This fact is something that is difficult for women to understand and accept.

“Unfortunately, we see some patients don’t respond to these… new therapies and some patients that do respond initially eventually develop resistance to those therapies and so the tumor returns,” Monica Bertagnolli, chair of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, told Scientific American.

Another common misconception in the U.S. is that breast cancer is a disease that only affects women. Some people do not realize that men can develop the disease as well, though it is much rarer. According to the National Breast Cancer Foundation, although less than 1 percent of breast cancer cases are in males, the mortality rate is higher for men.The primary reason for this is that men are less likely to attribute a lump in the breast area to breast cancer, thus causing a delay in seeking treatment.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

It is misconceptions like these that make spreading awareness so important during October. Thanks to their specific role in patient care, nurses are well-placed to advance these efforts.

Nurses and breast cancer awareness

While oncology nurses work with cancer patients every day, they are not the only nursing professionals who can play a role in fighting breast cancer. As with most diseases, the earlier breast cancer is identified, the better the outcome.

Education efforts are critical for spreading breast cancer awareness. Nurses should be particularly diligent when working with patients who are at increased risk of developing the disease. The American Cancer Society reported that factors that can influence the risk of breast cancer in a patient include:

Family history: Having a first-degree relative (such as a mother, sister or daughter) with breast cancer doubles a person’s likelihood of developing the disease.
Personal history: If a woman has developed cancer in one breast, her risk of developing it in the other breast is increased.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper
Race and ethnicity: White women are slightly more likely to develop cancer than African-American women. Asian, Native American and Hispanic women have a lower risk.
Dense breast tissue: Women with dense breast tissue are 1.2 to 2 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with average breast tissue density.
Lifestyle choices: Alcohol consumption, obesity and lack of exercise all can increase the risk of breast cancer.

According to the American Nurses Association, it is important for nurses to be up to date on current recommendations for breast cancer screenings, as well as other methods related to the diagnosis and evaluation of the disease. Currently, the American Cancer Society recommends that women who are at an average risk of breast cancer should begin annual mammograms at 45 and then transition to every two years beginning at 55 years old. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in 2016 took a slightly different stance and suggested that mammograms before the age of 50 should be an individual’s decision but recommended biennial screenings after that point.

Though NBCAM is a valuable opportunity in health care, it is also important for nursing professionals to keep in mind that many breast cancer patients hate what they call the “pinkification” of the month of October. While some women find it encouraging, The New York Times reported that others view the movement as a marketing gimmick that supports awareness but not action. Though nurses should certainly use the month as a reminder to educate themselves and their patients, they should simultaneously be sensitive to the feelings of any patients already fighting the disease.

Breast cancer continues to threaten women’s health all over the world despite the many advances in treatments in recent years. Nurses need to actively use their health training and counselor roles to educate women about risk factors for breast cancer and ways to reduce them. Even with our best efforts, we may not be able to protect all women against developing breast cancer. Nevertheless, we can provide women with the tools to understand the importance of early diagnosis and how to effectively and regularly utilize breast cancer screening methods. After a breast cancer diagnosis, the long, exhausting, and complicated treatments create challenges for both patients and families. The treatments have adverse effects that may result in physical, emotional, and psychological ramifications. Patients and families may find that the issues of life and death often dominate their thoughts. For all these reasons, many kinds of support from the clinical care team are critically important.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

In most cultures, the breast carries a special significance. Breasts signify womanhood and femininity, the feeding of babies, and sexuality. The importance of women’s breasts and a diagnosis of breast cancer can render the journey through diagnosis and treatment especially difficult. Therefore, women who received a diagnosis of breast cancer should receive the highest level of holistic nursing care for as long as they need this support.

In order to make progress in the fight against breast cancer, what difference can one nurse make? The answer may vary depending on the characteristics of the nurse and the environment. However, without a doubt, many individuals, who are united around the same objective, can achieve many things.

