Appropriate Dispute Resolution
Topic: What does the term ‘Appropriate Dispute Resolution’ mean? What processes does it cover? Why has the term gained such popularity? Referencing The short essay must be appropriately referenced with footnotes. A Bibliography is required. Referencing must comply with the style set out in the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association, 3rd ed, 2010). Presentation of written assignments Your written assignments must — · Be word-processed in 12 point font · Be 1.5 or double-spaced · Have reasonable margins · Have pages which are consecutively numbered · Be accompanied by an accurate word count · Be properly documented and referenced · Include footnotes and a bibliography · Contain a title page with authors name, essay question, your seminar leader’s name, the day and time of your seminar and a word count. tips for writing the assignment. The thing of most importance: if you are not skilled in writing academic essays leave enough time for editing. Your first finished draft is not what you should submit. So let’s go: 1. Select topic. In this case you have 3 to choose from, but generally in selecting a topic you should base your choice on what you are most interested in, and which one you think will hold your interest throughout your research and writing. In longer essays you can also hone in on one aspect of a subject which is of interest to you and use it as a case study to talk about and illustrate your ideas. 2. Analyse topic. What is this question asking you to do? There are content words, directive words and limiting words within your essay question. Break down the question so that you know what the subject matter of the question is and what you have to do with it. Do you have to analyse, discuss, criticise, describe? Are you required to focus on particular aspects of the topic? Confine your essay to a particular timeframe or location or jurisdiction or area of the law? Do some initial research; your research and your plan are interdependent. It may be necessary to slightly change your plan or the points within your paragraphs depending on what you have discovered in your research. 3. Writing your plan. Introduction allow about 100 words –Don’t write this first. Overview of question – the broad themes which relate to this question and some of the issues Statement of what your essay is going to address and how if necessary. linking sentence to para one Paragraph 1– Allow about 250-300 words Write a heading about what this paragraph is about. You can delete it when you have finished your essay. When you have finished your paragraph check that what is in the paragraph relates to the heading. In a long essay keep the headings, they are helpful for the reader as to the direction you are taking. Topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph you are writing point –commentary –expand, explain, describe. Illustrate by examples, facts, statistics, and details. Utilise quotes and cite them. second point – commentary-citation etc third point –commentary –citation etc Linking sentence signals the end of the paragraph, summaries important elements, links to next paragraph Paragraph 2: as in paragraph 1.Don’t forget to write your paragraph heading. Allow about 250-300 words Paragraph 3 [if necessary] Heading -Allow about 250-300 words. As above Conclusion about 50 words Don’t have any new information in your conclusion It is a summary of the points in the body of the essay. Pick up the key themes which might have gone across all paragraphs and draw them together in some kind of assessment. Remember it is your last opportunity to make your point you should write a strong and effective message that will be remembered. Writing styles Do not use an informal tone or style of language While an academic style of language is required, that doesn’t mean lots of words and it doesn’t mean flowery or overly complex language. Be clear, logical and concise with as few words as possible. The best possible way to develop a good style is to follow the example of other good academic writers. Good writing is a skill which takes time to do and to develop. If you take the time you will get better with each essay. Colloquial expressions are not appropriate for a formal piece of writing. Do not use contracted phrases or forms Numbers from 1-9 should be written as words, begin sentences with words not figures Linking words and Phrases Writing an essay like mounting a defence, it requires you to put forward a convincing argument, backed up by facts and research from people who know what they are talking about using persuasive language. Linking words and phrases help with coherence and flow of logic in your essay. Here are some connectives which basically denote ‘and’ /’or’ and ‘but’: AND-[adds further points] Enumeration:-catalogues what is being said. Listing- first, furthermore, finally /one, two, three/ first and foremost, above all, to begin with, in the second place, moreover, and to conclude, next, then, finally Addition-also again, furthermore, moreover, what is more, then, in addition, besides, above all, too, as well Equation-equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way Transition: leads to a new stage in the sequence of thought Now/ with reference to/regard to/respect to/ regarding/ as for/ as to Summation: a summing up of what has been said In conclusion/ to conclude / to sum up/ in brief/altogether/overall /then /therefore/thus Apposition: Refers back to a previous sentence That is, namely, in other words, or, or rather, or better, and, as follows, for example, for instance, say, such as, including, included, especially, particularly, in particular, notably, chiefly, mainly, mostly, Result: expresses the consequence or result of what was said before So, therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently, cow, then, because of this/that, thus, hence, for this/that reason, OR –to express in another way or to express an alternative to what has proceeded Reformulation: better/rather/in other words/in that case/to put simply… Replacement: again/alternatively/rather/on the other hand/the alternative is/another possibility would be…. BUT-contrasts with what has preceded it or indicates the unexpected nature of what is being said in view of what has been said before Contrast: instead/conversely/then/on the contrary/by contrast/in comparison/on the one hand…on the other hand Concession: besides/however/in spite of/despite that/after all/even if/even though/nevertheless/notwithstanding/still/only/yet… Citation –remember the citation style is the AGLC, see either the short guide or the full document, available on the library website. Inserting quotes–you should insert quotes to enhance the legitimacy of what you are saying. You make a point and then you back up the point or better expand the point by quoting someone else. The quote should continue the natural flow of your sentences, some examples of ways to introduce a quote are: Williams – contends/argues/comments/notes/states/ points out/ reports/concludes. Or: According to Williams, to quote Williams, as Williams indicates, Williams defines …as… You can use adjectives to make a point, i.e. controversially Williams states/ surprisingly Williams believes/tellingly Williams argues that…/prophetically Williams stated in 1984…/ Bracket letters if they are wrongly capitalised for your text. Your essay shouldn’t just be a long string of quotes stuck together. You mount your argument and use other authors to back up/extend/highlight/put a complex idea simply. Use quotes to strengthen your own argument, not just rely on them to make your argument for you General comments from last year’s essays: Poor presentation: No title pages: name /essay topic/tutor name/class time/ date due. Margins and text size. Not enough proof reading after the completion of the essay – grammatical mistakes, sentences not making sense, poor logical sequence, lack of coherence. Too many unnecessary words, with only 1000 at your disposal you have to make sure you edit out all unnecessary words. Also too many unnecessary words make sentences hard to follow. Example: “the paper in this case will adhere to the…” 9 words or “this paper will discuss…” 4 words- you have saved 5 words which you can use to build your argument. Not enough linking words to drive the flow of logic. Not enough original thought and lack of position, but be mindful that you have to use peer reviewed commentators or statistics or facts to back up your argument, you can’t just pull a position or an idea out of thin air. Too much informal language: you can’t just say ‘I think this’, ‘I reckon that’ Not addressing the question; you can write a brilliant essay but if it doesn’t answer the question then it is incorrect. Some remedies: Do a topic analysis To check that your essay makes sense when you have finished your essay read it out aloud to someone, if it doesn’t make sense to them or yourself then it isn’t going to make sense to the marker. I am not talking about the content here rather the expression. Do enough research so that you know what others are saying and also to have information to base your position on and to have some information to base your opinion on. Leave enough time to have a break between finishing and submitting. Do a spell check and correct errors. Do not rely on spell check alone, proof read.
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