Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

1. Module 8- Dehydration/Electrolyte/Acid-Base imbalance presentation

Your laboratory assignment this week is to create an educational PowerPoint presentation as if you were presenting to your classmates on one of the topics listed below:

Your laboratory assignment this week is to create an educational PowerPoint presentation as if you were presenting to your classmates on one of the topics listed below: Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay


Dehydration- Causes, Dangers, and Treatment
Electrolyte Imbalance- Causes, Dangers, and Treatment (pick one electrolyte imbalance)
Imbalances to Acid-Base Regulation- Causes, Dangers, and Treatment (pick one Acid-Base imbalance)
Your PowerPoint presentation should be a minimum of 10 slides (not including the introduction and conclusion slides), contain appropriate images, provide what you would say/present in the Notes section of each slide, and have proper APA format (reference slide). When completed, please attach your PowerPoint presentation as your initial post. Your response should include a detailed review of at least one of your classmate’s PowerPoint presentation.

2. Module 10- Human development presentation

Your laboratory assignment this week is to create an educational PowerPoint presentation as if you were presenting to your classmates on one of the topics listed below: Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Fertilization Process
Embryonic Development
Fetal Development
Organ System Changes during Pregnancy
Fetal Delivery
Your PowerPoint presentation should be a minimum of 10 slides (not including the introduction and conclusion slides), contain appropriate images, provide what you would say/present in the Notes section of each slide, and have proper APA format (reference slide).

When completed, please attach your PowerPoint presentation as your initial post. Your response should include a detailed review of at least one of your classmate’s PowerPoint presentation.

anatomy and physiology lab

1. What are some differences between Judy and Mariah that might make Judy more “at risk” for skin?

cancer than Mariah?Judy had a pasty white skin. Therefore, her skin had less melanin than Mariah who had black hair and more melanin and are more protected against the uv rays of sun.
2. What observations did Judy make concerning her mole? Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Her mole changed shaped and turned bigger and its side were jagged. The middle was purplish-black and its edge were darker than its middle.

3. Considering the differences between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor, why might a benign tumor be easier to treat?

benign tumors do not metastasize to other parts of the body but the malignant tumors do. Therefore,…show more content…
Exposure to Ultraviolet (UV) light, Moles, Fair skin, freckling, and light hair, Family history of melanoma
Personal history of melanoma, Immune suppression, smoking, Age, and Xeroderma pigmentosum

2. How does sunlight contribute to the development of melanoma?

As it was mentioned above, ultraviolet radiation is main risk factor that increases the risk of getting skin cancer. UVA and UVB are the main culprits. However UVB cause the most damaged by directly effecting DNA of the skin cells. The damage target parts of DNA that have the genes that control skin cell growth. Most importantly melanocyte cells begin to over grow and masses of cells are seen on skin which are what were refer to as mole. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

3. What does it mean to be predisposed to getting cancer? If you inherit a mutated cell cycle gene, does that automatically mean that you will get cancer some day? If you inherit a mutated cell cycle gene and participate in risky behaviors such as sunbathing, does that mean that you will automatically get cancer some day?

Anatomy and Physiology

The term homeostasis is used to mean maintenance of static or constant conditions in the internal environment in the organism. Essentially all of the organs and tissues of the body perform functions that help to maintain these constant conditions. For instance, the lungs provide oxygen to the extra cellular fluid to replenish oxygen that is being used by the cells; the kidneys maintain constant ion concentrations and the gastrointestinal system provides nutrients. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Not all substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract can be used in their absorbed form by the cells. The liver changes the chemical compositions of many of these substances to more useable forms and…show more content…
A large segment of the nervous system is called the autonomic system. It operates at a subconscious level and controls many functions of the internal organs, including level of pumping activity by the heart, movements of the gastrointestinal tract, and glandular secretion. Neurons are cells that act like tiny batteries which power electrical circuits within the body. They can transmit impulses from cell to cell for communication, control, and interpretation of sensory input. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