Between 2000 and 2004, the “International Breast Health and Breast Cancer Education” project was conducted in cooperation with the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care and the Susan G. Komen Foundation.1–3 During the 2-day program, 32 nurses from 20 countries were trained. One of my colleagues represented our country of Turkey and participated in the program in 2002; it was exciting for me to participate in the same pioneering program in 2004 in Sydney. The 2 of us began working in our country in 2005 with the Turkish Oncology Nursing Association to offer breast cancer nursing training workshops. To date, we have trained 227 nurses and 28 breast cancer nursing trainers who educate and guide nurses in all geographical regions of our country.4 Within Turkish Oncology Nursing Association, we formed a breast cancer nursing subgroup in 2007 that expanded its efforts into creating community training, nursing training, and research groups. The community training group organizes community training workshops, awareness walks, and radio-television programs in the month of breast cancer awareness. The nursing training group conducts breast cancer nursing courses. The training groups are preparing educational materials for healthy women, patients, and nurses about breast cancer. The research group determines the research priorities of our country and plans and undertakes studies. At the end of the year, as a subgroup of the association, we prepared the annual activity report to see what we had achieved and what more we could achieve. It was then that I understood that the real excitement had just started.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper


Women’s accessibility to healthcare services varies depending on the country where they live. However, wherever they live, they are scared. They want to be informed and to be guided in learning about surgical and reconstruction options. They want to be supported when they grieve for their removed breasts and hair loss. They do not want to have pain, vomiting, and hot flashes. When the treatment process ends, they want to ask questions and get answers that will help them begin their lives again. All women, no matter where they live, deserve information and support as they navigate the journey of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Yet, the reality is many countries do not have the same treatment infrastructure as other more developed countries. Turkey currently is experiencing a nursing shortage, and those presently employed do not always have enough knowledge or interest in working with breast cancer patients Therefore, we as nurses of different countries should share our knowledge with other colleagues around the world to unite and strengthen our resolve to eradicate breast cancer through education and research. We can provide the nurses of the countries in need with the training, training materials, and our efforts to establish breast centers. We can walk for the women of another country in the month of breast cancer awareness. We have completed the first breast cancer nursing course with 54 nurses in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and have made attempts to provide training in countries where our language is spoken.

I do not know how much 1 nurse can accomplish alone. But I do know very well that more than 1 nurse, working together with others toward a common goal, can change the world. Let us be aware of and unite our strengths and move in the direction of progress. We have no time to lose.

October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, making this the perfect time to recommit to educating yourself and your patients about breast cancer and how to prevent it. If you need inspiration for how to participate this fall, we’ve rounded up eight suggestions below to help raise awareness for breast cancer screenings.


Familiarize yourself with screening recommendations.

According to the American Cancer Society, women between 40 and 44 have the option to start screening with a mammogram every year, while women 45 to 54 should definitely get mammograms every year. Women 55 and older can switch back to an every other year schedule, or they can continue yearly mammograms. The American Cancer Society says that screening should continue as long as a woman is in good health and is expected to live 10 more years or longer. The society no longer recommends that women engage in regular self-examinations, as the evidence doesn’t show that they make a difference, but ladies should be familiar with how their breasts look and feel and promptly report any changes to their doctor.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Have a dialogue with your patients.

Nurses (alongside doctors) are the primary way patients learn about the importance of breast cancer screenings, so be sure to communicate these guidelines to your patients. They may have questions or concerns about the guidelines, so be willing to chat with them and have an open conversation about breast cancer awareness and what that means. There’s a lot of fear and confusion around the idea of any cancer, including breast cancer, so you may have to dispel some incorrect myths or help calm their concerns.

Wear pink throughout the month (or the remaining part of it)

The classic pink ribbon has become synonymous with breast cancer awareness, so you can’t go wrong with pinning an awareness ribbon to your scrubs. However, your options for breast cancer awareness gear go far beyond a simple ribbon. Many printed scrubs are available with specific breast cancer awareness prints, and solid pink is always an options as well. Stethoscopes, nursing scissors, lanyard holders, nursing totes, socks, pins and wristbands are just a few examples of other merchandise that have breast cancer awareness options available. So even if you have to wear certain colors of scrubs to work, you can still sport a flash of pink on your uniform to raise awareness.

Host a “pink out” in your unit.

Many nurses already wear pink in some form or fashion during October, but it can be really fun if everyone comes together for a day (or even an entire week) and wears their best pink scrubs and other breast cancer awareness accessories all at the same time. If you work at a private practice or smaller office, you can even get the receptionists and other staff involved in the team effort. Plus, seeing everyone walking around in pink scrubs can encourage patients to ask questions about why you’re all wearing the same color, which creates a natural opening to talk about breast cancer screening guidelines and start that dialogue with them.

