21003K Engineering Science

21003K Engineering Science

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21003K Engineering Science

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21003K Engineering Science

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Course Code: 21003K
University: Emirates Aviation University

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Country: United Arab Emirates

Questions:

1. Describe the units and prefix notation for the following the terms:a. Stressb. Strainc. Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
2. Your manager wants you to write a formal summarised report on the how the application of scientific method impacts upon different material testing procedures. The report must include the following:1. More than one type of material testing method.2. Application of the method on real life example.3. Differences between the testing procedures.4. A method of comparison between different testing methods

Answer:
Stress is a force per unit area of a material, its unit is Pascal noted a `´ Pa“  
The strain is a ratio of extension to the original length, therefore, this parameter has no units.
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity is a constant of stress over strain and its unit is Pascal (pa) (Davis, 2014).
There are several types of the material testing method which is employed in the testing of material. Some of these include;

Metallurgical Testing
Mechanical Testing
Metallurgical Testing

This is a testing method which is employed in virtually in every and covers a large range of services, this method of testing ranges from grain size analysis of material to fractography (Utilization, 2014).  This method testing concentrates quantifying the metal’s properties together with chemical analysis and mechanical testing. This method is always employed to obtain the type of material, size of the grain, grade and to offer certification for the modern material, failure analysis and microstructure analysis. This testing method requires technology to test for both advance alloy and traditional metals. Most of these testing are conducted on on-site. Since this method is employed in the evaluation on the below core parameter include hardness, grain size, tensile strength, therefore, this type of testing has several real-life application. Some of these real-life applications include the following;

Concrete testing. This type of material is employed in ceramics testing to evaluate the amount and sizes of the porous contained in the concrete. In most cases, such testing is done in materials like RCC ( reinforced concrete).
Evaluation of strength in materials.  The evaluation of hardness of the material is employed in real life in rods employed construction of a tall building to help the structure remains very strong. These metal are basically made of iron because irons are always stronger than other metals like copper.

Evaluation of elasticity. This method of testing is always applied in obtaining the elasticity of the steel bars used in the construction of the bridge which is given a space of expansion, therefore, the material employed should be able to expand.

The below are some of the test procedure for the Metallurgical Testing;

Field metallography
Structure examinations

Scanning electron microscopy as well as EDX measurements

Damage analysis
Process testing
Layer thickness gauging

Intercrystalline corrosion testing.  

Mechanical Testing 

  Mechanical testing is done to produce data which may be employed for the purposes of design. Basically, this type of testing is a wide testing which always determines different material properties.  Some of these types of testing include the following;

Textile testing
Creep testing

Fatigue testing

Impact testing

There are several real-life applications of the mechanical testing method employed in several industries. These include the following;

Quality evaluation via tensile testing of the fitting in an automotive company. The testing is conducted in carpets, dashboard, airbags, mirrors, bumper, door among other parts.
In the construction industry this mechanical testing can be employed in adhesives testing strength, mastics, the bond between foam layers and brick(Budynas, 2011).

In electrical and electronic engineering, the mechanical testing is applied in PCB material tensile strength, component PCB pull off-pull-to forces(Baas, 2014).

In packaging firm, elongation packaging plastic materials, forces related to opening snap-caps and peel/adhesive of the labels and seals of the containers.
In rubber and plastic and rubbers firms, joint strength of plastic interlocking components and evaluation of the of material tensile nature.

The below are the procedure when conducting the mechanical test ( tensile test);

The specimen employed are carefully chosen to ensure that the selected specimen should not have any crack or notch from the manufacturing firm.
Before the specimen is loaded in the instrument for measuring, a computer or laptop is connected to the instrument through keying the essential information of the width and a gauge length of the specimen. The laptop was made to record information and display a graph of the load-deflection(James Whitney, 2014). 

