Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

What is the initiating event that leads to the development of atherosclerosis?

What is the effect of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in atherosclerosis?

Which inflammatory cytokines are released when endothelial cells are injured?

When endothelia cells are injured, what alteration contributes to atherosclerosis?

Which factor is responsible for the hypertrophy of the myocardium associated with hypertension?

What pathologic change occurs to the kidney’s glomeruli as a result of hypertension?

What effect does atherosclerosis have on the development of an aneurysm? Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay.

Regarding the endothelium, what is the difference between healthy vessel walls and those that promote clot  formation?


What is the usual source of pulmonary  emboli?

Which factor can trigger an immune response in the bloodstream that may result in an embolus?

Which statement best describes thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)?

Which statement best describes Raynaud  disease?

What change in a vein supports the development of varicose   veins?

Superior vena cava syndrome is a result of a progressive increase of which process?

What term is used to identify when a cell is temporarily deprived of blood supply Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay?

The risk of developing coronary artery disease is increased up to threefold by which factor?

Which risk factor is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) because of its relationship with the alteration of hepatic   lipoprotein?

Nicotine increases atherosclerosis by the release of which neurotransmitter?

Which substance is manufactured by the liver and primarily contains cholesterol and protein?

Which elevated value may be protective of the development of atherosclerosis?

Which laboratory test is an indirect measure of atherosclerotic   plaque?

Cardiac cells can withstand ischemic conditions and still return to a viable state for how many minutes? Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

Which form of angina occurs most often during sleep as a result of vasospasms of one or more coronary  arteries?

When is the scar tissue that is formed after a myocardial infarction (MI) most vulnerable to injury?

An individual who is demonstrating elevated levels of troponin, creatine kinase–isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is exhibiting indicators associated with which  condition?

What is the expected electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern when a thrombus in  a coronary artery permanently lodges in the vessel and the infarction extends through the myocardium from the endocardium to the  epicardium?

How does angiotensin II increase the workload of the heart after a myocardial infarction (MI)?

A patient reports sudden onset of severe chest pain that radiates to the back and worsens with respiratory movement and when lying down. These clinical manifestations describe:

Ventricular dilation and grossly impaired systolic function, leading to dilated heart failure, characterize which form of   cardiomyopathy? Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay.

A disproportionate thickening of the interventricular septum is the hallmark of which form of  cardiomyopathy?

Amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, or glycogen storage disease usually causes which form of  cardiomyopathy?


Which condition is a cause of acquired aortic  regurgitation?

Which predominantly female valvular disorder is thought to have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, as well as being associated with connective tissue disease?

Which disorder causes a transitory truncal rash that is nonpruritic and pink with erythematous macules that may fade in the center, making them appear as a ringworm?

What is the most common cause of infective  endocarditis?

What is the most common cardiac disorder associated with acquired immunodeficiency  syndrome (AIDS)

A patient is diagnosed with pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which form of heart failure may result from pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular  resistance? Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

What cardiac pathologic condition contributes to ventricular   remodeling?

In systolic heart failure, what effect does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have on stroke  volume?

What is the cause of the dyspnea resulting from a thoracic   aneurysm?

Which statement is true concerning the cells’ ability to synthesize cholesterol?

What is the trigger for angina  pectoris?

Individuals being effectively managed for type 2 diabetes mellitus often experience a healthydecline in blood pressure as a result of what   intervention?

Which statements are true regarding fatty streaks? (Select all that   apply.) Fatty streaksprogressively damage vessel walls.

Fatty streaks are capable of producing toxic oxygen radials.

When present, inflammatory changes occur to the vessel walls. Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are involved in their formation.

What factors contribute to the development of orthostatic   hypotension? (Select all that apply.)

Altered body chemistry

Drug action of certain antihypertensive agents

Prolonged immobility

Effects of aging on postural  reflexes

Which assessment findings are clinical manifestations of aortic   stenosis? (Select all that apply.)

Which risk factors are associated with infective endocarditis? (Select all that apply.)

Match the descriptions with the corresponding  terms.

A. Impairs flow from left atrium to left  ventricle

B. Impairs flow from the left  ventricle Alterations of Cardiovascular Function Essay

C. Backflow into left atrium

D. Backflow into right atrium

E. Backflow into left ventricle

Aortic stenosis

Aortic regurgitation


Mitral stenosis

Tricuspid regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation

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