Participate in a fundraiser.

Many organizations, like the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, host fundraising efforts around Breast Cancer Awareness Month in October, such as sponsored 5K walk/run events. You can participate in one of these by donating directly or raising money from family and friends to sponsor you, depending on the event. If no organizations in your area are hosting a fundraising event, you can start your own as an individual or as a group with your fellow nurses. You can use the fundraiser to honor a friend or family member or raise money around an activity such as a bake sale.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Donate your hair.

While synthetic wigs are greatly improving, they still can’t quite replicate the feel and look of real hair (at least, not yet), so donating your hair can be a personal way to help those suffering from breast cancer, as it’s very common to lose your hair during chemotherapy. Several charitable organizations accept and process hair donations, including Pantene Beautiful Lengths, Locks of Love and Wigs for Kids. Donation requirements (such as length and whether or not it’s dyed) vary from charity to charity, so be sure to check the guidelines before you commit to the big chop.

Shop for pink products.

If you’re going to buy things anyway, you might as well help a charitable organization while you’re at it! Many businesses offer products during October (and beyond) that benefit various breast cancer awareness organizations and charities, or they may ask you to donate money at the checkout line. Look for the pink ribbon as you browse during your shopping trip, although it’s usually smart to do a little research beforehand to make sure that part of your purchase will in fact go to a breast cancer-related cause and not just back into the business’s profits.

Take care of yourself.

Amidst all the work you do on behalf of your patients and outside charities, don’t forget to take care of yourself while you’re at it! Keep an eye out for any irregularities in your breasts and follow screening guidelines that take into account your age, race and ethnicity as well as any family history of the disease and any potentially contributing health problems. You won’t be doing your patients any favors if you neglect your own health as you take care of them, so lead by example when it comes to breast cancer screenings.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

From fun to serious, these eight ways are a great starting point to help support National Breast Cancer Awareness Month and begin a dialogue with your patients on the topic. Make this October a month to remember for all the right reasons and help raise awareness for this worthy cause. You never know when a screening might save a patient’s life!

Several problems were risks which can threaten the life of the woman in short, average and long-term. It is important to be not only interested in the problems bound to the reproductive health of the woman but to other problems such as the breast cancer. Indeed, the clinical profile of breast cancer in Tunisia was characterized always by a patient’s very high percentage which consults at a late stage of the disease [1].

It is recognized that among the promising strategies in the prevention of cancer, we can quote the raising awareness and the information of the population and particularly the target groups. It is necessary to become aware of the lifestyle of the patient and its effect on the health, as well as the ease of access to the health-promoting information [2]. It would be possible to believe that the integration of the knowledge, the attitudes, and practices in the Structure of the first level would allow reducing the morbidity and the mortality bound to some Noncommunicable diseases as breast cancer.

Indeed, the promotion and the prevention of the breast cancer are connected to three participants: to the nursing and more particularly in their knowledge, the attitudes, and practices, to the concerned people and to the health system.

The breast cancer is one of the major problems of public health. Indeed, it is the most frequent cancer at the women worldwide. The highest incidence is in the developed countries, but it is also increasing with a rhythm alarming in low-income countries and intermediary [3].

Besides, the incidence of the breast cancer is higher from 4 to 10 times in the western countries in comparison with Asia and Africa [4].

In Tunisia, it is important to underline that the breast cancer remains the feminine the most frequent cancer, clearly in front of that of the colon [5]. The Breast cancer represents 33% of all the new cases of cancer of the woman during period 2004-2006, with an annual average of 785 cases [5].Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

In 2014, the breast cancer joins as the most frequent cancer in Tunisia with a rate of incidence of 1.826/100,000 w/year at the women, and its weight on the feminine mortality remains striking with 22% among 2800 dead women [6].

It is also recognized that the creation of three registers of cancer in Tunisia served to answer a need for the medical community and for the decision-makers for a better analysis of the situation of this pathology in Tunisia. So, these registers try to inform the healthcare professionals and to enlighten the decision-makers [5]. According to the estimations for the period 2019-2024 of the register of cancers in the North- Tunisia (2003), the incidence standardized by the breast cancer will be 46.4 cases/100,000 W/year [7].

The breast cancer screening is overseen by the National office of the family and the population (ONFP) and the Direction of basic health care (DBHC). [2] Also, the clinical average diameter of the breast cancer in the diagnosis is situated around 4.0 centimeters [2].