There is a method of comparison between the two types of tests, whereby in both tests material is keenly analysed (Purushothama Raj, 2012). Basically, it is the internal structure of the material is analysed to enhance the strength of the material among other parameters (Howard, 2012).  
From the given data,
b= 0.009                         d= 0.003                         Esteel = 207 GPa           EAluminium = 207 GPa
And I=  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1         
  I=
I= 2.025×10-11
Calculation of deflection on Steel
100g
Deflection = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.00063617m
200g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.00127234m
300g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.00190851m
400g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.002544681m 
500g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.003180851m
Calculation of deflection on aluminium
100g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.00190851m 
200g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.003817021m
300g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.005725532m
400g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.007634043m
500g
Deflection =   
Deflection =
Deflection=
Deflection = 0.0095255m 
Therefore the theoretical can be plotted as in the table below

Mass (g)

Aluminium deflection (m)

Steel deflection (m)

0

0

0

100

0.00190851

0.00063617

200

0.003817021

0.00127234

300

0.005725532

0.00190851

400

0.007634043

0.002544681

500

0.0095255

0.003180851

And the experimented deflections are given as

Mass (g)

Al Deflection (m)

Steel Deflection (m)

 

 

 

0

0.0000

0.0000

 

 

 

100

0.0022

0.0009

 

 

 

200

0.0041

0.0015

 

 

 

300

0.0060

0.0023

 

 

 

400

0.0077

0.0030

 

 

 

500

0.0096

0.0036

The theoretical graph was plotted on demos for the deflection of both the aluminium and the steel and the screenshot was as below;
Key
And the experimental results obtained during the experiment was used to plot the graph in demos software and the screenshot is as below;
Key
For both the practical and the theoretical values, it is very clear that there was relatively higher deflection in aluminium as compared to steel for the same amount of mass used. This can be evidenced in the graph above by the steepness of the graphs (Freiman, 2012).
The slop of the theoretical values for the aluminium in the graph of deflection vs mass,
Slop =
Slop =
Slop =
Slop= 1.923×10-5
The slop of the theoretical values for the steel in the graph of deflection vs mass,
Slop =
Slop =
Slop =
Slop= 6.25×10-6
The slop of the practical values for the aluminium in the graph of deflection vs mass,
Slop =
Slop =
Slop =
Slop= 2.0×10-5
The slop of the practical values for the steel in the graph of deflection vs mass,
Slop =
Slop =
Slop =
Slop= 6.25×10-5
 From the values of the slopes calculated from both the theoretical as well as the calculated deflections, it can be concluded that the practice was very accurate (Holt, 2009). This can be proved by the values of the slope which were obtained to be Slop= 6.25×10-5  for steel for both in theoretical as well as experimental values. While for the aluminium the slop slightly changes with a very slight variation (Papirno, 2012). Theoretical Slop= 1.923×10-5  while the practical slope is Slop= 2.0×10-5.
Bibliography
Baas, W., 2014. Innovations in Controlled Low-strength Material. 3rd ed. Sydney: ASTM International.
Budynas, R. G., 2011. Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain. 8th ed. Hull: McGraw-Hill Education.
Davis, J., 2014. Tensile Testing. 2nd ed. Hull: ASM International.
Freeman, S., 2012. The Fracture of Brittle Materials: Testing and Analysis. 2nd ed. Florida: John Wiley & Sons.
Holt, J. M., 2009. Reproducibility and Accuracy of Mechanical Tests: A Symposium. 1st ed. Chicago: ASTM International.
Howard, A., 2012. The Design and Application of Controlled Low-strength Materials. 3rd ed. Melbourne: ASTM International.
James Whitney, 2014. Analysis of the Test Methods for High Modulus Fibers and Composites. 3rd ed. London: ASTM International.
Papirno, R., 2012. Material testing: Mechanical materials. 1st ed. Sydney: CRC.
Purushothama Raj, 2012. The strength of Materials. 3rd ed. Florida: Dhanpat Rai and Sons.
Utilization, U. S. N. A. a. S. A. O. o. T., 2014. Testing Methods and Techniques: Strength of Materials and Components: a Compilation. 2nd ed. Manchester: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [For sale by the National Technical Information.

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