ATW 202 Business Research Method

ATW 202 Business Research Method

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ATW 202 Business Research Method

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ATW 202 Business Research Method

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Course Code: ATW202
University: Universiti Sains Malaysia

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Country: Malaysia

Question: 

Conjunction with the second assignment, forms your complete research proposal. It will serve as a guide to your dissertation next year and should contain the follow sections:
Framing the Study

What is the dissertation about and why is it important? Short overview explaining why anyone would want to undertake this study and why anyone should want to read it. 
What are your aim and objectives? Summarise what you want to achieve with the entire study (Aim), and the specific, short-term steps you will need to take to achieve this (Objectives). 
What is the theory you are using? Specify which theoretical body of knowledge you are basing your study within, and what are you using that theory to show. 
What is the context for the dissertation? Are you applying the theory to a particular business, industry, sector, country, etc.? Why is this an appropriate context? 

Answer: 

Introduction:
The study will research on job motivation towards job satisfaction in young adults (Millennials or Generation Y) in service industry at Klang Valley, Malaysia. Majority of youth worldwide are jobless mostly in the growing economy which mostly is found in Africa. However, few young adults who are employed would like to be treated in a certain way so that they can help the company achieve its goals and objectives in the long run (Ghafoor, Ghafoor, Bhatti, Hussain, Arshad, and Bilal, 2017). Apart from providing training to the employed young adults (Millennials or Generation) this piece of research will look on other ways through which young adults can be motivated while at working places. Services industry like any other industry requires employee’s full concentration for it to achieve its overall objectives as well as goals. At Klang Valley, Malaysia service industry are doing well than product industry and as a result majority of young adults secures employment from those industries (Acar, 2014).
The reason why this research is important is because employers would like to understand what they are supposed to do in order to motivate young adults (Millennials or Generation Y) toward providing job satisfaction. An employer understands that job satisfaction is the most important aspect which both employee and customer looks for. Majority of employers also understands that the success or failure of the company depends on the level of satisfaction delivered by employees. A happy and motivated worker would always deliver quality services thus contributing to its growth at some extent (McGuigan, McGuigan, McGuigan, Shevlin, Mallett, and Tracey, 2018).
Also, apart from the above reason this research will provide extensive research as to why both the employers and the workers are supposed to read it. For instance, an employer who goes through this piece of research will understand that workers are the most important assets a company have and they plays a big role in a business failure or success. Also, workers will understand what is required of them to do and how they can transform the company output thus increasing its revenue generation in the long run. Both the workers and the employer each have a role to play the successful growth of the company. The two are supposed to work hand in hand in order to achieve the company goals and objectives (Buckman, Crawford, LePine, and Zhang, 2015).   
Aim and objectives
The main aim and objectives of this piece of research is to increase the revenue generated by the service industry at Klang Valley, Malaysia. From the research conducted by other researchers, it is evident that workers are essential assets in the company success or failure. From the research it is evident that well motivated workers would work tiresomely to achieve the company’s goals and objectives. Apart from satisfying customers need the primary role of any industry is to make the profit to the owner which means that in this case, attaining the Job motivation towards job satisfaction in young adults (Millennials or Generation Y) in service industry at Klang Valley, Malaysia would lead to an increase in the output. An increase in the output in most cases results to increased sales which in return increases profit generated by the company. There is a good relationship between the workers motivation, satisfaction from the job and an increase in revenue generated by the company (Circella et al, 2017).
Theories used
Productivity in business can be explained as the competent and successful use of the assets with the least amount of waste and effort to achieve the desired result by the required company. In the long run we stay in a world with limited resources for both the company and the individuals. The services industry for instance faces this limitation at the Klang Valley, Malaysia more compared to other industries in the market. Due to this challenges and other complexity services industry are facing, the concept of productivity, job satisfaction and the motivation become very crucial in the long run. In the services industry, employee retention and satisfactions have been very crucial in the sector for long. For instance, this theory known as conventional human resources which was developed 50 years ago by Maslow and Herzberg, states that in the working places the satisfied qualified workers tend to be more productive on their work compared to unsatisfied one, also employees are supposed to be more creative and also more committed to their employers. In the long run, employees are essential productivity. However, in every company the success or failure of productivity improvement strategy is mostly dependent on some factors which includes accomplishment, creativity and growth, physical and mental safety, self-actualization, sense of belonging.
Maslow’s theory states that there are two categories of factors which are the hygiene (which satisfy) and motivation. Additionally, one must understand that the term job satisfaction and motivation have been interchanged on their usage by many. One must understand that the two does not mean the same thing on their usage. For instance, job satisfaction can be explained as the individual’s arousing reply to his or her present job condition. Also, motivation can be defined as the driving strength to trail and gratify one’s needs. This implies every person must differentiate their usage in every context. The theory by the Maslow and Herzberg can be easily used in working places. In the long run, company management can help their workers to attain the overall job satisfaction, which in the same time, with the worker’s interior motivation drives which in return increases performance on the job.
Theories of job satisfaction
Job motivation and job satisfaction theories have been greatly used together by scholars. In the long run the two theories together have been used to explain human motivation in the work places. From the research done majority of researchers have proven that some of the researches which explains well job satisfaction includes job characteristic model, the dispositional approach, Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory and Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory (Lee, Back, and Chan, 2015).  
Hierarchy of needs