In a typical neuron dendrites respond to stimuli through input to the neuron cell body. When the stimulus is large enough the cell body sends a one way electrochemical impulse through the axon to the next neuron or to some effector such as a muscle. The most important part of a neuron is its cell membrane. Using active transport and special Na+/K+ ion pumps in the membrane of the axon a neuron creates a resting potential of -70 millivolts. The cell essentially becomes a tiny battery ready for action. The action is the action potential — a wave of electro-chemical activity which sweeps down the axon in one direction, changing its polarity. Depolarization leads to further depolarization as special electrically sensitive protein gates swing open allowing Na+ ions to enter the cell and K+ ions to escape. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Human anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of the human body. Physiology is the scientific study of the function of the human body. Anatomy and physiology are both derived from Greek words. The term anatomy means “to cut up” and the term physiology means “the study of nature”. Anatomy and physiology are both subdivisions of biology, which is the study of living organisms. In ancient times the word anatomize was used more commonly than the word dissect. Most terms used in the language of anatomy are of Greek or Latin nature. Many individuals from different cultures have contributed to the science of anatomy, but it was the Greeks and Romans that made the most significant contributions. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

In Ancient Greece several Greek philosophers made a monumental impact on the future of scientific thinking. It was then that anatomy was first recognized as a science. One of the most famous and well-known Greek physicians of this time was Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.). Hippocrates, also known as the father of medicine, was well versed in the theory of anatomical organization. He believed that four main body fluids were recognized, and a specific body organ was associated with each fluid. Blood was associated with the liver, phlegm with the lungs, yellow bile (choler) with the gallbladder, and black bile (melancholy) with the spleen. This concept of fluids or body humors was discarded long ago, but it was paramount in the medical field for over 2,000 years. He was also believed to have written the Hippocratic Oath. This is an oath taken by physicians swearing to practice medicine honestly. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

The word ‘anatomy’ derives from the Greek term ‘anatome’ which means ‘cutting apart’. However, anatomy is a broad subject which encapsulates many scientific components of life thus it is an ever developing science (Patton et al, 2007). Human anatomy is the subdiscipline of biology which focuses on the internal structures of the human body including cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. Physiology, on the other hand studies the function of each structure individually and in combination with other structures. Therefore, it could be said that anatomy and physiology are intertwined because in order to fully understand the biological processes in living organisms, it is imperative to identify the structure in order to understand the function (Clark, 2005). This report will discuss the relationship between the various internal systems in the human body and analyse the function of the heart organ.
The hierarchy between different cells, tissue, organs and systems.
Defining a living thing is a hard concept, as is defining the idea of ‘life’ itself. Living things include animals and plants, as well as the invisible world of bacteria and viruses (Bailey, 2014). However, there is a consensual agreement into the main characteristics that differentiate a living thing from a non-living thing. As such, it is a generally accepted view that a thing is alive if it exhibits or is capable if exhibiting the seven characteristics of life (Beckett, 1986). These include movement, reproduction, growth, and response to stimuli, exchange of gases, excretion and nutrition. The human body possesses all 7 characteristics as such; organisms are very complex and unique (Solomon, 2008). Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay
Therefore, it could be said that life is ordered and organisms are essentially determined by the complex hierarchal structure, increasing in complexity from its basis in atoms to molecules and then in sequence to organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ system and to a functioning organism (Russell et al, 2008) (See Fig.1). Cells are considered the basic building blocks of all living things. They provide structure for the body and serve specific functions within the body for example, blood cells transport materials around the body and protect against disease (Solomon et al, 2010). Cells have diverse parts, most commonly referred to as organelles and have specialised structures that perform certain tasks within a cell. However, as with any living mechanism there are defects and any structural defects in cells can contribute to pathological abnormality (Solomon et al, 2010) (See Fig. 2). Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay
During the process of growth within a multi-cellular organism, cells differentiate into specialised cells in order to perform different functions. Thus, cells associate to form tissue, which is a group or masses of specialised cells that perform common functions (Bitesize, 2014). For instance, the nervous tissue is specialised to react to stimuli and conduct impulses to various organs in the body which in turn bring about a response to the stimulus (Solomon, 2008). Within the human body there are four primary types of tissues which include the epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue (See Fig. 3). Each tissue has a key role within the human body which helps the body function properly and maintain an equilibrium state (Russell et al, 2008).
In most multi-cellular organisms tissues organise to form functional structures called organs, which include the heart, brain, skin etc. Multiplex functions emerge from the organ level as each individual organ performs functions that none of the component tissues can perform alone. For instance, the heart and blood vessels work together by circulating blood throughout the body to provide oxygen and nutrients to cells (Bobick et al, 2004).
Organs that work in union for a common purpose compose an organ system. The human body is a complex series of numerous organ systems (Patton, 2010). The main systems of the human body are the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, muscular, nervous, respiratory, skeletal and integumentary systems (See Fig. 4). All these systems work in unison and harmony and are vital for survival and well-being and if any function of one the systems cease to work the body will not perform properly (Beckett, 1986). Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