These alarming figures thus justify the necessity of efforts to improve the early screening of the breast cancer in Tunisia.

It is important to underline that the premature detection of the breast cancer by mammography, Clinical Breast Exam (CBE) and breast self-exam (BSE) is essential to reduce the morbidity and the mortality bound to this cancer [8].

Although the mammography is considered as the only effective method of screening, it remains the most complex method and requires many resources [9]. However, the practice of the breast self-exam helps the women to be autonomous, to be responsible for their own health [9]. So, the research is in progress to estimate the third way of screening which is the clinical breast exam as a low-cost approach for the screening of this cancer, and which can be used in the least rich countries [10].

Among the projects of breast cancer screening in Tunisia, we note that of the National office of the family and the population and that of the Tunisian Association of the health of the reproduction.

The implication of all the healthcare professionals thus remains necessary to encourage the support of the population to the early screening. In fact, the nursing skills transferred in the clinical practice should strengthen the quality and the security of the lavished care and the transmitted-on information. At present, the time seems convenient to examine the knowledge, the attitudes and the practices of the nurses of early screening of the breast cancer.

It is important also to underline that the levels of knowledge of the nurses about the breast cancer and the screening play an important role in the contents of the education of the patient [11].

Besides, the nurses of public health are more familiarized with the questions of risk assessment and screening, and their purpose is to encourage the women to take part in the program of breast cancer screening [12].

Indeed, the nurses have a major role in the education, the distribution and the raising awareness to the breast cancer at the women of the community to change their behaviour on screening [13].

In the transverse study of Ahmed et al. [14], among the important resources of distribution of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices on the breast cancer, the nurses join the group the most adapted for this action. Indeed, the nurses can have a major influence on the behaviour of the women, and they must themselves be informed well about the breast cancer and the importance of the premature detection [14].Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Besides, the Tunisian health system is a pluralistic system, a compound of a public sector, a private sector and a semi-public sector. The public sector is the main supplier of health care. There is not at present an adequate mechanism of regulation between three sectors; what has for consequence a low membership of the private sector in the programs of prevention [15].

This public sector is constituted by establishments depending directly on the Ministry of Health, other ministries and by establishment’s semi-public.

At present, the offer of the Ministry of Health is organized on four levels.

The basic health centers which are the front door of the public sector, form a decentralized network which meets the needs in care preventive and in curative basic care [15].

Then, the peripheral rural maternities (maternity hospitals) and the hospitals of the district; the latter containing at least, a department of medicine, a maternity and a technical basic tray.

At the third level, we find regional hospitals which are situated in the administrative centre of governorates and in certain very populated delegations and join the first note level for the specialized care.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

At the fourth level, the sanitary establishments with university vocation such as teaching hospitals and specialized institutes. They provide medical care highly specialized, contribute to the education and take part in works of scientific research [15].

The literature allowed to highlight that the primary health care is a vaster concept which includes the services of first-line care, the promotion of the health and the prevention of the diseases. This concept reflects the approach of the performance of the services to a community [16].

The primary care has to refer to an ambitious program through characteristics. In fact, the primary care opens perspectives to the prevention of the diseases, to the promotion of the health, as well as to the early screening of the diseases [16].

Besides, basic health centers are functionally organized around the sanitary district and are managed either within the framework of the groupings of basic health for the most part, or less frequently by hospitals of the district or regional [16].

The Tunisian system of the care of primary health is regulated by the State, its missions are defined, but misses it financial and human resources provoke problems, what explains the inter regional disparity as well as between the various govern orates.

Certain basic health care centers in the region of Sousse assure a gynecological medical consultation only once a week such as for another govern orate where only three midwifes move in 10 basic health centers.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

In another govern orate a midwife occupies a fixed post in the center of mother and child care while another one assures the activity of 7 BHC. While other 6 BHC in the region of Sousse has no midwife.

And for certain centers there is a mobile team which consists of a doctor gynecological and of two midwives, which moves in 6 others centers.

So, we notice that the mode of the care of some diseases in evolution such as the breast cancer is not completely adapted any more to the needs for the citizens and for the consultant women.

So, before setting up such a program of screening and the training courses, it is essential to estimate if the nurses intend to conform to the news directed of a program of breast cancer screening and to verify what could damage or help they are participating in the activities of screening.