This theory is also commonly referred as the human motivation. According to the Maslow, this theory is one of the finest theories which were used to know the most important factors to the job satisfaction. From the research which was done by Maslow, the theory explains that human needs are classified in a five-level hierarchy. The five –level comprises of self-actualization, physiological needs, love/belonging, esteem and safety. In simple terms this theory states that there are essential needs that require to be met first, before other more complex needs can be met (Pastalan, and Schwarz, 2016).  
Motivator-Hygiene theory
This theory was developed by Herzberg and it suggest that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two opposite ends of the same continuum, but instead are two separate and, at times, even unrelated concepts. In the working places, motivating factors such as pay and benefits, recognition and achievements must be achieved and met so that the workers can be satisfied with the work. Additionally, hygiene factors which include good working conditions, good company policies and structures, job security for all workers, communication with other colleagues and the best quality management are all associated with the job satisfaction and must be looked on (Alston, 2017).
Job characteristics Model
This theory suggests that job satisfaction mostly occurs in a working environment which encourages intrinsically motivating characteristics. According to this model, five key job characteristics are recognized which includes feedback, skill variety, task identity, task significance and autonomy. The above influences the three psychological states which include critical psychological states, core job dimensions and personal and work outcomes. In the long run, the three states potentially give the outcome which includes job satisfaction. This means that in many cases it is believed that by improving the five cores in the job dimension which in many cases leads to a better working environment which as a result leads to job satisfaction. However, unlike other theories like that conducted by Maslow, the job characteristic model in many cases has more support compared to others in the market. But also it have received some criticism from some scholars who uses this model when carrying out the research on the direct impact the personal and outcome have on the core job dimensions, by doing this the research completely disregards the critical psychological states (Ali, Said, Kader, Ab Latif, and Munap, 2014).
Dispositional approach
The approach explains that there are closely relations between the job satisfaction and the individual’s personality. The approach continues to suggest that there is a strong predisposition in an individual towards a certain level of satisfaction either in the working place or in the day to day activities. To support this approach, the evidence can be divided into two categories, indirect and direct studies. However, some judges and colleagues have into some extent reviewed these areas in greater details (Jaakkola, Ntoumanis, and Liukkonen, 2016).
The context
As I have stated above, I will use the above theories in service industry at Klang Valley, Malaysia. Just like any other industry services industry is also affected by the job motivation towards job satisfaction in young adults (Millennials or Generation Y). The reason why I chose Malaysia and services industry is because there are so many services industry in the Klang Valley. Those companies are managed and operated by the young adults (Millennials or Generation Y). To operate at a profit the young adults must be motivated which will result to a job satisfaction. The above theories will be used when explaining and discussing the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction in young adults.
References:
Acar, A.B., 2014. Do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors differ for Generation X and Generation Y. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(5), pp.12-20.
Ali, S.A.M., Said, N.A., Kader, S.F.A., Ab Latif, D.S. and Munap, R., 2014. Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model to job satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, pp.46-52.
Alston, J.K., 2017. Causes Of Satisfaction And Disatisfaction For Diversity Resident Librarians–A Mixed Methods Study Using Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory.
Buckman, B., Crawford, E., LePine, J. and Zhang, Y., 2015. A meta-analytic investigation of job engagement’s role in the transformational leadership–job satisfaction–job performance relationship. In Annual Meeting of the Southern Management Association, SMA 2015.
Circella, G., Alemi, F., Tiedeman, K., Berliner, R.M., Lee, Y., Fulton, L., Mokhtarian, P.L. and Handy, S., 2017. What Affects Millennials’ Mobility? PART II: The Impact of Residential Location, Individual Preferences and Lifestyles on Young Adults’ Travel Behavior in California (No. NCST-201703).
Eid, M.T.I., 2016. What Do People Want From Their Jobs? A Dual Factor Analysis Based On Gender Differences Drain. Journal of Social and Economic Statistics, 5(1), pp.42-55.
Ghafoor, S., Ghafoor, Y., Bhatti, N.M., Hussain, M., Arshad, T. and Bilal, A., 2017. Impact of Motivation on Job Satisfaction among Nurses of Services Hospital Lahore. PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL & HEALTH SCIENCES, 11(2), pp.532-536.
Jaakkola, T., Ntoumanis, N. and Liukkonen, J., 2016. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within F innish junior ice hockey players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 26(1), pp.109-115.
Lacey, R., Kennett-Hensel, P.A. and Manolis, C., 2015. Is corporate social responsibility a motivator or hygiene factor? Insights into its bivalent nature. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(3), pp.315-332.
Lee, J.S., Back, K.J. and Chan, E.S., 2015. Quality of work life and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees: A self-determination and need satisfaction theory approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(5), pp.768-789.
Macdonald, J.L. and Levy, S.R., 2016. Ageism in the workplace: The role of psychosocial factors in predicting job satisfaction, commitment, and engagement. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), pp.169-190.
McGuigan, C.J., McGuigan, K., McGuigan, M., Shevlin, M., Mallett, J. and Tracey, A., 2018. Modelling the role of personal factors as mediators in the relationship between workplace stress, motivation and job performance among Irish retail employees. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 21(3), pp.426-450.
Pastalan, L.A. and Schwarz, B., 2016. Hierarchy of Needs. In University-Linked Retirement Communities (pp. 129-152). Routledge.
Ryan, J.O., Clapp, E.P., Ross, J. and Tishman, S., 2016. Making, thinking, and understanding: A dispositional approach to maker-centered learning. K., Peppler, E., Halverson, Y. Kafai,(Eds.), Makeology: The maker movement and the future of learning. New York, NY: Routledge.
Sortheix, F.M., Chow, A. and Salmela-Aro, K., 2015. Work values and the transition to work life: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, pp.162-171.
Wang, J., Leung, K. and Zhou, F., 2014. A dispositional approach to psychological climate: Relationships between interpersonal harmony motives and psychological climate for communication safety. Human relations, 67(4), pp.489-515.
Zacher, H. and Griffin, B., 2015. Older workers’ age as a moderator of the relationship between career adaptability and job satisfaction. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1(2), pp.227-236.

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