What is epithelial tissue and its function and where it can be found
The epithelial tissue or ‘epithelial’ consists of tightly packed sheets of cells which are joined with little space between them (See Fig. 5). This close contact can either be in a single layer or multiple layers however; the structure of lining epithelium differs from organ to organ depending on its location and function (Bailey, 2004). For example, epithelium that covers the outer surfaces of the body and serves as a protective layer is different from the epithelium that lines the internal organs (See Fig. 6). Epithelial tissues specialise in covering the body’s external and internal surfaces, line cavities, form various organs and glands and line their ducts (Tortora et al, 2007). Therefore, the key characteristics of epithelial tissue are protection, secretion, absorption and excretion.
Classification of Epithelium
Epithelium is classified according to the number of cell layers and the morphology of the surface cells (KUMC, 1996). The text below details some the several different types of epithelial cells that can be located around the body. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay


Simple Epithelia: An epithelium with a single layer of cells
Squamous: Cell is thin and flat, in fact it is the thinnest of all epithelial cell types. It can be found in the lungs (alveoli’s) and functions as a mediator of filtration and diffusion (See Fig. 7).
Cuboidal: Roughly square or cuboidal in shape and is found in glands, lining of kidney and within the ducts of glands. Provide a layer of protection from abrasion, secretion of hormones and absorption (See Fig. 8).
Columnar: Longer and wide and connected by tight junctions, the main function of this cell is protection. They also secrete gastric juices and enzymes and microvilli absorb digestive end products (See Fig. 9).
Ciliated: Rectangular in shape and have between 200-300 hair-like protrusions (cilia).Found mainly in trachea, bronchial regions and fallopian tubes. Sweep and propel matter to help in prevention of infection (See Fig. 10)
Stratified Epithelia: Numerous Cell Layers
Squamous: Flat-scale like, found in lining of oesophagus and provide protection from stomach acid and external sources (See Fig. 11).
Columnar: Often found between simple columnar and stratified squamous epithelium. Provide secretion and protection i.e. salivary glands (See Fig. 12).
Cuboidal: This type of tissue is relatively rare in the human body. The cells are cube-shaped and provide protection of larger ducts, cell layers surround and protect gland ducts i.e. salivary glands, sweat glands etc. (See Fig. 13).
Transitional: Are flexible and alternate between relaxed (cuboidal shaped) and tense (squamous shaped) shapes i.e. urinary bladder, specialised to expand as bladder fills, also prevents urine from diffusing back to internal cavity (See Fig. 14).
Pseudo Stratified Epithelium: Falsely-stratified single layer of epithelial
Pseudo Stratified Columnar: Cells appear layered due to positions of nuclei within the row of cells, but are not truly layered. Produce mucus, trap and move dust and other toxins out of the lungs (See Fig. 15). Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay
Pseudo Stratified Columnar Ciliated: Small hair like projections embedded in the membrane and help sweep debris that could harm the underlying tissues or structures i.e. trachea, nasal cavity and bronchi (See Fig. 16).

Explain the types of muscle tissue
All movement through the body is created and stopped by muscles. Muscle tissue contracts in response to stimuli; this contraction lengthens the muscle to create movement (Jones and Bartlett Learning, no date). The tissues of the body are interdependent for instance; muscle tissue cannot generate movement unless it receives oxygen which is carried by red blood cells. Muscle contains three main connective tissue sheets these are called endomysium, perimysium and epimysium, which transmit energy from the contracting muscle to the tendon (Siegfried, 2002).
There are three types of muscle tissue; skeletal, smooth and cardiac (Bobick et al, 2004). Skeletal muscle forms the muscles that are attached to the bones, when it contracts the muscles move the joints that they are attached to. For example, when the legs are flexed and extending during walking. In addition, when the skeletal muscle contracts it generates heat, thus helps maintain body temperature (Solomon, 2008) (See Fig. 17) Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay
Smooth muscle is the component of the walls of many tubes within the body such as the tubes found in the digestive system, blood vessels and bladder. By contracting it propels the contents along the tube it surrounds and regulates the fluid flowing through it (Bobick et al, 2004) (See Fig. 18). The cardiac muscle forms the structure of the heart; by contracting it squeezes the blood out of the heart into the blood vessels and vice versa (See Fig.19). The cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are similar in performance as they work on involuntary impulse (Russell, 2008)