The results of this study will put bases to decrease the rate of mortality and morbidity of this cancer in the women of the region of Sousse by describing the knowledge, the attitudes and the practices of the nurses.

Seeing pink lately?  Throughout the month of October, which is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, you’re sure to see this color proudly displayed somewhere–from lapel pins to NFL jerseys to the pink latex gloves worn by fellow health care workers.

And it’s all for a good cause–to bring more attention and funding to a disease that is expected to affect 1 out of every 8 women in the United States. While survival rates have improved over the years, breast cancer is still the leading cause a death among U.S. women who are 40-50 years old.

Breast Cancer Awareness Month offers nurses an excellent opportunity to increase their knowledge about the disease and to discuss the importance of self-exams and recommended mammogram screenings with their patients. In most locations, there are a myriad of special events in which nurses can participate with co-workers, patients and their families.

Jenine Talantis, RN, a travel nurse specializing in ophthalmology who works for American Mobile Healthcare, an AMN Healthcare company, was diagnosed with breast cancer in June 2010 at the age of 58.  She had gone in for a routine mammogram just three months earlier and had a clear reading; however she found the lump, directly under her nipple, during a self-exam.

“Plan A was that I would have a lumpectomy followed by radiation, but then the oncologist discovered that in addition to the tumor I had cancer in situ–which isn’t yet cancer, but has a 50 percent chance of becoming cancer–in both breasts,” she explained. “Some women are very cavalier about saying if they found out they had breast cancer they would immediately have both breasts removed.  But it isn’t that easy when you are really faced with the decision.”

Talantis did go forward with a bilateral mastectomy, followed by reconstructive surgery.

“There is life after having your breasts removed,” she reported. But despite the successful reconstruction, she added, “There isn’t a day that goes by that I’m not aware of having lost my breasts because sensation in them never returns.”Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

Despite her own setbacks, the most difficult part of Talantis’s breast cancer story was losing her best friend to the disease just 16 months after diagnosis.

“She was just 45 years old and had a nine-year-old. She went through hell fighting to stay alive for her little boy,” she said.

From patient to advocate

As a breast cancer survivor, Talantis has taken on new challenges and is currently working her first travel nursing contract at Duke University Medical Center where she just accepted a one-year contract extension.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

“My daughter is grown and out of the house and I am divorced. I just decided why not take the opportunity?” she said of her decision to start traveling. “My recruiter has taken such good care of me, especially as a first time traveler. She has been fabulous.”

This year, along with her Duke co-workers, Talantis participated in the second annual Pink Glove Dance Video Competition for breast cancer awareness sponsored by Medline. For this nationwide contest, health care workers choreograph, videotape and submit a dance for online viewers to vote on. The top three winners receive donations to the breast cancer charity of their choice. Voting for this year’s competition began on October 12 and ends on November 2.

“I think it is important for nurses to participate in breast cancer awareness events because at some point in their career, no matter what their specialty, they will run into someone who has breast cancer. The more you know, the more you are able to empathize,” Talantis remarked.

Opportunities for you to get involved

Jo Bottorff, women’s wellness connection community coordinator for the Great West Division of the American Cancer Society, thinks nurse participation in breast cancer awareness events is important because the general public has such a deep respect for nurses and turns to them for answers.Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

“Many nurses help educate women about the importance of breast cancer screenings through their jobs, either working directly with patients, manning an exhibit at a health fair, answering questions by phone, etc.,” commented Bottorff.

“The American Cancer Society has Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks throughout the nation and nurses can form a team for this event, encouraging patients to join also,” she continued. “As a 12-year breast cancer survivor, I became involved with this walk and it was my way of ‘giving back’ and helping in the fight against this disease.”

Bottorff encourages all nurses to find out about free breast cancer screenings offered in their community for uninsured and under insured women. The CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening services to underserved women in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, 5 U.S. territories, and 12 Native American tribes.

One of the most well-known breast cancer awareness events is the Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure series. These 5K races and fitness walks are held across the country.  In 2011, over 1.6 million people participated in the series. Other awareness events range from three-day walks to beer and wine tastings to motorcycle rides to silent auctions.

Wherever your travel assignments may take you, there is sure to be an awareness event nearby in which you can be involved!Breast Cancer Awareness Research Paper

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