91161 Cell Biology And Genetics

91161 Cell Biology And Genetics

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91161 Cell Biology And Genetics

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91161 Cell Biology And Genetics

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Course Code: 91161
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

Describe about the Cell Biology and Genetics For Translational Modifications.
While the cell division process, the primary aim of the dividing somatic cell is to divide its genome properly among two daughter cells so that in both the daughter cells, genome size is equal. Microtubules play an important role in this process as they are positioned in their location in dense amount and with their position, region, length and orientation they provide the required force to the chromosomes with the help of non motor and motor proteins (Forth, S. & Kapoor 2017, p.1526). There are plenty amount of researches in which researchers used glass micro needles that directly helps to observes the dividing chromosomes of the grasshoppers.  Research from Miller et al. (2018, p. 701) determined that in the anaphase of cell division, enough force is present in the spindle  which is up to 700pN  and after this force is generated, the chromosome movement is stalled. From this result it was proven that the spindle fibers are able to produce tremendous amount of forces so that the chromosome can move from its position and this force is exerted on the micro length scale (Battaje, R.R. & Panda 2017, p. 500).  
The primary aim of this review article was to determine the forces that helps the spindle fibers to stay at their structure or maintain structural integrity and not to collapse in the tension of the force exerted by the spindle fiber itself from the center to the spindle fiber outwards.
To understand the effect of forces on the microtubules, the forces were divided in three parts such as active forces, passive forces, time scale of forces.   
Further they made two groups of cells collected from the eggs of  Xenopus laevis and them using micro needles applied forces at the spindle equator. This experimental method was important to identify the real reason due to which spindle was able to stay stable at that amount of pressure which is require to separate the chromosomes to two.
From the experiment of Xenopus laevis it was proved that the system of microtubule spindle are very efficient as due to this direct access to spindle using chemical and mechanical pro0be becomes easier. Further, both the needles inserted in the spindle near the metaphase plate provided the result which provided answer to the research question. Both  slow and fast time lapse force were applied on the spindle however in both the cases it was proved that spindle works as an elastic material which repels all the forces using equal force and hence, stability is achieved. On the other hand, other research showed that the metaphase microtubule works as a spring which makes the spindle fiber stiff and helps to repel all the forces which are produced by the motor and non motor proteins. Further this spring like element helps to bend the K fibers that helps to make the spindle fibers biochemically strong and with stand the pressure created for chromosome division.  Further the research also provided data about the passive forces which is created within the microtubules due to which, the spindle fibers are able to repel the forces created by the  motor and non motor proteins (Miller et al. 2018, p. 700).  
This research was important to understand the forces and their working ability to make the spindle fibers move properly and also about their stability. These forces are generated by the by the motor proteins and non motor proteins and these forces work with the help of active fiber filaments that helps in the movements of the protein and diffusible cross linkers. Further also helps to understand the ways of spindle fiber assembly, cross linking of microtubules.  However, it was unable to provide answers about mitotic proteins and post translational modifications and intersect of cross linking proteins that make the chromosomal division possible. That provides the future prospect to the study.  

Battaje, R.R. &Panda, D., 2017. Lessons from bacterial homolog of tubulin, FtsZ for microtubule dynamics. Endocrine-related cancer, pp.ERC-17.
Forth, S. &Kapoor, T.M., 2017. The mechanics of microtubule networks in cell division. J Cell Biol, 216(6), pp.1525-1531
Miller, J.H., Field, J.J., Kanakkanthara, A., Owen, J.G., Singh, A.J. &Northcote, P.T., 2018. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products that Target Microtubules. Journal of natural products, 81(3), pp.691-702.

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