Function of the Heart
The cardiovascular system is a complex system that consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels, capillaries and veins (Tortora et al, 2007). This system allows nutrients such as amino acids, electrolytes, hormones, dissolved gases and blood cells to circulate throughout the body. These all aid in the process of fighting disease, stabilising core body temperature and most importantly maintaining homeostasis (Siegfried, 2002).
The walls of the heart consist mainly of the cardiac muscle, which is a special type of muscle that is only found in the heart. The heart is unique in structure and function, unlike other muscles it never suffers from fatigue (Solomon, 2008). The heart comprises of cardiac muscle which uses the reserve energy of mitochondria, which uses the energy taken in from food to provide energy for the muscle. With such an enormous amount of energy generated, the cardiac muscle in its normal and healthy state never rests because as energy is transferred to the muscle more energy is obtained from calorie intake, thus the process is continuous (Patton et al, 2010). Nevertheless, the heart does not tolerate lack of oxygen or nutrients and soon dies if its supply of blood is cut off. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay
The three layers comprising the wall of the heart are the outer pericardium, middle myocardium and inner endocardium. The pericardium consists of connective tissue and adipose tissue, which protect the heart by reducing friction (Tortora et al, 2007). The thick myocardium is mostly made up of cardiac muscle tissue which is nourished by blood capillaries, lymph capillaries and nerve fibres. The tissue in particular helps pump blood out of the chambers of the heart (Beckett, 1986). The endocardium is made up of epithelium tissue and connective tissue which has many elastic collagenous fibres and specialised cardiac muscle fibres. The cardiac muscle fibres are shorter and thinner than skeletal muscle, this structure is essential as these muscle fibres continuously contract involuntarily. The cardiac muscle fibres feature a nucleus in the centre of each individual fibre. These fibres are tubes branch out and attach to neighbouring cardiac muscles. Such networking of interconnected fibres form strong muscle tissue that will be able to contract in synchrony (Solomon, 2008).
(See Fig. 20)
In summary, it is quite obvious that the human body is one of nature’s greatest achievements. The smallest elements of human life are constructed from the tiniest of molecules to the most complex structures of, cells, tissue, organs and organ systems. Most importantly it is evident each function from the various systems in the body is dependent on the function of another. Therefore in order for the body to function properly and achieve health and wellbeing; all anatomical structures have to work in union to achieve homeostasis (Jones and Bartlett Learning, no date). Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

The body is a physical structure composed of bone, muscle, endocrine, digestion, circulation, respiration, excretion, and what I represent, nervous system, but the most expensive and most important one is definitely the nervous system. . The nervous system consists of two parts. The first one is the central nervous system (CNS). The central nervous system that coordinates the activity of the whole nervous system consists of the brain (brain, cerebellum, and medulla) and the spinal cord connected to the brain via the brain stem, and the nerve cell carries the impulse.

A systematic method for studying the structure and function of the human body The emphasis is placed on the anatomy and physiology of the skin, bones, muscles and the nervous system as well as the level of the tissue of the human body. (The rest of the system is included in the HS 210 Human Anatomy II.) Three hours 3 experiments. Prerequisites: Bio 111 or 113 and Bio 112. A systematic way to study the structure and function of the human body. Emphasis is placed on the anatomy and physiology of the human cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, urinary tract system, digestive system, reproductive system and endocrine system. (The rest of the system was included in HS 209 human anatomy and physiology I) 3 hours and 3 experiments. Prerequisite: HS 209 or approved by instructor Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science including research on the structure and function of the nervous system. It includes nervous system development, development, cell and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy and pharmacology, and computation, behavior, and cognitive neuroscience.

Neuroscientists are studying the anatomy, physiology, chemistry, molecular biology of the nervous system, with particular emphasis on the relationship between brain activity and behavior and learning. Several important questions about early learning are, among others, miraculous scientists’ conspiracy. How does the brain develop? Are there brain development stages? Is it a critical period when certain things happen in normal brain development? How do you code information on developing and adult nervous systems? Probably the most important thing is as follows. How will experience influence the brain? Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

Nervous system: The lecture continues to explain the causes of all other organ systems: the nervous system. Lectures 7 and 8 explore the structure and function of the brain itself. Lecture 9 explains the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and spinal nerve. Lecture 10 explains the unconscious operation of the autonomic nervous system and the most important cranial nerve. In lecture 11, you will learn about visual and eye wonders. Lecture 12 will learn about ear, hearing, balance. Lecture 13 concludes the discussion about the nervous system by examining memory, brain pathology, anesthesia and pain. Anatomy And Physiology Lab Essay

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